American Journal of Clinical Research and Reviews

  • A Systemic Review on the Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological and Clinical aspects of Edible stemmed vine, Cissus quadrangularis L

    Cissus quadrangularis Linn. belonging to the family Vitaceae is a common perennial climber, which is distributed throughout India. This square stemmed vine is widely used in traditional systems of medicines and parts like stem, roots and shoots are the most important parts, which are used medicinally. The article reveals a wide number of phytochemical constituents that had been isolated from the plant, which plays major role including gallic acid derivatives, steroids, iridoids, flavonoids, stilbenes and triterpenes, which possesses activities like anti inflammatory, anti tumor, gastro protective, antioxidant, antimicrobial and various other important medicinal properties. Many extensive research works had been done to prove its biological activities and pharmacology of its extracts. The current review deals with the enormous amount of updated information of scientific research and reports available in different aspects of this plant involving phytochemical, pharmacology, toxicological and clinical works. This review also includes reports on pharmacognosy, variants and traditional medicinal uses of the plant.

  • Clinical and Histopathological Findings in Patients with Follicular Dermatoses: All Skin Diseases Starts in the Hair Follicles as New Hypothesis

    Background: Follicular dermatoses are group of skin diseases characterised by follicular lesions during the course of the disease. Objective: To gather all skin diseases where there is follicular lesions to be evaluated in order to reach the hypothesis that hair follicles are the most principal target area in the etiopathogenesis of these skin disorders. Patients and Methods: This is a descriptive, clinical and histopathological study that was carried out at the Department of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical City, and Baghdad, Iraq during the period from November 2018 to August 2019. Sixty patients with different follicular dermatoses were enrolled and all socio- demographic data related to the disease was obtained from each patient, in addition to physical examination was performed for each patient. Biopsies were taken from 40 patients, for histopathological evaluation. Results: Sixty patient, were included in this study, 35 patients males and 25 patients females with male to female ratio 1.4:1. Their ages ranged from 1-80(30.2 ± 16.96) years. All patients had follicular lesions. The histopathological results showed: perifollicular lymphocytes, follicular invasion and degeneration, follicular plugging, fibrous tract remnant, perifollicular melanophages and absent melanin pigment in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo. Conclusion: The result of the present study showed that all skin diseases start in the hair follicles and might spread to involve the proper epidermis, and the lesions could be microscopic or visible to the naked eye. The hair follicles have many anatomical and immunological privileges that make it easy to be an early target for any cutaneous pathological process. Hence these findings are in support of new hypothesis that say: all skin diseases starts in the hair follicles and then spread to attack the adjacent proper epidermis

  • Rising Incidence of Rubella among Patients With Febrile Rash Illness in a South Western State of Nigeria: a Ten Year Review

    Rubella infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile rash illnesses and its becoming more prevalent in countries yet to include Rubella containing vaccines into their routine immunization. It teratogenic effect in the first trimester of pregnancy is of public Health concern, hence this study aims to investigate the trend of Rubella infection in a Southwestern State of Nigeria over a ten-year period. A community based cross sectional retrospective study was conducted in all the 16 Local Government Areas and 177 wards of Ekiti state, using available records for Measles surveillance in the state. A review of the laboratory results of blood samples collected from all cases presenting with fever and maculopapular rashes in the state between 2010 and 2019 was done. Descriptive analysis of the data collected was done using SPSS version 22 and the results were presented in tables and charts. Level of statistical significance was set at p

  • Effectiveness and Safety of Apatinib Mesylate Tablet in the Treatment of Advanced Solid Tumors

    Angiogenesis is the most critical step in the development and progression of malignant tumors. Anti-tumor angiogenesis has become the most promising new strategy for tumor treatment. Rapidly growing tumor cells secrete a variety of vascular growth factors under hypoxia to stimulate tumor angiogenesis. One of the important growth factors is Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Some small molecule compounds that inhibit VEGFR have been used to treat Tumors. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Apatinib Mesylate tablet in the treatment of advanced solid tumors. We found that Apatinib Mesylate tablet can treat advanced solid tumors.


