Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research
Development of a General- Purpose Test Platform for Agricultural Navigation
Du Juan, Wang Yanxin, An Jiahao, Jin chengqian, Yin Xiang*
School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China.
Field tests are necessary in establishing navigation models and algorithms for agricultural vehicle robots. And it costs much to use tractors or combine harvesters as the platform in terms of system modification, routine maintenance and fuel consumption. The objective of this research was to develop a general-purpose test platform for conducting experiments in agricultural autonomous navigation at a low cost based on a commercially available electric vehicle. A brushless motor was utilized as the power source for automatic steering. An analog PID controller was designed to compare steering commands and actual steering angle and calculate an appropriate voltage signal as the input of the motor driver. A rotary encoder was attached to the driving wheel and a digital PID controller was implemented to determine the throttle value in real-time in maintaining the test platform at a desired speed. A CAN-bus network was established to integrate the automatic steering system and the speed control system as two nodes for information communication. And a CAN node interface was reserved for receiving commands from autonomous navigation systems to be evaluated. Field tests showed that RMS errors were 2.6 cm and 0.054 m·s-1 for lateral offset and speed control, respectively, in tracking straight paths, which indicated that the newly developed test platform met requirements for agricultural navigation experiments.
This work was supported by Key R&D Project of Shandong Province (2019JZZY010734); National Key Research and Development Program of China Sub-project (2017YFD0700405); National Natural Science Foundation of China (31501230); National Natural Science Foundation of China (51905318); and Shandong Province Science and Technology Planning Project of Higher Education (J17KA145).
Keywords: Agricultural robots; Autonomous navigation; Test platform; Field tests
How to cite this article:
Du Juan, Wang Yanxin, An Jiahao, Jin chengqian, Yin Xiang. Development of a General- Purpose Test Platform for Agricultural Navigation. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2020; 5:104. DOI: 10.28933/ajar-2020-09-1506
1. Hossein Mousazadeh. A technical review on navigation systems of agricultural autonomous off-road vehicles. Journal of Terramechanics, 2013; 50(3): 211-232.
2. Li Shichao, Cao Ruyue, Ji Yuhan, Xu Hongzhen, Zhang Man, Li Han. Performance analysis and comparison of different types of steering wheel turning control motors in automatic navigation system. Transaction of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, 2019; 50(S1): 40-49. (in Chinese)
3. Zhang Zhigang, Wang Guimin, Luo Xiwen, He Jie, Wang Jin, Wang Hui. Detection method of steering wheel angle for automatic tractor driving. Transaction of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, 2019; 50(03): 352-357. (in Chinese)
4. Liangliang Yang, Noboru Noguchi, Ryosuke Takai. Development and application of a wheel-type robot tractor. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 2016; 9(2): 131-140.
5. Xiang Yin, Yanxin Wang, Yulong Chen, Chengqian Jin, Juan Du. Development of autonomous navigation controller for agricultural vehicles. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 2020; 13(4): 70-76.
6. Zeng Hongwei, Lei Junbo, Tao Jianfeng, Zhang Wei, Liu Chengliang. Navigation line extraction method for combine harvester under low contrast conditions. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2020; 36(4):18-25. (in Chinese)
7. Zhao Zuoxi, Luo Yangfan, Ma Kunpeng, Song Junwen, Tan Ting, Meng Shaoyang. Satellite navigation operating accuracy testing method of rice transplanter based on total station. Transaction of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, 2019; 50(S1): 50-56. (in Chinese)
8. Jongmin Choi, Xiang Yin, Liangliang Yang, Noboru Noguchi. Development of a laser scanner-based navigation system for a combine harvester. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 2014; 7(1): 7-13.
9. Ryosuke Takai, Liangliang Yang, Noboru Noguchi. Development of a crawler-type robot tractor using RTK-GPS and IMU. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 2014; 7(4): 143-147.
10. Xiang Yin, Noboru Noguchi. Development and evaluation of a general-purpose electric off-road robot based on agricultural navigation. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 2014; 7(5): 14-21.
11. Pawin Thanpattranon, Tofael Ahamed, Tomohiro Takigawa. Navigation of autonomous tractor for orchards and plantations using a laser range finder: Automatic control of trailer position with tractor. Biosystems Engineering, 2016; 147: 90-103.
12. Santosh A. Hiremath, Gerie W.A.M. van der Heijden, Frits K. van Evert, Alfred Stein, Cajo J.F. ter Braak. Laser range finder model for autonomous navigation of a robot in a maize field using a particle filter. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2014; 100: 41-50.
13. Jinlin Xue, Lei Zhang, Tony E. Grift. Variable field-of-view machine vision based row guidance of an agricultural robot. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2012; 84: 85-91.
14. Wonjae Cho, Michihisa Iida, Masahiko Suguri, Ryohei Masuda, Hiroki Kurita. Vision-based uncut crop edge detection for automated guidance of head-feeding combine. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 2014a; 7(2): 97-102.
15. J. Backman, T. Oksanen, A. Visala. Navigation system for agricultural machines: Nonlinear Model Predictive path tracking. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2012; 82: 32-43.
16. Noboru Noguchi, John F. Reid, Qin Zhang, Jeffrey D. Will, Kazunobu Ishii. Development of robot tractor based on RTK-GPS and gyroscope. In: Proceedings of the 2001 ASAE Annual International Meeting, 2001, ASAE Paper 01-1195.
17. Oscar C. Barawid Jr., Akira Mizushima, Kazunobu Ishii, Noboru Noguchi. Development of an autonomous navigation system using a two-dimensional laser scanner in an orchard application. Biosystems Engineering, 2007; 96(2):139-149.
18. Wonjae Cho, Michihisa Iida, Masahiko Suguri, Ryohei Masuda, Hiroki Kurita. Using multiple sensors to detect uncut crop edges for autonomous guidance systems of head-feeding combine harvesters. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 2014b; 7(3): 115-121.
19. Chi Zhang, Noboru Noguchi, Liangliang Yang. Leader–follower system using two robot tractors to improve work efficiency. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2016; 121: 269-281.
20. Noboru Noguchi, Jeff Will, John Reid, Qin Zhang. Development of a master-slave robot system for farm operations. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2004; 44: 1-19.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.