American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Adult Learning Theory: Reflections on the role of mentoring as a key to success in advanced degree programs

    Vital to completing advanced educational and training programs beyond the undergraduate degree level is realizing specific dispositions and traits. In this paper, the role of mentoring as a critical contributing factor to student success is examined through critical reflection as a form of qualitative inquiry. Traditionally utilized in professional settings to improve practice, critical reflection provided an emergent methodological approach for close examination of personal experiences with mentoring during the learning process in pursuit and subsequent completion of a professional degree (Fook, 2013). This in-depth examination of personal experience derived lessons learned from individuals that successfully navigated the rigor of advanced educational programs to expose mentoring’s role as the key to success.

  • Reasons Early Career Black Special Education Teachers Quit Their Positions

    Special education policymakers and practitioners are concerned about attrition among teachers, especially those who leave early in their careers and teachers of color. To increase knowledge about attrition, I examined demographic and interview data from 10 Black teachers who quit their positions before they completed their probationary periods (1-3 years). Guided by Cox’s (1994) cultural diversity in organization model designed to capture the complex nature of diversity in organizations, I used phenomenological research methods to better understand the teachers’ experiences surrounding the decision to quit. The qualitative analyses revealed four themes: (a) inadequate mentoring, (b) role abuse, (c) cultural insensitivity, and (d) inadequate resources. I conclude with suggestions for education policies and practices at the local and federal level that special educators can employ to address these issues. This paper highlights issues of attrition within a subgroup of educators (Black special educators) that are underrepresented in the research literature.

  • Departmentalization in Elementary Schools: Contradictions Teachers Confront

    This paper presents analyses of observational and interview data gathered in a study of exemplary fourth-grade teachers from five states. The central issue explored is the relative merits of self-contained and departmentalized models of instruction. We found no achievement differences in the classrooms by organizational pattern, but differences in the instruction offered in these two models were identified, and mixed views of the relative advantages of either organization plan were expressed by the participants. A key tension was whether these organizational plans are intended to primarily benefit teachers or students. However, the complexities of the cost/benefit concerns are the findings that this study highlights.

  • The Influence of Teacher-students’ Interaction on Motivation to Learn Mathematics Among High School Students

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher-students’ interaction on motivation to learn mathematics among high school students. The study was guided by Keller ARCS model of motivation. Descriptive research design was employed in the study. The target population was all 8357 Form Four students from 113 public high schools in Laikipia County. Simple random sampling was used to select sample schools, sample classes and respondents. The sample consisted of 392 mathematics students who participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Cronbach’s alpha was used in estimating the reliability coefficients of research instruments which were acceptable and above 0.7. Data was analyzed using simple regression analysis.The finding showed that teacher-students’ interaction has a significant influence on motivation to learn mathematics. The study concludes that in order to improve effectiveness of teaching and learning, teachers need to use the relevant classroom interaction practices wisely so as to guide and monitor students in the learning process for better motivation so as to enhance acquisition of knowledge.

  • Integration through friendships in school classes – A study of pupils with a migrant background in school friendship networks at primary and secondary schools in Germany

    This paper deals with the integration of migrant children in informal communication networks in primary and secondary schools in Germany. The basic assumption is that these networks can serve as an indicator for the networking and embedding that take place within the class community and therefore can be used to investigate the integration of pupils with a migrant background. The initial results of our network analytical study reveal that pupils with a migrant background are well integrated into class networks. The study discloses that the migrant background does not serve as a conclusive characteristic of the pattern of class networks. The pupils are more or less networked with each other regardless of their migrant background, though it did emerge that children and adolescents born abroad, in particular, are far more likely to have outgoing relationships that remain unreciprocated. Remarkable is, that results from primary school correspond with data from secondary school.

  • The Use of ICT Resources for Teaching Social Studies: Does the Availability of ICT Resources Matter?

    The paper explored the availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources and the extent to which these resources influence the use of ICT in teaching Social Studies. The study setting was in the Awutu Senya district of Ghana. A descriptive survey design and quantitative approach were adopted for the study. From a target population of fifty-seven (57), 46 were sampled from which 39 participated in the survey. Means and standard regression were employed for the investigation. The testing of hypothesis was made possible through the use of structured equation modelling. The study concluded that ICT resources were inadequate for teaching Social Studies and that the use of ICT resources in teaching Social Studies in the district was low. The reason was evident based on the low level of ICT resources in the district. The study also concluded that there was a positive significant relationship between availability of ICT resources and its use in the teaching of Social Studies.

