Prosopis cineraria (Ghaf): An Unconventional Desert protein rich supplement

Prosopis cineraria (Ghaf): An Unconventional Desert protein rich supplement

Saif Al Ghais, Vibha Bhardwaj*, Pramod Kumbhar

Environment Sustainability Department, Environment Protection & Development Authority (EPDA), Ras Al Khaimah, UAE

Prosopis cineraria (Ghaf) is not well known as a rich and sustainable source of protein for many people in the world. It emphasis on its broad food and non-food applications, nutritional values and health benefits. This research was carried out to meet the increasing demand of protein, alternative strategies and unconventional sources of protein for human and animal nutrition. This is probably the first research work which provides a comparative study between the protein content of ghaf leaves with different species of fish muscle protein. Fish muscle homogenate was prepared using ice cold distilled water. The muscle homogenate of Euthynnus affinis showed highest protein 137.5 mg/g. The other fishes muscle protein were Carangoides chrysophrys (43.33 mg/g), Lenthrinus lentjan (105 mg/g), Sardinella longiceps (104.17 mg/g), Pomacanthus maculosus (81.67 mg/g), Nemipterus japonicus (111.67 mg/g), Lutjanus ehrenbergi (99.17 mg/g), Gerres oyena (107.5 mg/g), Argyrops spinifer (100.83 mg/g), Terrapin jarboe (82.5 mg/g), Tilapia mossambica (54.72 mg/g). Ghaf tree is a keystone species having multiple beneficial uses from combating desertification and improving soil fertility in arid environments to being an essential food source, as well as a source of fuel, shelter and medicine for both humans and animal species. The Ghaf leaves extracts were tested for protein content analysis. The protein content in Ghaf leaves was found to be 88.61 mg/g. Thus, the research results revealed that Ghaf leaves has almost similar amount of protein as compared to fish muscle protein and can be used as protein supplement for growth and metabolism of body.

Keywords: Prosopis cineraria, Leguminosae, nutritional value, protein content, fish species

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:

Saif Al Ghais, Vibha Bhardwaj, Pramod Kumbhar.Prosopis cineraria (Ghaf): An Unconventional Desert protein rich supplement. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2020, 5:94. DOI: 10.28933/ajar-2020-04-1805


1. Balogun AM, Fetuga BL. Chemical composition of some underexploited leguminous crop seeds in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1986;34(2):189-192. DOI: 10.1021/jf00068a008
2. Jahreis G, Brese M, Leiterer M, Schäfer U, Böhm V, Jena. Legume flours: Nutritionally important sources of protein and dietary fiber. Ernaehrungs Umschau international. 2016:2:36-42. DOI: 0.4455/eu.2016.007.
3. Breene WM, Lin S, Hardman L, Orf J. Protein and oil content of soybeans from different geographic locations. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. 1988;65(12): 1927-1931. DOI:
4. Venugopal, V., & Shahidi, F. (1996). Structure and composition of fish muscle. Food Reviews International, 12(2), 175–197. doi:10.1080/87559129609541074
5. AlGhais S, Bhardwaj V, Kumbhar P (2020). Prosopis cineraria (Ghaf): A potential Desert Nutraceutical. International Journal of Development Research Vol. 10, Issue, 03, pp. 34162-34165, March, 2020.
6. Lowry, O. H., Rosenbrougj, N. J., Farr, A. L., Randall, R. L. Protein measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1951; 193(1): 265-275.
7. AlGhais S, Bhardwaj V, Kumbhar P and Shehhi O (2019). Effect of copper nanoparticles and organometallic compounds (dibutyltin) on tilapia fish, The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology, Springer Nature 80:32, 2019.
8. AlGhais S and Bhardwaj V (2018). Nannochloropsis Protein as Potential Fish Feed. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 7 Issue 12, 278-282.
9. Cattaneo F, Costamagna MS, Zampini IC, Sayago J, Alberto MR, Chamorro V, Pazos A, Thomas-Valdés S, Schmeda-Hirschmann G, Isla MI. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals. Food Chemistry. 2016;208:89-96. DOI:
10. Pasiecznik NM, Harris PJC, Smith SJ. Identifying Tropical Prosopis Species: A Field Guide. Association HDR. Coventry, UK: HDRA Publishing; 2004. 26 p.
11. Saura-Calixto F. New food products from Prosopis fruits in Latin America: A base for the extension of the culture and prevention of desertification in arid zones. pp. 265-268. In: Summary reports of European Commission supported STD-3 projects (1995-1997);1999. CTA.