A Systemic Review on the Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological and Clinical aspects of Edible stemmed vine, Cissus quadrangularis L

A Systemic Review on the Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological and Clinical aspects of Edible stemmed vine, Cissus quadrangularis L

Anoop Austin

Head – Research and Development Center, Cholayil Private Limited, # 31-A/24, 4th Cross Main road, SIDCO Industrial Estate (North Phase), Aavin Dairy road, Ambattur, Chennai – 600 098, Tamilnadu, India.

American Journal of Clinical Research and Reviews

Cissus quadrangularis Linn. belonging to the family Vitaceae is a common perennial climber, which is distributed throughout India. This square stemmed vine is widely used in traditional systems of medicines and parts like stem, roots and shoots are the most important parts, which are used medicinally. The article reveals a wide number of phytochemical constituents that had been isolated from the plant, which plays major role including gallic acid derivatives, steroids, iridoids, flavonoids, stilbenes and triterpenes, which possesses activities like anti inflammatory, anti tumor, gastro protective, antioxidant, antimicrobial and various other important medicinal properties. Many extensive research works had been done to prove its biological activities and pharmacology of its extracts. The current review deals with the enormous amount of updated information of scientific research and reports available in different aspects of this plant involving phytochemical, pharmacology, toxicological and clinical works. This review also includes reports on pharmacognosy, variants and traditional medicinal uses of the plant.

Keywords:  Cissus quadrangularis; Vitis quadrangularis; Vitaceae; Bone Fracture; Edible stemmed vine

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Anoop Austin. A Systemic Review on the Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological and Clinical aspects of Edible stemmed vine, Cissus quadrangularis L. American Journal of Clinical Research and Reviews, 2020; 4:18. DOI:10.28933/ajcrr-2020-07-1705


1. Abdel-Aziz, A., Brain, K. and Bashir, A.K., 1990. Screening of Sudanese plants for molluscicidal activity and identification of leaves of Tacca leontopetaloides (l.) O Ktze (Taccaceae) as a potential new exploitable resource. Phytother. Res., 4 (2): 62-65.
2. Ahmad, Y.S., 1957. A note on the plants of medicinal value found in Pakistan. Government of Pakistan press, Karachi, Pakistan.
3. Anonymous, 1903. Description of the Philip-pines, Part I., Bureau of public printing, Manila.
4. Anonymous, 1986. The useful plants of India, CSIR, New Delhi, India.
5. Atal, C.K., Srivastava, J.B., Wali, B.K., Chakravarty, R.B., Dhawan, B.N. and Rastogi, R.P., 1978. Screening of Indian plants for bi-ological activity – Part VIII. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 16: 330-349.
6. Austin, A Jegadeesan, M. and Gowrishankar, R., 2004b. Helicobactericidal activity of Cissus quadrangularis L. variant I, Natural Product Sciences, 10 (5) :215-217.
7. Austin, A. and Jegadeesan, M., 2002a. Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective ef-fects of Cissus quadrangularis L. variant II in rats, Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicines, 6: 11-15.
8. Austin, A. and Jegadeesan, M., 2002b. Be-havioral and sub-acute toxicity studies on Cissus quadrangularis Linn variant I, Amala Research Bulletin, 22: 104 – 110.
9. Austin, A. and Jegadeesan, M., 2002c. Pre-liminary toxicological screening of Cissus quadrangularis Linn variant II, Indian Medicine and Homeopathy Journal, 2 (1): 17-25.
10. Austin, A. and Jegadeesan, M., 2005. Cyto-protective activity of Cissus quadrangularis Linn variant I against gastric and duodenal ulcer models in rats, Natural Product Sciences, 44 (1): 67-68.
11. Austin, A. Jegadeesan, M. and Gowrishankar, R., 2004a. In vitro helicobactericidal activity of Cissus quadrangularis L. variant II, Indian Journal of Microbiology, 44 (1): 67-68.