    Introduction: In 2014, the Family Health Support Center participated in an event among children, adolescents with disabilities and their caregivers, where they receive treatment and follow-up at the Rehabilitation Center in the municipality of Messias, state of Alagoas. In this event, the mothers asked the professionals for individual and group care for them, justifying that the caregivers needed professional follow-up in the face of social and emotional overload. This year the nomenclature that was the group of mothers of children and adolescents with disabilities became a group of caregivers of people with disabilities opening inclusion for all caregivers in the municipality and also aiming at the reports of professionals from the Family Health Teams and the Center for Psychosocial Care who shared the concern with the increase in care for caregivers who have been getting ill mainly involving psychological issues. Objective: To develop actions that stimulate the strengthening and self-care in its biopsychosocial aspects, improving the quality of life and providing the consolidation of family affective bonds. Methods: This work is being carried out from the treatment of qualitative data, being an action research, descriptive and bibliographic, whose collection and collection of data occurred through conversation wheels and application of questionnaires, websites, journals and articles. Finally, it is of exploratory type, because it proceeds to provide greater familiarity with the problem that is established. Results: With the development of methods of Continuing and Permanent Education in Health, actions are practiced with strategies planned in the line of care, adding the support of the health care network so that it can be offered qualified and humanized services, thus improving the biopsychosocial and family aspects. Thus, it is remarkable that the objectives have been achieved according to shared reports and application of evaluation questionnaires in monthly meetings with caregivers. Conclusion: It is…


    Introduction: Belonging to sexual and gender minorities and being afro-descendent brings an intense burden to these individuals, because of the stigma strongly present in society. Therefore, it is necessary to practice activities that provide the well-being and quality of life, such as meditation. Objective: To report the experience of the extension project “The influence of the practice of meditation focusing on breathing in the signs and symptoms of anxiety in the afro-descendant LGBT population”, which was part of the “Nucleus of African-Brazilian Studies” of the University Federal de Alagoas. Methodology: This is a descriptive study, of the type of experience report. This extension project began in June 2018 and lasted until September 2019. The scholarship and collaborators were responsible for mediating the meditation meetings, which took place from Tuesday to Friday, both in the nursing school, as well as in the University Residence of the Federal University of Alagoas. Each participant was invited to attend a weekly meeting of meditation practice with focus on breathing, with three meditation blocks lasting 10min each, totaling 30min per meeting. In addition to the weekly meetings at the university, the participant received a meditation diary so that he could meditate daily at home, write down the difficulties encountered and the feelings experienced during the practice, in order to bring better results with the meditation routine. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas. Results: According to the records of the meditation practices made by the participants in the meditation diary, it was observed that, initially, they had a lot of difficulty in keeping the attention in breathing and other thoughts ended gaining space. However, with the course of the practices and the implementation of the meditative routine, there were feelings of lightness, tension relief, sleep improvement, concentration…


    Introduction: Communication is a central element in any social situation, be it in the ordinary context of everyday life, or in a moment of illness. When health is compromised, communication should be exemplary between the health professional and the patient, but this is not always what happens. Several aspects emerge in this context, with a sender sending the message to a receiver, which may suffer contextual, cultural and individual influences. Every communication process is susceptible to interference, which is called noise, which can compromise the receiver’s understanding of the message, causing distorted interpretations and inappropriate reactions, which may occur due to the situational and subjective aspects of those involved. Objective: To report situations in the hospital psychological practice that identified interference in communication and the psychologist acted as a mediator, aiming to minimize the suffering of the patient. Methodology: Experience report. Results and Discussion: When communication takes place in a health context, it becomes more delicate and careful, as it involves a condition sometimes of suffering, pain, impaired perceptual abilities, regressive state of the patient, denial of the condition. illness, or pharmacological therapy. In this scenario, these elements compromise the understanding of information and guidance provided for recovery. Depending on what the patient experiences in the hospital environment, they can signal the most diverse messages, ranging from signaling life expectancy to the prospect of death. Cultural, social, emotional and psychological aspects are present, as well as physiological evidence. Common situations of interference in communication, which generated noise and a misunderstanding about the diagnosis, procedures, use of medications, postoperative were: false compliments about the patient’s condition, reinforcement of denial of reality, explanations of partial and fragmented procedures, of treatment steps with excessive use of technical terms, double message about evolution, rough touch, facial expressions and gestures that point to an inconsistency…


