American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Integration through friendships in school classes – A study of pupils with a migrant background in school friendship networks at primary and secondary schools in Germany

    This paper deals with the integration of migrant children in informal communication networks in primary and secondary schools in Germany. The basic assumption is that these networks can serve as an indicator for the networking and embedding that take place within the class community and therefore can be used to investigate the integration of pupils with a migrant background. The initial results of our network analytical study reveal that pupils with a migrant background are well integrated into class networks. The study discloses that the migrant background does not serve as a conclusive characteristic of the pattern of class networks. The pupils are more or less networked with each other regardless of their migrant background, though it did emerge that children and adolescents born abroad, in particular, are far more likely to have outgoing relationships that remain unreciprocated. Remarkable is, that results from primary school correspond with data from secondary school.

  • The Use of ICT Resources for Teaching Social Studies: Does the Availability of ICT Resources Matter?

    The paper explored the availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources and the extent to which these resources influence the use of ICT in teaching Social Studies. The study setting was in the Awutu Senya district of Ghana. A descriptive survey design and quantitative approach were adopted for the study. From a target population of fifty-seven (57), 46 were sampled from which 39 participated in the survey. Means and standard regression were employed for the investigation. The testing of hypothesis was made possible through the use of structured equation modelling. The study concluded that ICT resources were inadequate for teaching Social Studies and that the use of ICT resources in teaching Social Studies in the district was low. The reason was evident based on the low level of ICT resources in the district. The study also concluded that there was a positive significant relationship between availability of ICT resources and its use in the teaching of Social Studies.

  • Improving Learning Effectiveness- Some Aspects Shouldn’t Be Ignored in Mathematics Teaching

    There are abundant educational resources in the USA, but the performance of math education in primary and secondary schools is not so well, and has lagged behind some Asian countries including developing countries. Among many reasons, the crucial reasons are how teachers teach, how students learn, and the level of school teaching management. This paper focuses on how teachers teach in five aspects, particularly emphasizes on how to improve students’ retention and understanding of knowledge, and to enhance learning and thinking abilities. It points out that teachers should constantly remind students to maintain basic facts, create assignments for students by combining regular methods with the strategies of interleaved and spaced practice, build connections among knowledge, pay attention to improve students’ ability of problem-solving, and use some complementary approaches to generate students’ interest, participation, memory and concentration in math. And also it mentions that self-discipline, persistence and confidence are significant in prompting learning efficiency. In addition, some suggestions are put forward for school education management in supporting teaching and learning.

  • Curriculum Content, Ownership Of Universities, Work Experience And Acquisition Of Employability Skills Among Business Education Graduates Of Universities In Cross River State, Nigeria

    This paper x-rayed curriculum content, ownership of universities, work experience and acquisition of employability skills among business education graduates of universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two formulated research hypotheses guided this study. Literature was reviewed in line with the variables under study. The research design adopted was survey. The population for the study was 987 business education graduates between 2007/2008 and 2014/2015 academic sessions from the University of Calabar (UNICAL) and Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH). The sample of the study was 200 business education graduates drawn purposively using accidental and snowballing sampling techniques. A validated researcher- made four point scale questionnaire titled ‘Curriculum Content, ownership of universities, work experience and Acquisition of Employability Skills Questionnaire (CCOUWEESQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by four research experts. A reliability estimate of .70 to .82 was achieved for the instrument using Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient after a pilot test. The data obtained from the field was converted into values and analyzed using independent t-test statistical technique. All hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. Findings revealed among others that graduates of federal university exposed to business education curriculum content are significantly different from their state university counterparts in their acquisition of employability skills. Based on this, it was recommended that government should accord equal recognition, support and provision (in terms of funding, capacity building and infrastructural spread) to both federal and state universities in a way that obvious preference for one category over the other is not perceived. Doing so may erode the dichotomized feelings of being either in a federal or state university from the minds of the students, and rather fix their focus on quality learning that results in the acquisition of employability skills.

  • The Need for Pre-retirement Vocational Education Training for Workers in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    This study examined the need for pre-retirement vocational education training for workers in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design was used for this study. The population of the study was 9,523, made up of academic and non-academic members of staff in the four public tertiary institutions in the state. Five per cent (5%) of the total population was used as the sample for the study using proportionate sampling technique. Thus, the sample for the study was 476 members of staff. A set of questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Pre-retirement Education Training for Tertiary Institution Workers in Ekiti State (QPETTIW) was administered on the respondents. All the administered questionnaires were returned, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the four research questions. The finding revealed that there were economic, social and psychological needs for pre-retirement vocational education training for workers in public tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Thus, it was recommended that institutional authorities should incorporate pre-retirement vocational training/education into their staff development programme, among others.

