Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research
Relative plant parts, chemical composition and in vitro gas production evaluation of different Watania corn hybrids silage
Gaafar, H.M.A.1; W.A. Riad1; Ghada S. El-Esawy1 and M.E.A. Nasser2
1Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
2Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt.
Four Commercial corn hybrids included 3 white hybrids, single crosses (SC) Watania 4 (W4) and Watania 6 (W6) and three-way cross (TWC) Watania 11 (W11) and 1 yellow hybrid (SC) Watania 97 (W97) were cultivated at 30 thousand plants per feddan, harvested at 92 days, chopped and ensiled in plastic bags for 35 days. Results revealed that W6 showed the highest ear content (36.60%), W97 the highest stems content (52.47%) W11 had the highest leaves content (18.65%). Watania 11 showed higher CP content and W97 had higher CF and fiber fractions content, while W6 had higher contents of EE, NFE and NFC in comparison with the other hybrids. Gas production at different incubation times as well as gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (a), insoluble fraction (b) and soluble and insoluble fractions (a + b) as well as the gas production rate constant for the insoluble fraction (c) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher for W6 than that of W97 with insignificant differences with both W4 and W11. Gas production from the fermentation of soluble fraction (GPSF) of W6 and insoluble fraction (GPNSF) of W4 and W6 were significantly (P<0.05) compared to W97. The concentration of SCFA was significantly (P<0.05) higher for W4 and W6 compared to W97 and not significantly (P>0.05) different with W11. The predicted dry matter intake (DMI) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) of corn silage were higher significantly (P<0.05) for W6 than that of W97, whereas were nearly similar for W4 and W11 and insignificantly (P>0.05) different with both W6 and W97. The predicted metabolizable energy (ME, Mcal/kg DM) and net energy (NE, Mcal/kg DM) contents were nearly similar for the different corn hybrids silage without significant differences (P>0.05). Microbial protein yield (MP) was higher significantly (P<0.05) for both W4 and W6 compared to W97, whereas MP yield for W11 not significantly (P>0.05) differences with W4, W6 and W97.
Keywords: Corn hybrids silage, composition, gas production, energy content, microbial protein.
How to cite this article:
Gaafar, H.M.A.; W.A. Riad; Ghada S. El-Esawy and M.E.A. Nasser. Relative plant parts, chemical composition and in vitro gas production evaluation of different Watania corn hybrids silage. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2020,5:93.
1. AOAC (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Washington DC, USA.
2. Argillier, O. and Y. Barriere (1996). Genotypic variation for digestibility and composition traits of forage maize and their changes during the growing season. Maydica, 41(4): 279-285.
3. Avcioglu, R.; H. Geren and A.C. Cevheri (2003). Effects of sowing date on forage yield and agronomic characteristics of six maize varieties grown in Aegean region of Turkey. Grassland Science in Europe, 8: 311–314.
4. Barriere, Y.; B. Michalet-Doreau; Y. Hebert; E. Guingo; E. Giauffret and J.E. Emile (1997). Relevant traits, genetic variation and breeding strategies in early silage maize. Agronomie, 17: 395-411.
5. Bavec, F. and M. Bavec (2002). Effects ofplantpopulation on leafarea index, cob characteristics and grain yield ofearly maturing maize cultivars (FAO IOo-400). European Journal ofAgronomy, 16: 151-159.
6. BendaryM.M.; S.A. Mahmoud; E.M. Abdel-Raouf; M.K. Mohsen and H.M.A. Gaafar (2001). Economical and nutritional evaluation of ensiling corn crop. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds, 4(Special Issue): 89-103.
7. Beuvink, J.M.W. and S.F. Spoelstra (1992). Interactions between substrate, fermentation end-products, buffering systems and gas production upon fermentation of different carbohydrates by mixed rumen microorganisms in vitro. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 37: 5050509.
8. Blummel, M. and K. Becker (1997). The degradability characteristics of 54 roughages and roughage NDF as described by in vitro gas production and their relationship to voluntary feed intake. British Journal of Nutrition, 77: 757-768.
9. Bliimmel, M. and E.R. Ckskov (1993). Comparison of in vitro gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughages in prediction of feed intake in cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 40: 109-119.
10. Bueno, B.S.; C.V. Benjamim and J.G. Zornberg (2005). Field performance of a full-scale retaining wall reinforced with non-woven geotextiles. Slopes and Retaining Structures under Seismic and Static Conditions, ASCE GSP No. 140, January 2005, Austin, Texas (CD-ROM).