    Since tuberculosis is a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide, it is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease, surpassed only by deaths associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This fact is an important point for the elaboration of actions aimed at reducing the indicators of disease incidence. This subject, pertinent and noticeable in the dialogues of the conversation and workshop circles, promoted by the higher level institution, which prompted undergraduate students to discuss the issue with the elderly, aiming at an exchange of knowledge, since this public It favors the exchange of knowledge that enriches knowledge through a dynamic and creative approach, aiming to reduce the incidence of the disease. Conduct health education intervention with the elderly, as a measure of prevention and health promotion, to control new cases of tuberculosis in the elderly. The methodology worked in an integrative and playful way, through lecture and group discussion, aiming to disseminate knowledge about the disease. The intervention took place on 28-052016, next to the church of the Santa Clara Monastery, located at Rua Heroninda Cavalcante Dantas – Dom Jaime Câmara, Mossoró – RN. life experiences of those involved. The theoretical framework was searched in the Virtual Health Library – VHL with the keywords, in a combined way: Tuberculosis, education and health, elderly. Since tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease, among the risk factors that lead to the evolution to active disease is age (elderly). As society ages, the health problems of older people challenge traditional models of care. However, motivated by the pursuit of learning and believing that educational measures are a means by which they can enter the universe unknown to this population, the wheels of conversation establish knowledge exchange that makes them feel more secure and autonomous….

  • Patient Medical History & Medical Record Keeping: Accurate Problem Identification for Effective Solution

    Obtaining an accurate medication history, keeping and proper maintenance of patient medical records, tracking medication lists are essential parts of medicine reconciliation and these are the processes where pharmacists play a vital role in. Without all these, prescribers may inadvertently make incorrect decisions about a patient’s treatment, causing harm if previously discontinued medicines are restarted, or if current medicines are omitted or prescribed at the wrong dose for the patient. Medical records are a fundamental part of a physician’s duties in providing patient care. Medical records can contain a wide range of material, such as handwritten notes, computerized records, correspondence between health professionals, lab reports, imaging records, photographs, video and other recordings and printouts from monitoring equipment. Poor record keeping is a major factor in litigation cases brought against healthcare professionals.


    Introduction: Non-Transmissible chronic diseases (NCDs) have been presented as a relevant health problem, due to the high number of premature deaths, quality of life deficits, with a high degree of limitation and disability, as well as being responsible for economic impacts on families, communities and public health services in general. Objective: To evaluate the impact of chronic noncommunicable diseases on the use of public health services. Method: Integrative review, data collected in electronic bases Lilacs, Medline / Pubmed, Sciello, where 830 articles were identified, and from the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies remained as final sample. The analyzed publications date from the period 2013 to 2017. For the research were used descriptors (Mesh / Decs) and free terms (Mesh Terms), crossed through the Boolean operator “AND”. Results: mortality studies indicate an increase in the proportion of deaths due to non-transmitted chronic diseases and also an increase in the proportion of hospitalizations, since the presence of chronic disease was associated with an increase of hospitalization in the last 12 months, 1.7 times. The use of health services in the last 12 months were, respectively, 3.4 times higher in the presence of four or more diseases. Hypertension had the highest prevalence among NCDs, with 21.4%, followed by depression (7.6%), arthritis (6.4%) and diabetes (6.2%). The degree of intense / very intense limitation presented higher prevalences for other mental illness (37.6%) and stroke (25.5%). A National Health Survey conducted in 2013 has revealed a rich and troubling panel of the country, with a high burden of NTCDs and disabilities, which should expand as a result of the aging population. There is strong evidence that correlates social determinants, such as education, occupation, income, gender and ethnicity, with the prevalence of CNCD. Conclusion: Indicators of health service utilization are important for assessing the quality…