12. Austin, A., Kannan, R. and Jegadeesan, M. 2004c. Pharmacognostical studies on Cissus quadrangularis L. variant I & II, Ancient Science of Life, 23 (4): 33 – 47.
13. Balachandran, B., Sivaswamy, S.N. and Si-varamakrishnan, V.M., 1991. Genotoxic effects of some foods & food components in swiss mice. Indian J. Med. Res., 94 (5): 378-383.
14. Balasubramanian, P., Jayalakshmi, K., Vidhya, N., Prasad, R., Khaleefathullah Sheriff, A., Kathiravan, G., Rajagopal, K. and Sureban, S.M., (2010). Antiviral activity of ancient sys-tem of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae), Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, 1 (1): 37-40.
15. Barakat, S.E.M., Adam, S.E.I., Maglad, M.A. and Wasfi, I.A., 1985. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on goats and sheep in Sudan. Re-vue-d’Elevage-et-de-Medecine-Veterinaire-des-Pays-Tropicaux, 38 (2): 185-194.
16. Bhat, R.B., Eterjee, E.O. and Oladipo, V.T., 1990. Ethnobotanical studies from Central Nigeria. Econ. Bot., 44 (3): 382-390.
17. Bhutani, K.K., Kapoor, R. and Atal, C.K., 1984. Two unsymmetric tetracyclic triterpenoids from Cissus quadrangularis. Phytochemistry, 23 (2): 407-410.
18. Bloomer, R.J., Farney, T.M., McCarthy, C.G. and Lee, S.R., (2013). Cissus Quadrangularis reduces joint pain in exercise-trained men: A pilot study, Phys Sportsmed, 41(3):29-35.
19. Bum, E.N., Ngoupaye, G.T., Talla, E, Theo-phile, D., Nkantchoua, G.C.N., Pelanken, M.M.and Taiwe, G.S., (2008). The anticonvul-sant and sedative properties of stems of Cissus quadrangularis in mice, African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2 (3): 42 – 47.
20. Chopra, R.N., Nayar, S.L. and Chopra, I.C., 1956. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, CSIR, New Delhi, India.
21. Chopra, S.S., Patel, M.R. and Awadhiya, R.P., 1976. Studies on Cissus quadrangularis in experimental fracture repair: A histopatholog-ical study. Indian J. Med. Res., 64: 1365-1371.
22. Desai, P.D., Ganguly, A.K., Govindachari, T.R., Joshi, B.S., Kamat, V.N., Manmade, A.H., Mohamed, P.A., Nagle, S.K., Nayak, R.H., Saksena, A.K., Sathe, S.S. and Viswa-nathan, N., 1996. Chemical investigation of some Indian plants, Part II. Indian J. Chem., 4: 457-459.
23. Dhanasekaran, S., (2020). Phytochemical characteristics of aerial part of Cissus quad-rangularis (L) and its in-vitro inhibitory activity against leukemic cells and antioxidant proper-ties, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 27 (5): 1302-1309.
24. Dhawan, B.N., Dubey, M.P., Mehrotra, B.N., Rastogi, R.P. and Tandon, J.S., 1980. Screening of Indian plants for biological ac-tivity. Part IX. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 18: 594-606.
25. Dhawan, B.N., Patnaik, G.K., Rastogi, R.P., Singh, K.K. and Tandon, J.S., 1977. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity, Part VI. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 15: 208-219.
26. Elhamidi, A., 1970. Drug plants of the Sudan republic in native medicine. Planta Medica, 18: 278-284.
27. Enechi, O.C., Celestina, I.N. and Ugwu, P.C.O., (2013). Effects of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis on induced gastric ulcer in rats, African Journal of Biotechnology, 12 (43): 6197-6202.
28. Giles Lal, D. and Livingstone, C., 1978. Cam-pus flora. Madras Christian College, Madras, India.
29. Girach, R.D., Aminuddi., Siddiqui, P.A. and Khan, S.A., 1994. Traditional plant remedies among the Kondh of district Dhenkanal (Orissa). Int. J. Pharmacog., 32 (3): 274-283.