11. Cecava, M.J.; N.R. Merchen; L.L. Berger and D.R. Nelson (1990). Effect of energy level and feeding frequency on site of digestion and postruminal nutrient flows in steers. J. Dairy Sci., 73: 2470–2479.
12. Cone, J.W.; AH. Van Gelder; G.J.W. Visscher and L. Oudshoorn (1996). Influence ofrumen fluid and substrate concentration on fermentation kinetics measuredwith a fully automatedtime related gas production apparatus. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 61: 113-128.
13. Coors, J.G. (1996). Findings of the Winconsin corn silage consortium. In: Proceedings of Cornell Nutrition Conference Feed Manufacture, Rochester, NY. Cornell University, pp. 20-28.
14. Craig, W.M.; G. Broderick; D.R. Brown and D.B. Ricker (1987). Post-prandial compositional changes of fluid and particle associated ruminal microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci., 65(4): 1042-1048.
15. Czerkawski, J.W. (1986). An Introduction to Rumen Studies. Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press.
16. Dijkstra, J.; E. Kebreab; A. Bannink; J. France and S. Lopez (2005). Application of the gas production technique to feed evaluation systems for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 123: 561–578.
17. Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple range and Multiple F-Tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
18. Gaafar, H.M.A. (2001). Performance of growing calves fed rations containing corn silage. Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. of Agric., Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta Univ.
19. Gaafar, H.M.A. (2004). Effect of grain content in corn hybrids on nutritive value of whole plant corn silage. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds (2004) 7 (1): 1-10.
20. Garcıa-Rodriguez, L.J.; R. Valle; A. Durán and C. Roncero (2005). Cell integrity signaling activation in response to hyperosmotic shock in yeast. FEBS Lett, 579(27): 6186-90.
21. Getachew, G.; H.P.S. Makkar and K. Becker (2002). Tropical browses: content of phenolic compounds, in vitro gas production and stoichiometric relationship between short chain fatty acids and in vitro gas production. J. Agric. Sci., 139: 341.
22. Getachew, G.; E. De Peters; P. Robinson and J. Fadel (2005). Use of an in vitro rumen gas production techniques to evaluate microbial fermentation of ruminant feeds and its impact on fermentation products. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 124: 547-559.
23. Getachew, G.; M. Blummel; H.P.S. Makkar and K. Becker (1998). In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 72: 261-281.
24. Getachew, G.; P.H. Robinson and J.W. Cone (2003). Evaluation of associative effects of feeds using in vitro gas production. J. Anim. Sci., 81: 337 (Abstr.).
25. Getachew, G.; H.P.S. Makkar and K. Becker (1998). The gas coupled with ammonia in vitro measurement for evaluation of nitrogen degradability in low quality roughages using incubation medium of different buffering capacity. J. Sci. Food Agric., 77: 87-95.
26. Grings, E.E.; M.Blummelb and K.H. Sudekumc (2005). Methodological considerations in using gas production techniques for estimating ruminal microbial efﬁciencies for silage-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123–124: 527–545.
27. Haddi, M.L.; S. Filacorda; K. Meniai; F.P. Rollin and P. Susmel (2003). In vitro fermentation kinetics of some halophyte shrubs sampled at three stages of maturity. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 104: 215-225.
28. Hartmann, A.; T. Presterl and H.H. Geiger (2000). Determination of the optimal harvest date of silage maize with low and fast stover ripening. Landbauforschung Volkenrode, Sonderheft, 217: 86-93.
29. Hatew, B.; A.Bannink; H.van Laar; L.H. de Jonge and J. Dijkstra (2016). Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane emission of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 99(1): 354-368.
30. Hemken, R.W.; ll,H. Vandersa; B.A. Sass and J.W. Hibbs (1971). Goitrogenic Effects of a Corn Silage-Soybean Meal Supplemented Ration. J. Dairy Sci., 54 (1): 85-88.
31. Hetta, M.; G. Bernes; J.W. Cone and A.M. Gustavsson (2007). Voluntary intake of silages in dairy cows depending on chemical composition and in vitro gas production characteristics. Livestock Science, 106(1): 47-56.
32. Hoover, W.H. and S.R. Stokes (1991). Balancing carbohydrates and proteins for optimum rumen microbial yield. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3630.
