Research Article of American Journal of Clinical Research and Reviews
Rising Incidence of Rubella among Patients With Febrile Rash Illness in a South Western State of Nigeria: a Ten Year Review
KOLUDE, Olufunmilola1, EMMANUEL, Eyitayo E1, AJAYI, Paul1, ILESANMI, Mary1, IBIKUNLE, Funmi2, ONWU, Victor A2, ONYIBE, Rosemary3
1World Health Organization, Ekiti State Field Office, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 2State Ministry of Health, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria; 3World Health Organization, Southwest Zone Field office, Ibadan, Oyo State.
Rubella infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile rash illnesses and its becoming more prevalent in countries yet to include Rubella containing vaccines into their routine immunization. It teratogenic effect in the first trimester of pregnancy is of public Health concern, hence this study aims to investigate the trend of Rubella infection in a Southwestern State of Nigeria over a ten-year period.
A community based cross sectional retrospective study was conducted in all the 16 Local Government Areas and 177 wards of Ekiti state, using available records for Measles surveillance in the state. A review of the laboratory results of blood samples collected from all cases presenting with fever and maculopapular rashes in the state between 2010 and 2019 was done. Descriptive analysis of the data collected was done using SPSS version 22 and the results were presented in tables and charts. Level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05.
A total of 4,634 cases of febrile rash illnesses were investigated during the period of study, and 2.5% (115) of them tested positive to Rubella IgM, out of which 53.9% of them were females. About 56% of all the cases of febrile rash illness in the period were below the age of 10years, 50.3% were females and 12.5% were within the reproductive age group. The trend of Rubella IgM positive cases revealed that 43% of all reported cases in the 10-year review were reported in 2019. Wide variations in the annual prevalence of Rubella IgM positive cases was discovered in the study with the highest prevalence being recorded in 2019.
Rubella infection is becoming more prevalent in state and the slight female preponderance among the Rubella IgM positive cases is of serious concern considering the possible increased chances of Congenital Rubella Syndrome in this population. There is need for the Government to scale up plans to introduce Rubella containing vaccine into the Routine Immunization schedule.
Keywords: Rising Incidence, Rubella, Patients With Febrile Rash Illness, South Western State, Nigeria
How to cite this article:
KOLUDE, Olufunmilola, EMMANUEL, Eyitayo E, AJAYI, Paul, ILESANMI, Mary, IBIKUNLE, Funmi, ONWU, Victor A, ONYIBE, Rosemary. Rising Incidence of Rubella among Patients With Febrile Rash Illness in a South Western State of Nigeria: a Ten Year Review. American Journal of Clinical Research and Reviews, 2020; 4:16. DOI:10.28933/ajcrr-2020-01-2105
1. Olajide, O. M., Aminu, M., Randawa, A. J., & Adejo, D. S. (2015). Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. International Journal of Women’s Health, 7, 75–83. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S68667
2. Onakewhor, J. U., & Chiwuzie, J. (2011). Seroprevale ce survey of rubella infection in pregnancy at the U iversity of Benin Teaching Hospital, Be in City, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 14(2), 140–145. https://doi.org/10.4103/1119-3077.84002
3. Lambert, N., Strebel, P., Orenstein, W., Icenogle, J., & Poland, G. A. (2015). Rubella. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60539-0
4. Nimpa Mengouo, M., Ndze, V. N., Baonga, F., Kobela, M., & Wiysonge, C. S. (2017). Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: A 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008-2014. BMJ Open, 7(4). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012959
5. Umeh, C. A., & Onyi, S. C. (2014). Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011. PeerJ, 2014(1). https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.580
6. PAHO. (2015). PAHO/WHO | Rubella – Elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas. Retrieved from https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=10801:2015-elimination-rubella-congenital-syndrome-americas&Itemid=40721&lang=en
7. Alleman, M. M., Wannemuehler, K. A., Hao, L., Perelygina, L., Icenogle, J. P., Vynnycky, E., Reef, S. E. (2016). Estimating the burden of rubella virus infection and congenital rubella syndrome through a rubella immunity assessment among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Potential impact on vaccination policy. Vaccine, 34(51), 6502–6511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.10.059
8. Omoleke, S. A., & Udenenwu, H. C. (2016). Incidence of rubella in a state in North-western Nigeria: a call for action. The Pan African Medical Journal, 25, 49. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2016.25.49.1000
9. NCDC Begins-congenital-rubella-surveillance-in-Nigeria. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2019, from https://brandspurng.com/2019/05/07/ncdc-begins-congenital-rubella-surveillance-in-nigeria/
10. Crooke, S. N., Haralambieva, I. H., Grill, D. E., Ovsyannikova, I. G., Kennedy, R. B., & Poland, G. A. (2019). Seroprevalence and durability of rubella virus antibodies in a highly immunized population. Vaccine, 37(29), 3876–3882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.05.049
11. Luce, R., Masresha, B., Katsande, R., Fall, A., & Shibeshi, M. (2018). The Impact of Recent Rubella Vaccine Introduction in 5 Countries in The African Region. Journal of Immunological Sciences, 2(SI1), 108–112. https://doi.org/10.29245/2578-3009/2018/si.1116
12. Getahun, M., Beyene, B., Gallagher, K., Ademe, A., Teshome, B., Tefera, M., … Kebede, A. (2016). Epidemiology of rubella virus cases in the pre-vaccination era of Ethiopia, 2009-2015. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3841-z
13. Mitiku, K., Bedada, T., Masresha, B., Kegne, W., Nafo-Traoré, F., Tesfaye, N., & Beyene, B. (2011). The epidemiology of rubella disease in Ethiopia: Data from the measles case-based surveillance system. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(SUPPL. 1). https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir120
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.