Rising Incidence of Rubella among Patients With Febrile Rash Illness in a South Western State of Nigeria: a Ten Year Review

Rising Incidence of Rubella among Patients With Febrile Rash Illness in a South Western State of Nigeria: a Ten Year Review

KOLUDE, Olufunmilola1, EMMANUEL, Eyitayo E1, AJAYI, Paul1, ILESANMI, Mary1, IBIKUNLE, Funmi2, ONWU, Victor A2, ONYIBE, Rosemary3

1World Health Organization, Ekiti State Field Office, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 2State Ministry of Health, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria; 3World Health Organization, Southwest Zone Field office, Ibadan, Oyo State.

American Journal of Clinical Research and Reviews

Rubella infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile rash illnesses and its becoming more prevalent in countries yet to include Rubella containing vaccines into their routine immunization. It teratogenic effect in the first trimester of pregnancy is of public Health concern, hence this study aims to investigate the trend of Rubella infection in a Southwestern State of Nigeria over a ten-year period.
A community based cross sectional retrospective study was conducted in all the 16 Local Government Areas and 177 wards of Ekiti state, using available records for Measles surveillance in the state. A review of the laboratory results of blood samples collected from all cases presenting with fever and maculopapular rashes in the state between 2010 and 2019 was done. Descriptive analysis of the data collected was done using SPSS version 22 and the results were presented in tables and charts. Level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05.
A total of 4,634 cases of febrile rash illnesses were investigated during the period of study, and 2.5% (115) of them tested positive to Rubella IgM, out of which 53.9% of them were females. About 56% of all the cases of febrile rash illness in the period were below the age of 10years, 50.3% were females and 12.5% were within the reproductive age group. The trend of Rubella IgM positive cases revealed that 43% of all reported cases in the 10-year review were reported in 2019. Wide variations in the annual prevalence of Rubella IgM positive cases was discovered in the study with the highest prevalence being recorded in 2019.
Rubella infection is becoming more prevalent in state and the slight female preponderance among the Rubella IgM positive cases is of serious concern considering the possible increased chances of Congenital Rubella Syndrome in this population. There is need for the Government to scale up plans to introduce Rubella containing vaccine into the Routine Immunization schedule.

Keywords: Rising Incidence, Rubella,  Patients With Febrile Rash Illness,  South Western State, Nigeria

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How to cite this article:
KOLUDE, Olufunmilola, EMMANUEL, Eyitayo E, AJAYI, Paul, ILESANMI, Mary, IBIKUNLE, Funmi, ONWU, Victor A, ONYIBE, Rosemary. Rising Incidence of Rubella among Patients With Febrile Rash Illness in a South Western State of Nigeria: a Ten Year Review. American Journal of Clinical Research and Reviews, 2020; 4:16. DOI:10.28933/ajcrr-2020-01-2105


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