33. Hunt, C.W.; W. Kezar; D.D. Hinman; J.J. Comb; J.A. Loesche and T. Moen (1993). Effects of hybrid and ensiling with and without a microbial inoculant on the nutritional characteristics of whole-plant corn. Journal of Animal Science, 71: 38-34.
34. IBM SPSS Statistics (2014). Statistical package for the social sciences, Release 22, SPSS INC, Chicago, USA.
35. Ivan, S.K.; R.J. Grant; D. Weakley and J. Beck (2005). Comparison of a corn silage hybrid with high cell-wall content and digestibility with hybrid of lower cell-wall content on performance of Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 88: 244-254. Joanning, S.W.; D.E. Johnson and B.P. Barry (1981). Nutrient Digestibility Depressions in Corn Silage-Corn Grain Mixutres Fed to Steers. Journal of Animal Science, 53(4): 1095–1103,
36. Johnson, L.M.; J.H. Harrison; D. Davidson; E. Hunt; W.E. Mahanna and K. Shinners (2003). Corn silage management: effects of hybrid, maturity, chop length, and mechanical processing on rate and extent of digestion. Journal of Dairy Science, 86: 3271-3299.
37. Kanak, A.R.; M.J. Khan; M.R. Debi; M.K. Pikar and M. Aktar (2012). Nutritive value of three fodder species at different stages of maturity. Bangladesh J. Anim. Sci., 41 (2): 90-95.
38. Khan, N.A.; P.Q. Yu; M. Ali; J.W. Cone and W.H. Hendriks (2015). Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality. J. Sci. Food Agric., 95: 238–252.
39. Liu, J.X.; A. Susenbeth and K.H. Südekum (2002). In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay and mulberry leaves. J. Anim. Sci., 80: 517-524.
40. Lu, Z.; Z. Xu; Z. Shen; Y. Tian and H. Shen (2019). Dietary energy level promotes rumen microbial protein synthesis by improving the energy productivity of the ruminal microbiome. Front Microbiol., 17: 10:847.
lummel and Becker, 1997;
41. Ly, J.; V.L. Nguyen and T.R. Preston (1997). A study of washing losses and in vitro gas production characteristics of nine leaves from tropical trees and shrubs for ruminants. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 9(3): 932.
42. Ly, J. and T.R. Preston (1997). An approach to the estimation of washing losses in leaves of tropical trees. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 9(3): 931.
43. Macome, F.M.; W.F. Pellikaan; W.H. Hendriks; J. Dijkstra; B. Hatew; J.T. Schonewille and J.W. Cone (2017). In vitro gas and methane production of silages from whole-plant corn harvested at 4 different stages of maturity and a comparison with in vivo methane production. J. Dairy Sci., 100: 8895–8905.
44. Makkar, H.P.S.; E.M. Aregheore and K. Becker (1999). Effect of saponins and plant extracts containing saponins on the binding efficiency of ammonia during urea-ammoniation of wheat straw and fermentation kinetics of the treated straw. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.), 132: 313-321.
45. Mayombo, A.; L. Dufrasne; L. Istasse; M. Gielen and J.M. Bienfait (1993). Effect of whole plant maize silage harvest date on kinetics of disappearance of the silage components and of some other feedstuffs. Annales de Zootechnie, 42: 144-145.
46. McDonald, P.; R.A. Edwards and J.F.D. Greenhalgh (2002). Animal Nutrition. 6th Edition. Longman, London and New York.
47. McDonald, P.; A.R. Henderson and S.J.E. Heron (1991). Plant Enzymes. In: McDonald, P; Henderson, AR and Heron, SJE (Eds.), The biochemistry of silage. (2nd Edn.), Abersytwyt, UK, Chalcombe Publications. PP: 48-80.
48. McLeod, M.N. and D.J. Minson (1971). The error in predicting pasture dry-matter digestibility from four different methods of analysis for lignin. Grass and Forage Science, 26(4): 251-256.
49. Meisser, M. and U. Wyss (1998). Effect of weather conditions on growth, maturation and nutritive value of silage maize. Agraiforschung, 5: 317-320.
50. Menke, K.H. and H. Steingass (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained by chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev., 28: 7-55.
51. Menke, K.H.; L. Raab; A. Salewski; H. Steingass; D. Fritz and W. Schneider (1979). The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedingstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 93(1): 217-22.
52. Mould, F.L. (2003). Predicting feed quality – chemical analyses and in vitro evaluation. Field Crops Research, 84:31-44.