30. Gupta, M.M. and Verma, R.K., 1990. Un-symmetric tetracyclic triterpenoid from Cissus quadrangularis. Phytochemistry, 29 (1): 336-337.
31. Gupta, M.M. and Verma, R.K., 1991. Lipid constituents of Cissus quadrangularis. Phy-tochemistry, 30 (3): 875-878.
32. Hafez, E.S.E., 1982. Abortifacients in primi-tive societies and in experimental animal Models. Contraceptive delivery systems, 3(3) 452-452.
33. Jadhav, A.N., Rafiq, M., Devanathan, R., Azeemuddin, M., Anturlikar, S.D., Akhil Ah-med,A., Sundaram, R., Babu, U. V. and Paramesh, R. (2016). Ketosteroid standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. extract and its anabolic activity: Time to look beyond Ketosteroid? Pharmacogn Mag., 12 (Suppl 2): S213–S217.
34. Jain, S.P., 1989. Tribal remedies from Saranda forest, Bihar, India. Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 27 (1): 29-32.
35. Jainu M, Vijai Mohan K, Shyamala Devi CS., Gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangu-laris extract in rats with experimentally induced ulcer, Indian J Med Res., 123 (6) : 799-806, (2006a).
36. Jainu M. and Devi, C.S., Gastroprotective ac-tion of Cissus quadrangularis extract against NSAID induced gastric ulcer: Role of proin-flammatory cytokines and oxidative damage, Chem. Biol. Interact., 161 (3) : 262-270, (2006b).
37. Jainu, M. and Devi, C.S., Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ul-cer-a comparative study with sucralfate, J. Med. Food., 7 (3): 372-376, (2004).
38. Jainu, M. and Shyamala Devi, C.S., Attenua-tion of neutrophil infiltration and proinflam-matory cytokines by Cissus quadrangularis: a possible prevention against gastric ulcer-ogenesis, J. Herb. Pharmacother., 5 (3): 33-42, (2005).
39. Jainu, M., Mohan KV, Devi CS., Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats, J. Ethnopharmacol., 104 (3) : 302-305, (2006).
40. Jainu, M., Vijai Mohan K and, Shyamala Devi, C.S., (2006). Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104 (3): 302 – 305.
41. Kannan, R. and Jegadesan, M., 1999. Notes on the occurrence of variants in Cissus quadran-gularis L. J. Econ. Tax. Bot., 22 (3): 691-693.
42. Kannan, R., 1998. Pharmacognostical studies on some selected medicinal plants. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Tamil University, Thanjavur, India.
43. Kashikar, N. D. and George, I. (2006). Anti-bacterial activity of Cissus quadrangularis Linn, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 68 (2): 245-247
44. Kerharo, J. and Bouquet, A., 1950. Plantes medicinales et toxiques de la cote-d’ivoire haute-volta, Vigot Freres, Paris.
45. Kirthikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D., 1980. Indian medicinal plants. Vol. 1-4. Bishen singh ma-hendra pal singh, Dehradun, India.
46. Kumar, D.S. and Prabhakar, Y.S., 1987. On the ethnomedical significance of the arjun tree, Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot. J. Ethnopharmacol., 20 (2): 173-190.
47. Madayan, P. and Citraputhiran, H., 1987. Dic-tionary of trees and plants. Vol. II (in Tamil). Tamil University, Thanjavur, India.
48. Maiti, S.K., Saravanan, B., Singh, G.R., Kumar, N., Hoque, M., Lal, J. and Kalicharan. 2007. Evaluation of the herb, Cissus quadrangu-laris in accelerating the healing process of femur osteotomies in dogs. J. Appl. Anim. Res, 31: 47–52.
49. Malathi A. N., (2014). Nutritive Value of Man-goravalli (Cissus quadrangularis) Powder and its Value Addition, Current Trends in Technol-ogy and Science, 3 (3): 223-225
50. Miles, S.B., 1966. The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf. Frank cass & Co Ltd, Lon-don.
51. Mohanty, A., Sahu, P.K., Das, C and Arna-baditya, M., (2010). Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis on albino rat: A research, 1 (2): 176-184.
