Private Estate Housing Productivity in Greater Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Private Estate Housing Productivity in Greater Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Dr, (Mrs) Augusta Ayotamuno1 And Obinna Victor Chika2

1Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology (IGST) at the Rivers State University (RSU) Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning(URP) at the Faculty of the Environmental Sciences at Rivers State University(RSU) Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

American journal of educational research and reviews

The housing deficit in Nigeria is reportedly of the order of 17 million units.  The private sector remains the major supplier as in some other developing countries. However, productivity in Nigeria is hampered by many factors, including high cost of building materials, difficulty in obtaining title to land, a weak mortgage financing sector, and delay in obtaining building permit.  In the study area, Greater Port Harcourt City, there is paucity of information on various aspects of housing, including supply, demand, nature of housing provided, satisfaction levels and relationship between housing and stage in the family life cycle. Therefore, the objectives of the research were to: (1) Ascertain the state of private residential housing estate development in GPHC; (2) ascertain the sources of private residential housing and the relative importance of private vis-à-vis public residential housing delivery; (3) critically examine the number, type and quality of housing provided in private residential estates and their functionality from the point of view of beneficiaries; and (4) ascertain bottlenecks to private residential estate housing delivery. This study was undertaken as a cross-sectional survey of (1) a probability sample of all persons residing in privately built estates and (2) all individuals or corporate firms who have supplied at least 4 building units and above constructed between 1978 and 2014 in Greater Port Harcourt City (GPHC).  The research design used was the “passive-observational” method.  The number of questionnaires administered to estate residents was 400 while the number administered to estate developers was 76.  The study relied on two sources of information – primary and secondary.  Primary sources comprised (a) a largely pre-coded questionnaire, administered face-to-face by trained interviewers, (b) Individual Depth Interviews (IDIs) of key informants, (c) direct observation, (c) measurement, and (d) photography.  Secondary sources included: (a) unpublished and published material in past theses, books, journals, maps, etc; and (b) the Internet. Data analysis utilised mainly univariate and multivariate statistical analytical techniques. Analysis was carried out with the aid of the microcomputer – adapted Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.  The results showed that 1,761 housing units — mostly in Obio/Akpor LGA (80%) — were built by the private sector as opposed to 3,453 units by government.  Housing types were single-family bungalow (28.3%), multi-family block of flats (26.8%), single-family storey building (18.8%), “wagon” rooming house (4.3%) and “courtyard” rooming house (1.8%).   Four predictor variables —  Access to Land, Mortgage Financing, Building Permit, and Title to Land could explain 85% of the variation in the dependent variable, Private Housing Productivity, with Title to Land being the most important.  The study concluded, among others, that (a) the pace of private sector housing development in Greater Port Harcourt City was far short of what is needed to satisfy demand, given a population of the order of 2,000,000 growing at 5.8% per annum. Recommendations of the study include (a) Stamp Duty Subsidy such as “instruments, payable on documents such as Lease / Tenancy Agreements, Sale Purchase, Agreements, Transfer and Mortgages. (b)Government should formulate policies and implement techniques that promote liveability in Greater Port Harcourt City. (c) Making land available for estate developers or regulating the price of land can be implemented.

Keywords: Private Housing Estate, Private Developers, Housing Productivity and Land

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Augusta Ayotamuno and Obinna Victor Chika. Private Estate Housing Productivity in Greater Port Harcourt, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews, 2018,3:27. DOI: 10.28933/ajerr-2018-05-2501


1. Adediji, B. (2009). International Housing Finance and World Economic Meltdown vis-vis Nigeria’s Housing Delivery System. A paper presented at MCPD Workshop organized by the Akwa Ibom State Branch of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, Uyo.
2. Almarza, S., (1997). “Financiamento de la vivienda de estratos de ingresosmediosbajos:Laexperienciachilena”, CEPAL SerieFinancimientodelDesarrollo, 46, Santiago.
3. Andrews, F. M., Morgan, J; Sonquist, J & Klem, Laura (1976). Multiple Classification Analysis. Ann Arbor (USA). The University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 105
4. Anthonio, J. B. (2002). Housing for all by the year 2015. Paper presented at the 2002 Building week seminar. Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
5. Awofeso, P. (2010). One out of two Nigerians now Lives in a City: There are Many Problems but One Solution. World Policy Journal 27, 67.
6. Blalock, H.M., Jr. (1979). Measurement and conceptualization problems: The major obstacle to integrating theory and research, American Sociological Review, 44, 881-894.
7. Bond, P. (2000). Elite transitions: From apartheid to neo-liberalism in South Africa, Pluto Press. South Africa.
8. Cook, T. D. & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-Experimentation – Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
9. Currivan, D. (2004) .Sampling Frame in Lewis-Beck, Michael S. Bryman, Alan, Liao & Tim F. The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. SAGE Publications,Inc.Retrieved: SAGE.xml. Accessed (August 19, 2014).
10. Drakakis-Smith, D.W., (1979), High society: Housing provision in Metropolitan Hong Kong1954 to 1979, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong.
11. Greater Port Harcourt City Development Authority (2009). http/www.GPHCDA/ (Accessed) on: September 29, 2013).
12. Ha, S.-K., (1994), “Low-income housing policies in the Republic of Korea”, Cities, 11, 107-114.
13. Jiboye, A. D., (2009). Evaluating tenants satisfaction with public housing in Lagos, Nigeria, Town Planning and Architecture, 33(4), 239-247
14. Kish, L. (1965). Survey Sampling: New York: John Wiley and Sons.
15. Malpezzi, S., (1993). Can New York and Los Angeles Learn From Kumasi and Bangalore? Costs and Benefits of Rent Controls in Developing Countries. Housing Policy Debate, 4(4), 589–626.
16. Salau, A. T. (1992). Urbanisation, housing and social services in Nigeria: The challenge of meeting basic needs. In Porter R. B. and Salau A. T. (eds) Cities and development in the Third World. Magnet Publishers, England.
17. Stren, R.E., (1990). “Urban housing in Africa: The changing role of government policy”. In Amis, P. and Lloyd, P. (eds.), Housing Africa’s Urban Poor, Manchester University Press.
18. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHSP), (2003). Rental Housing An essential option for the urban poor in developing countries Nairobi
19. Varady, D. P. and Lipman, B.J. (1994). “What Are Renters Really Like? Results from a National Survey.” Housing Policy Debate. 5 (4 ) 491-531
20. World Bank, (1993). Housing: Enabling markets to work. A World Bank Policy Paper
21. Yamane, T, (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis. Second Ed. New York: Harper & Row

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.