Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research
Identifying the Topographic Slope Characteristics Most Preferred By Wild Olive Trees in Al-Bahah Region, Saudi Arabia
Abdullah Saleh Al-Ghamdi
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Al-Bahah University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Baha 31982, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The aims of this research were to identify the topographical slope characteristics most preferred by wild olive trees in the Al-Bahah region. This study successfully identified the degree of the slope preferred for wild olive groves. The findings revealed that the majority (72.9%) of wild olive trees in Al-Bahah region occupy slopes of 5–30°. However, the patterns in Qelwa and Al-Mekhwah districts are a bit different where most of the wild olives were found on steeper slopes of 20–40°. This is probably because these sub-regions have a medium to steep slope, descending gradually toward the west, the altitudes ranging from 200 (400) to 2001 and 2200 m west of Al¬-Bahah city and Uwera, and between 2000 and 2100 m west of Baljurashi. The results further depicted that the wild olive with the medium-large crown diameter mostly occupied the gentler slopes of 0–25° compared to those with small crown diameters at steeper slopes of 5–35°. This indicates that the wild olive trees grow better on gentler slopes. These findings can be regarded as theoretically revealing the potential landform suitable for olive plantation. As a basis for olive plantation site suitability, these factors are the essential prerequisites to be considered. However. In addition, it is obvious that site suitability is subject to the temporal dynamics of environmental variables.
Keywords:Wild olive tree; Mapping; Extent; Distribution; Al-Bahah region; Remote sensing; Crown size; Slope; Neighboring Species
How to cite this article:
Abdullah Saleh Al-Ghamdi. Identifying the Topographic Slope Characteristics Most Preferred By Wild Olive Trees in Al-Bahah Region, Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Agricultural Research, 2021; 6:110. DOI: 10.28933/ajar-2021-02-1505
1. Al-Ghamdi Abdullah Saleh (2020 a) Classifying and Mapping of Vegetated Area in Al- Baha Region, Saudi Arabia Using Remote Sensing. I. Extent and Distribution of Ground Vegetated Cover Categories. Indian Journal of Applied Research, Vol. 10, (12). 75-80.
2. Al-Ghamdi Abdullah Saleh (2020 b) Wild Olive Tree Mapping Extent, Distribution and Basic Attributes of Wild Olive Trees in the Al-Baha Region, Saudi Arabia using Remote Sensing Technology. I. Enumerate, Extent, Distribution and Mapping. International Journal of Science and Research, Vol. 9, (12), 605-614.
3. Al-Ghamdi Abdullah Saleh (2020 c) Wild Olive Tree Mapping Extent, Distribution and Basic Attributes of Wild Olive Trees in the Al-Baha Region, Saudi Arabia using Remote Sensing Technology. II. Distribution and mapping of wild olive trees according to tree crown size Interna-tional Journal of Science and Research, Vol. 9, (12), 1381-1390.
4. Al-Ghamdi Abdullah Saleh (2020 d) Wild Olive Tree Mapping Extent, Distribution and Basic Attributes of Wild Olive Trees in the Al-Baha Region, Saudi Arabia using, III. Distribution and mapping of wild olive tree according to neigh-bouring tree species. International Journal of Science and Research, Vol. 9, (12), Pp 1531-1540
5. Aref, I. M. and L. I. El-Juhany (2004). Planting Juniperus trees in the natural forest of Saudi Arabia: The first trial. The Second International Conference for Development and Environment. Asuit, 23–25.
6. Baxter Peter W. J. and Hugh P Possingham (2010). Optimizing search strategies for invasive pests: Learn before you leap. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 48 (1) 86 – 95.
7. Besnard, G. Baradat, )2001). Genetic relation-ships in the olive (Olea europaea L. reflect mul-tilocal selection of cultivars, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 102 (2/3) 251–258.
8. Besnard, G., and André Berville (2000) Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) DNA polymorphisms Comates Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Vol. 323 (2) .173–181.
9. Breton Catherine Marie, Michel Tersac and, An-dré Jean Bervillé (2006). Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster, Olea europaea L.) and the olive: Several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterra-nean basin suggested by simple sequence re-peats analysis. Journal of Biogeography Vol. 33, (11). 1916–1928.
10. Chen, I. C., Hill, J. K., Ohlemüller, R., Roy, D. B. and Thomas, C. D. (2011) Rapid Range Shifts of Species Associated with High Levels of Climate Warming. Science, Vol. 333, 1024–1026.
11. Gardner R. H., M. G. Turner, R. V. O’Neill, and S. Lavorel. (1992). Simulation of the Scale De-pendent Effects of Landscape boundaries on species persistence and dispersal. The Role of Landscape Boundaries in the Management and Restoration of Changing Environments. Pp. 76–89. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, USA.
12. Giljohann, Katherine M., Cindy E Hauser, Nich-olas S G Williams, and Joslin L Moore (2011). Optimizing invasive species control across space: Willow invasion management in the Australian Alps, Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 48, (5) 1286–1294.
13. Hamilton, R., K. Megown, H. Lachowski, and R. Campbell (2006). Mapping Russian olive: Using remote sensing to map an invasive tree. RSAC-0087-RPT1. U.S. Department of Agricul-ture Forest Service, Remote Sensing Applica-tion Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
14. Hoegh-Guldberg O., L. Hughes., S. McIntyre, D. B. Lindenmayer, C. Parmesan H. P. Possingham, C. D. Thomas, (2008). Assisted Colonization and Rapid Climate Change, Science Vol. 321, (5887), 345–346.