  • Improving Learning Effectiveness- Some Aspects Shouldn’t Be Ignored in Mathematics Teaching

    There are abundant educational resources in the USA, but the performance of math education in primary and secondary schools is not so well, and has lagged behind some Asian countries including developing countries. Among many reasons, the crucial reasons are how teachers teach, how students learn, and the level of school teaching management. This paper focuses on how teachers teach in five aspects, particularly emphasizes on how to improve students’ retention and understanding of knowledge, and to enhance learning and thinking abilities. It points out that teachers should constantly remind students to maintain basic facts, create assignments for students by combining regular methods with the strategies of interleaved and spaced practice, build connections among knowledge, pay attention to improve students’ ability of problem-solving, and use some complementary approaches to generate students’ interest, participation, memory and concentration in math. And also it mentions that self-discipline, persistence and confidence are significant in prompting learning efficiency. In addition, some suggestions are put forward for school education management in supporting teaching and learning.

  • Curriculum Content, Ownership Of Universities, Work Experience And Acquisition Of Employability Skills Among Business Education Graduates Of Universities In Cross River State, Nigeria

    This paper x-rayed curriculum content, ownership of universities, work experience and acquisition of employability skills among business education graduates of universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two formulated research hypotheses guided this study. Literature was reviewed in line with the variables under study. The research design adopted was survey. The population for the study was 987 business education graduates between 2007/2008 and 2014/2015 academic sessions from the University of Calabar (UNICAL) and Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH). The sample of the study was 200 business education graduates drawn purposively using accidental and snowballing sampling techniques. A validated researcher- made four point scale questionnaire titled ‘Curriculum Content, ownership of universities, work experience and Acquisition of Employability Skills Questionnaire (CCOUWEESQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by four research experts. A reliability estimate of .70 to .82 was achieved for the instrument using Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient after a pilot test. The data obtained from the field was converted into values and analyzed using independent t-test statistical technique. All hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. Findings revealed among others that graduates of federal university exposed to business education curriculum content are significantly different from their state university counterparts in their acquisition of employability skills. Based on this, it was recommended that government should accord equal recognition, support and provision (in terms of funding, capacity building and infrastructural spread) to both federal and state universities in a way that obvious preference for one category over the other is not perceived. Doing so may erode the dichotomized feelings of being either in a federal or state university from the minds of the students, and rather fix their focus on quality learning that results in the acquisition of employability skills.

  • The Need for Pre-retirement Vocational Education Training for Workers in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    This study examined the need for pre-retirement vocational education training for workers in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design was used for this study. The population of the study was 9,523, made up of academic and non-academic members of staff in the four public tertiary institutions in the state. Five per cent (5%) of the total population was used as the sample for the study using proportionate sampling technique. Thus, the sample for the study was 476 members of staff. A set of questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Pre-retirement Education Training for Tertiary Institution Workers in Ekiti State (QPETTIW) was administered on the respondents. All the administered questionnaires were returned, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the four research questions. The finding revealed that there were economic, social and psychological needs for pre-retirement vocational education training for workers in public tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Thus, it was recommended that institutional authorities should incorporate pre-retirement vocational training/education into their staff development programme, among others.

  • A Brochure Describing the Drama of Rumelian Turks: Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figânı

    As of the end of the 18th century and parallel to the Ottoman Empire’s decline, the Rumelian Turks who had inhabited Balkan lands for centuries began to suffer persecution at the hands of Balkan Christians and the unrest they created. While paving the way for Bulgarian and Russian aggression towards Balkan Turks, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 also triggered the initial migrations towards Istanbul and Anatolia. As stated in Namık Kemal’s letters, Balkan Christians were further agitated against Turks, and separatist activity increased. The Balkan War of 1912-1913 and the purge of Balkan Turks and Muslims carried out by Bulgarian and Greek guerillas in this war have been recorded in domestic and foreign sources. Further evidence that such practices preceded the Balkan Wars is the 14-page brochure titled Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figanı, published in 1906. This brochure describes the various acts of aggression carried out towards the Turks in Bulgaria. Attacks against Turkish writers and the Balkan newspaper that was published in Turkish and defended the rights of Muslim Turks are also touched upon. This study will introduce the brochure titled Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figanı, which we will evaluate within the scope of a cautionary/propagandistic/informative work.