Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research
Nitrogen Nutrition, Yield, and Quality of Cotton under Varying Nitrogen Application Timings and Planting Dates
Xinhua Yin1* and Guisu Zhou2
1Associate Professor, Ph.D. Department of Plant Sciences The University of Tennessee 605 Airways Blvd. Jackson, TN 38301, USA; 2Associate Professor, Ph.D. College of Tobacco Science Yunnan Agricultural University Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China
Nitrogen (N) management may need to be different for cotton planted at different dates. The objective of this research was to determine the optimal N application timing for cotton under different planting dates. A field trial was conducted on the University of Tennessee West Tennessee Research and Education Center at Jackson, TN in 2011 and 2012 in a split plot randomized complete block design with four replicates. Three cotton planting dates of early planting, standard planting, and late planting and four N application timings of pre-plant, at-planting, early side-dress, and late side-dress were assigned to the whole plots and subplots, respectively. Although the interactions of planting date by N application timing, year by N application timing, and year by planting date were significant on leaf N at early bloom and late bloom; cotton plants received adequate N nutrition for optimal yield under different N application timings and varying planting dates in both years. No significant difference in lint yield was observed among the four N application timings regardless of planting date in 2011 that was wet in the early season but dry in the late season. In 2012 that was dry in the early season but wet in the late season, however, lint yield was higher with late side-dress of N than pre-plant at standard planting; the yield did not differ among the four N application timings at early planting or late planting. Higher fiber micronaire but lower fiber strength was obtained under early planting and standard planting than late planting. In 2011, the length and uniformity of fiber were not affected by the planting date. In 2012, however, the length and uniformity of fiber were greater at late planting than early planting and standard planting. The fiber length and fiber uniformity were greater with late side-dress of N than pre-plant and early side-dress of N. Overall, the effects of N application timing on cotton yield vary with planting date and year, which suggests that planting date and weather conditions need to be taken into account in deciding the N application timing.
Keywords: Nitrogen Application Timing, Planting Date, Leaf Nitrogen, Yield, Quality, Cotton
How to cite this article:
Xinhua Yin and Guisu Zhou. Nitrogen Nutrition, Yield, and Quality of Cotton under Varying Nitrogen Application Timings and Planting Dates. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2019,4:72. DOI: 10.28933/ajar-2019-09-2406
1. Aguillard W, Boquet DJ, Schilling PE (1980) Effects of planting dates and cultivars on cotton yield, lint percentage, and fiber quality. Bull. No. 727. Louisiana Agric. Exp. Stn., Baton Rouge.
2. Bauer PJ, May OL, Camberato JJ (1998) Planting date and potassium fertility effects on cotton yield and fiber properties. J. Prod. Agric. 11: 415–420.
3. Bell PF, Boquet DJ, Millhollon E, Moore S, Ebelhar W, Mitchell CC, Varco J, Funderburg ER, Kennedy C, Breitenbeck GA, Craig C, Holman M, Baker W, McConnell JS (2003) Relationships between leaf-blade nitrogen and relative seedcotton yields. Crop Sci. 43: 1367–1374.
4. Boquet DJ, Breitenbeck GA (2000) Nitrogen rate effect on partitioning of nitrogen and dry matter by cotton. Crop Sci. 40: 1685–1693.
5. Campbell CR, Plank CO (2011) Cotton. In C.R. Campbell, editor, Reference sufficiency ranges for plant analysis in the southern region of the United States. South Coop. Ser. Bull. 394. South. Region Agric. Experiment Stn., NC. p. 15–18.
6. Christiansen MN, Rowland R (1986) Germination and stand establishment. p. 535–541. In J.R. Mauney and J. McD. Stewart (ed.) Cotton physiology. The Cotton Foundation, Memphis, TN.
7. Ebelhar JW, Welch RA, Meredith Jr. WR (1996) Nitrogen rates and mepiquat chloride effects on cotton lint yield and quality. p. 1373. In C.P. Dugger and D.A. Richter (ed.) Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conf., Nashville, TN. 9–12 Jan. 1996. Natl. Cotton Counc. of Am., Memphis, TN.
8. Fritschi FB, Roberts BA, Travis RL, Rains DW, Hutmacher RB (2004) Seasonal nitrogen concentration, uptake, and partitioning pattern of irrigated Acala and Pima cotton as influenced by nitrogen fertility level. Crop Sci. 44: 516–527.
9. Howard DD, Gwathmey CO, Essington ME, Roberts RK, Mullen MD (2001) Nitrogen fertilization of no-till cotton on loess-derived soils. Agron. J. 93: 157–163.
10. Hutmacher RB, Travis RL, Rains DW, Vargas RN, Roberts BA, Weir BL, Wright SD, Munk DS, Marsh BH, Keeley MP, Fritschi FB, Munier DJ, Nichols RL, Delgado R (2004) Response of recent Acala cotton cultivars to variable nitrogen rates in the San Joaquin valley of California. Agron. J. 96: 48–62.
11. Mehlich A (1984) Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 15:1409–1416.Mitchell, C.C. 1999. Nutrient removal by Alabama crops. Alabama Cooperative Extension System. ANR-449. http://www.aces.edu/waterquality/articles/0502014/0502014.pdf.
12. Mitchell, CC (1996) Fertility. p. 7–9. In C.D. Monks and M.G. Patterson (ed.) Conservation tillage cotton production guide. ANR-952. Agron. and Soils Dep., Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL.
13. Mullins GL, Burmester CH (1990) Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium accumulation by four cotton varieties. Agron. J. 82: 729–736.
14. Norton ER, Silvertooth JC (1998) Field validation of soil solute profiles in irrigated cotton. Agron. J. 90: 623–630.
15. Pettigrew WT (2002) Improved yield potential with an early planting cotton production system. Agron. J. 94: 997–1003.
16. Pettigrew WT, Johnson JT (2005) Effects of different seeding rates and plant growth regulators on early-planted cotton. J. Cotton Sci. 9: 189–198.
17. Porter PM, Sullivan MJ, Harvey LH (1996) Cotton cultivar response to planting date on the
18. the Southeastern Coastal Plain. J. Prod. Agric. 9:223–227.
19. Savoy HJ, Joines D (2009) Lime and fertilizer recommendations for the various crops of Tennessee. Chapter II. Agronomic crops. http://soilplantandpest.utk.edu/pdffiles/soiltestandfertrecom/chap2-agronomic_mar2009.pdf. Accessed 21 July, 2015.
20. Silvertooth JC, Edmisten KL, McCarty WH (1999) Production practices. p. 451–488. In C.W. Smith and J.T Cothren (ed.) Cotton: Origin, history, technology and production. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
21. Slosser JE (1993) Influence of planting date and insecticide treatment on insect pest abundance and damage in dryland cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 1213–1222.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.