15. Hoveizeh, H. (1997). Study of the vegetation cover and ecological characteristics in saline habitats of Hoor-e-Shadegan, J. Res. Constr., Vol. 34,.27–31.
16. Jeldes, I., Drumm, E., Schwartz, J. (2013). The low compaction grading technique on steep re-claimed slopes: Soil characterization and static slope stability. Geologic and Geotechnical En-gineering, 31. 1261–1274.
17. Jetz, W., McPherson, J. M. and Guralnick, R. P. (2012). Integrating biodiversity distribution knowledge: toward a global map of life. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 27, 151–159.
18. Katz, Gabrielle. L., Shafroth, Patrick B. 2003. Biology, ecology and management of Elaeag-nus angustifolia L. (Russian olive) in western North America. Wetlands, Vol. 23, (4) .763–777.
19. Khan S. M., Harper D., Page S., Ahmad H. (2011). Species and community diversity of vascular flora along environmental gradient in Naran Valley: A multivariate approach through indicator species analysis. Pak. J. Bot., Vol. 43. 2337–2346.
20. Khan, W., Khan, S. M., Ahmad, H., Ahmad, Z., Page, S. (2016): Vegetation mapping and mul-tivariate approach to indicator species of a forest ecosystem: A case study from the Thandiani sub Forests Division (TsFD) in the Western Himalayas. Ecological Indicators, Vol. 71. 336–351.
21. Kitayama, K. (1992). An altitudinal transect study of the vegetation on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Vegetation Vol. 102, (2). 149–171.
22. Li, Z., Zhu, Q. and Gold, C. (2005): Digital terrain modeling: principles and methodology. Pp. 7–9. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
23. Lieberman, Milton Lieberman, Rodolfo Peralta and G. S. Hartshorn (1985) Mortality Patterns and Stand Turnover Rates in a Wet Tropical Forest in Costa Rica Diana. Journal of Ecology Vol. 73 (3). 915–924.
24. Lumaret, R., Ouazzani, N., Michaud, H., Vivier, G., Deguilloux, M. F. and Di Giusto, F. (2004). Allozyme variation of oleaster populations (wild olive tree) (Olea europaea L.) in the Mediterranean Basin. Heredity, Vol. 92, 343–351.
25. Malik Z. (1986). Deptt of Bot University of Peshawar; Peshawar: Phytosociological Studies on the Vegetation of Kotli Hill, Azad Kashmir. M Phill Thesis.
26. Margules C. R. and R. L. Pressey (2000). Sys-tematic conservation planning. Nature, Vol. 405, 243–253.
27. Michener, C. D. (2000). The Bees of the World. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London: 1-913.
28. Nordberg Maj-Liz and Joakim Evertson, (2004). Monitoring Change in Mountainous Dry – heath Vegetation at a Regional Scale Using Mul-titemporal Landsat TM Data, AMBIO A Journal of the Human Environment, Vol. 32 (8). 502–509.
29. Ordóñez Lisa D. Maurice E Schweitzer, Adam D. Galinsky, and Max H. Bazerma. (2009). Goals gone wild: The systematic side effects of over-prescribing goal setting. Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 23 (1). 6–16.
30. Price, J. P. 2004. Floristic biogeography of the Hawaiian Islands: Influences of area, environ-ment and paleogeography. Journal of Biogeog-raphy Vol., 31. 487–500.
31. Rondinini, C., Stuart, S, and Boitani, L (2005). Habitat suitability models reveal shortfall in conservation planning for African vertebrates. Conserv. Biol.,19. 1488–1497.
32. Shaheen Hamayun, Zahid Ullah, Shujaul Mulk Khan, and David M. Harper. (2012) Species composition and community structure of west-ern Himalayan moist temperate forests in Kashmir. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 278 (2012).138–145.
33. Stannard, Mark, Ogle, Dan, Holzworth, Larry, Scianna, Joe, Sunleaf, Emmy. (2002). History, biology, ecology, suppression and revegetation of Russian-olive sites (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). Technical Notes. Plant Materials No. 47. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Nat-ural Resources Conservation Service. 14 p. 
34. Sutherland William J, Andrew Pullin, Paul M Dolman, Teri M. Knight (2004.) The Need for Evidence-Based Conservation, Trends in Ecol-ogy & Evolution, Vol. 19, (6). 305–308.
35. Sibbett G. Steven and Louise Ferguson (2004), Olive Production Manual
36. Thuiller, Wilfried, Sandra Lavorel, Miguel B. Araújo, Martin T. Sykes, and I. Colin Prentice (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), Vol. 102, (23) . 8245– 8250.
37. Turner M. G, R. H Gardner, and R. V O’Neill. 2001. Landscape Ecology in Theory and Prac-tice: Pattern and Process. Springer, New York.
38. Wickneswari R, Norwati M (1993) Genetic diver-sity of natural populations of Acacia auriculi-formis. Aust J Bot 41:65–77.
39. Yu, J., Yang, C., Liu, C., Song, X., Hu, S., Li, F., and Tang, C. (2009). Slope runoff study in situ using rainfall simulator in mountainous area of North China. J. Geogr. Sci., 19, 461–470.
40. Zelený David, Ching‐Feng Li, Milan Chytrý, (2010), Pattern of local plant species richness along a gradient of landscape topographical heterogeneity: Result of spatial mass effect or environmental shift? Journal Ecography, Vol. 33 (3). 578–589.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.