52. Mummed, B., Abraha, A., Feyera, T., Nigusse, A. and Assefa, S., (2018). In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants in the traditional treatment of skin and wound infec-tions in Eastern Ethiopia, Biomed Res Int, ID 1862401, 1-8.
53. Murthy, C.K.N., Vanitha, A., Mahadeva Swamy, M. and Ravishankar, G.A., (2003). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cissus quadran-gularis L., J. Med. Food., 6 (2): 99-105.Nadkarni, A.N., 1989. Indian material medica, Vo. I. Popular book depot, Bombay, India.
55. Nagani, K.V., Kevalia, J. and Chanda, S.V., (2011). Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical evaluation of stem of Cissus quadrangularis L. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Sciences, 18: 2856-2862
56. Nagaraju, N. and Rao, K.N., 1990. A survey of plant crude drugs of Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh, India. J. Ethnopharmacol., 29 (2): 137-158.
57. Nash, R., Boris Azantsa, Dieudonne Kuate, Harrinder Singh and Julius Oben, (2019). The Use of a Stem and Leaf Aqueous Extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) to Reduce Body Fat and Other Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight Participants, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 25 (1): 98 -106.
58. Oben, J., Dieudonne Kuate, Gabriel Agbor, Claudia Momo & Xavio Talla, (2006). The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and meta-bolic syndrome, Lipids in Health and Disease 5 (24) : 1-7.
59. Panpimanmas, S., Sithipongsri, S., Sukdanon, C and Manmee, C., (2010). Experimental Comparative Study of the efficacy and side effects of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) to Daflon (Servier) and Placebo in the treat-ment of acute Hemorrhoids, J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 93 (12): 1360-1367.
60. Panthong, A., Supraditaporn, W., Kanjanapo-thi, D., Taesotikul, T. and Reutrakul, V., (2006). Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn., Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110 (2): 264-270.
61. Pathak, A.K., Kambhoja, S., Dhruv, Sandeep, Singh, H.P., Chand, H., (2010). An-thelmintic activity of Cissus quadraangularis Linn Stem, Pharmacology online, 3: 15-18.
62. Pluemjai, T. and Saifah, E., 1986. Constitu-ents of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Thai. J. Pharm. Sci., 11 (4): 205-211.
63. Potu, B.K., Rao, M.S., Nampurath G.K., Chamallamudi, M.R., Prasad, K., Nayak, S.R., Dharmavarapu, P.K., Ked-age, V. and Bhat, K.M.R., (2009). Evi-dence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis, Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 114 (3 ) : 140-48.
64. Prasad, G.C., 1980. Mechanism of action for phytogenic steroid in the process of bone repair. Abstr 4th Asian Symp. Med. Plants. & Spices, Bangkok, Thailand.
65. Ramasamy, E., Anandan, A., Doss, A., Sangeetha Ganesan and Anand, S.P., (2012). Analysis of chemical composition of Cissus quadrangularis linn by GC-MS, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Re-search 5:139-140
66. Reddy, M.B., Reddy, K.R. and Reddy, M.N., 1989. A survey of plant crude drugs of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 27 (3): 145-155.
67. Sawangjit, R., Puttarak, P., Saokaew, S., Chaiyakunapruk, N., (2017). Efficacy and Safety of Cissus quadrangularis L. In Clinical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Phytother Res, 31(4):555-567.
68. Schmucker, W., 1969. Die pflanzliche und mineralische material medica im firdaus al-hikma des tabari. Proc. Selbstverlag des orientalischen seminars der universitat.
69. Selvamaleeswaran, P., Manimaran E and Sureshkumar M., (2016). Antimicrobial Activ-ity of Medicinally Important Plant – Cissus quadrangularis Linn against some Pathogenic Bacteria, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceu-tical Research, 8 (11): 92-96.
70. Sen, M.K. and Dash, B.K., (2012). A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cissus quadrangularis L. Indian Journal of Green Pharmacy, 6 (3): 169-173.