53. Nasser, M.E.A.; S.M.A. Sallam; A.M. El-Waziry; A. Hagino; K. Katoh and Y. Obara (2006). In vitro gas production measurements and estimated energy value and microbial protein to investigate associative effects of untreated or biological treated rice straws with berseem hay. 2nd International Scientific Congress for Environment, 28-30 March, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt,
54. Onodera, R. and C. Henderson (1980). Growth factors of bacterial origin for the culture of the rumen oligotrich protozoon, Entodinium caudatum. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 48: 125-134.
55. Ørskov, E.R. and I. McDonald (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agr. Sci., 92: 499-503.
56. Ørskov, E.R.; G.W. Reid and M. Kay (1988). Prediction of intake by cattle from degradation characteristics of roughages. Animal Production, 46: 29 – 34.
57. Orskov, E.R. (1991). Manipulation of fiber digestion in the rumen. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 50: 187-196.
58. Robinson, J.J.; K.D. Sinclair and T.G. McEvoy (1999). Nutritional effects on foetal growth. Anim. Sci., 68: 315–331.
59. Sallam, S.M.A.; M.E.A. Nasser; A.M. El-Wazir; I.C.S. Bueno and A.L. Abdalla (2007). Use of an in vitro rumen gas production technique to evaluate some ruminant feedstuffs. J. Applied Sciences Research, 3(1): 34-41.
60. Sallam, S.M.A. (2005). Nutritive value assessment of the alternative feed resources by gas production and rumen fermentation in vitro. J. Agri. Bio. Sci., 51: 200-209.
61. Satter L.D. and R.E. Roffler (1975). Nitrogen requirement and utilization in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 58: 1219–1237.
62. Schwab, M.A.; S. Kolker; L.P. Van Den Heuvel; S. Sauer; N.I. Wolf; D. Rating; G.F. Hoffmann; J.A. Smeitink and J.G. Okun (2005). Optimized spectrophotometric assay for the completely activated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in fibroblasts. Clin. Chem., 51 151–160.
63. Schwarz, F.J.; E.J. Pex and M. Kirchgessner (1996). Influence of different maize varieties on digestibility and energy content of maize silage by cattle and sheep. Wirtschaftseigene Putter (Germany), 42: 161-172.
64. Silva, A.T. and E.R. Ørskov (1988). Fibre degradation in the rumen of animals receiving hay, untreated or ammonia-treated straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 19, 277-287.
65. Soliva, C.R. ; M. Kreuzer; N. Foidl; G. Foidl; A. Machmüller and H.D. Hess (2005). Feeding value of whole and extracted Moringa oleifera leaves for ruminants and their effects on ruminal fermentation in vitro. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 118 (1/2): 47-62.
66. Stockdale, C.R. and G.W. Beavis (1994). Nutritional evaluation of whole plant maize ensiled at three chop lengths and fed to lactating dairy cows. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34: 709-716.
67. Storm, E.; D.S. Brown and E.R. Orskov (1983). The nutritive value of rumen micro-organisms in ruminants. 3. The digestion of microbial amino and nucleic acids in, and losses of endogenous nitrogen from, the small intestine of sheep. Br. J. Nutr., 50 479–485.
68. Sun, P.F.; Y.M. Wu and J.X. Liu (2007). In vitro gas production technique to evaluate associative effects among lucerne hay, rice straw and maize silage. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 16(Suppl. 2): 272–277.
69. Tas, M.V.; R.A. Evans and R.F. Axford (1981). The digestibility of amino acids in the small intestine of the sheep. Br. J. Nutr., 45: 167–174.
70. Theodorou, M.K.; B.A. Williams; M.S. Dhanoa; A.B. McAllan and J. France (1994). A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 48: 185-197.
71. Van Gelder, M.H.; M.A.M. Rodrigues; J.L. De Boever; H. Den Hartigh; C. Rymer; M. Van Oostrum; R. Van Kaahthoven and J.W. Cone (2005). Ranking of in vitro fermentability of 20 feedstuffs with an automated gas production technique: Results of a ring test. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 123-124: 243-253.
72. Van Soest, P.J. (1963). The use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds: II. A rapid method for the determination of fiber and lignin. Official Agriculture Chemistry, 46: 829.
73. Van Soest, P.J. (1994). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
74. Van Soest, P.J. and W.C. Marcus (1964). A method for the determination of cell-wall constituents of forages using detergent and the relationship between this fraction and voluntary intake and digestibility. J. Dairy Sci., 47: 704.