  • A Brochure Describing the Drama of Rumelian Turks: Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figânı

    As of the end of the 18th century and parallel to the Ottoman Empire’s decline, the Rumelian Turks who had inhabited Balkan lands for centuries began to suffer persecution at the hands of Balkan Christians and the unrest they created. While paving the way for Bulgarian and Russian aggression towards Balkan Turks, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 also triggered the initial migrations towards Istanbul and Anatolia. As stated in Namık Kemal’s letters, Balkan Christians were further agitated against Turks, and separatist activity increased. The Balkan War of 1912-1913 and the purge of Balkan Turks and Muslims carried out by Bulgarian and Greek guerillas in this war have been recorded in domestic and foreign sources. Further evidence that such practices preceded the Balkan Wars is the 14-page brochure titled Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figanı, published in 1906. This brochure describes the various acts of aggression carried out towards the Turks in Bulgaria. Attacks against Turkish writers and the Balkan newspaper that was published in Turkish and defended the rights of Muslim Turks are also touched upon. This study will introduce the brochure titled Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figanı, which we will evaluate within the scope of a cautionary/propagandistic/informative work.

  • Assessment of Students’ Satisfaction: A Case Study of University of Gondar

    Universities in the modern world are expected to seek and cultivate new knowledge, provide the right kind of leadership and strive to promote equality and social justice. The general objective of the analysis is to investigate the satisfaction level of undergraduate level students enrolled in regular program of University of Gondar and there by understand Gondar University’s level of service quality perceived by the students. A cross-sectional study design was conducted on students of the university selected using stratified random sampling technique. The analysis was anchored on the model developed by Parasuraman et al. (1988) known as SERVQUAL. Results revealed that the satisfaction level of students in the overall service of the university is 65.4%. Additionally there is significant variation in students’ satisfaction across sex regarding student-instructor interaction, administrative student support service and facility supervision whereas no significant variation was seen regarding satisfaction due to undergraduate and post-graduate programs. Therefore it could be possible to conclude that majority of the students are satisfied with the service that the university offers. However it was also found that the number of the dissatisfied group was not insignificant and therefore more effort should be made to make the satisfaction level of the students much better than the current level.

  • Article Critique: “The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Job Satisfaction”

    This paper provides a critical review of the article published under the title of “The relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction”. The reviewed article intended to determine the relationship between transformational leadership of government secondary school principals and teachers’ job satisfaction. Though not mentioned in the reviewed article, a descriptive survey research design was employed to attain its objective. The transformational leadership questionnaire and the teachers’ job satisfaction questionnaire were employed as instruments of data collection. Therefore, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and statistical assumptions of quantitative research while critically review the article. Accordingly, despite some flaws existed in the study that might lessen its empirical power and reputation, the study was worthwhile in examining the transformational theoretical leadership paradigm in the Ethiopian context. It was suggested that audiences need to consider its shortfalls while using the study findings and future studies need to consider such inaccuracies.

  • Teachers’ Perception and Implementation of Constructivist Learning

    A special attention has been given to education system in Ethiopia especially in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design, Bahir Dar University after Educational Sector Development Program (ESDP I, 2003) was developed and implemented. Initially, before ESDP I, the ways of teaching and learning were mainly based on behaviorist approaches. This behaviorist approach to learning and teaching is gradually changed to cognitive and constructivist approaches which are mostly used in advanced education systems. These approaches to learning and teaching are mainly focused on learners themselves. Therefore, student-centered and active learning became the slogans in education system in Ethiopia. This study investigates the teachers’ perception and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods in Ethiopia specifically in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design Technology, Bahia Dar University. It is vast to investigate each and every aspect of constructivist learning. So, the researcher selected to investigate the mostly used methods (question-answer, individual and group-work) considering constructivism in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Design Technology (EiTEX). The mentioned methods are investigated in the light of constructivism. The researcher investigated the methods considering four criteria of constructivist method given by Navistar et.al, (2009). The criteria are: assessing student’s prior knowledge, differentiating what is already known and what should be learnt, changing students pre-concept in the context of new knowledge and reflection on learning. To examine teachers’ use and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods, the questionnaire was employed. The findings showed that around half of the teachers have positively perceived and implemented the mentioned methods in line with constructivism, while remaining teachers still implement these methods as a traditional way of teaching. Moreover, teachers seem to be more constructivists in perception and applying individual work method as compared to group-work activities. In some cases, teachers who participated…

  • Teacher Variable and Academic Performance of Learners in Public Elementary Schools

    Researchers agree that teachers are one of the most important school-based resources in determining students’ future academic success and lifetime outcomes, yet have simultaneously had difficulties in defining what teacher characteristics make for an effective teacher. This paper reviews the large body of literature on measures of teacher effectiveness, underscoring the diversity of methods by which the general construct of “teacher quality” has been explored, including experience, professional knowledge, and opportunity to learn. Each of these concepts comprises a number of different dimensions and methods of operationalizing. Despite a voluminous research literature on the question of teacher quality, evidence for the impact of teacher characteristics (experience and professional knowledge) on student outcomes remains quite limited. There is a smaller, but more robust set of findings for the effect of teacher support on opportunity to learn. There are measures which may be associated with higher student achievement: teacher experience, teacher professional knowledge, and teacher provision of opportunity to learn.