71. Sen, S.P., 1964. Active constituents (oxo-steroids) of Cissus quadrangularis. Indi-an. J. Pharmacy, 26 (9): 247-248.
72. Shirwaikar, A., Khan, S. and Malini, S., Shir-waikar, A., Khan, S., & Malini, S. (2003). Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol ex-tract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovari-ectomized rat, J. Ethnopharmacol., 89 (2-3): 245-250, (2003).
74. Singh, G., Rawat, P. and Maurya, R., (2006). Constituents of Cissus quadrangularis, Natural Products Research, 21 (6) :522-528.
75. Singh, H.B. and Arora, R.K., 1978. Wild edi-ble plants of India. ICAR, New Delhi, India.
76. Sirasanagandla, S.R., Ranfanath Pai, S.K., Bhagath Potu and Bhar, K.,(2014). Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on dia-betes induced delayed fetal skeletal ossifica-tion, Journal pf Ayurveda and Integrative medicine, 5 (1): 25-32.
77. Sivaswamy, S.N., Balachandran, B., Balanehru, S. and Sivaramakrishnan, V.M., MuSivaswamy, S.N., Balachandran, B., Bal-anehru, S. and Sivaramakrishnan, V.M., 1991. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J. Exp. Bio., 29 (8): 730-737.
79. Srisook K., Palachot M., Mongkol N., Srisook E, and Sarapusit, S., (2010). Anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract from Cissus quadrangularis Linn may be involved with in-duction of heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of NF-κB activation, Journal of Ethnophar-macology, 133 (3): 1008-1014.
80. Subhashri, S., Vedha Hari, B.N. and Ramya Devi, D., (2013). Review- Pharmacological Ac-tivities Based on Different Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis, International Journal of Phar-macognosy and Phytochemical Research 2013; 5(2); 128-133
81. Suresh, P., Alphienes Stanley Xavier, Karthik V. P and Punnagai K, (2019). Anticancer Ac-tivity of Cissus Quadrangularis L. Methanolic Extract Against MG63 Human Osteosarcoma Cells – An In-Vitro Evaluation using Cytotoxi-city Assay, Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, 12 (2): 975-980.
82. Swamy, V.A.H.M., Thippeswamy A.H.M., Manjula D.V. and Mahendra Kumar C.B., (2006). Some neuropharmacological effects of the methanolic root extract of Cissus quad-rangularis in Mice, African Journal of Biomed-ical Research, 9: 69 – 75
83. Udupa, K.N. and Prasad, G., 1964. Biome-chanical and 45-Ca studies on the effect of Cissus quadrangularis in fracture repair. In-dian J. Med. Res., 52 (5): 480-487.
84. Udupa, K.N., Prasad, G. and Sen, S.P., 1965. The effect of phytogenic anabolic steroid in the acceleration of fracture repair. Life Sci., 4: 317-327.
85. Vanaja, M., Gnanashas Gnanajobitha, Kanniah Paulkumar, Shanmugam Rajeshkumar, Chel-ladurai Malarkodi, and Gurusamy Annadurai, (2013). Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Cissus quadrangularis: influence of physi-cochemical factors, Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, 3 (17): 1-8.
86. Verma, S. (2018). Role of Cissus quadrangu-laris in the Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Re-view, Review Article, Acute Med Res, 1 (1): 1-3.
87. Vibha Singh, Narendra Singh, Pal, U.S., Sathish Dhasmana, Shadab Mohamad and Nimisha Singh, (2011). Clinical evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis and Moringa oleifera and osteoseal as osteogenic agents in mandibular fracture, Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2 (2): 132-136.
88. Warrier, P.K., Nambiar, V.P.K. and Ra-mankutty, C., 1994. Indian medicinal plants, Vol. 1-4. Orient Longman, Hyderabad, India.
89. Yadav, P., Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Nisha Son-kar, Divya Bansal, Nazneen Dubey (2014). Experimental studies on immunomodulatory potential of Cissus quadrangularis Linn, Nige-rian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Sci-ences, 2 (1): 49-53.