Research Article of American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews
ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ACTIVITES IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA: A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH
Mustafa, Ibrahim Alhaji and Ezeamaka Cyril Kanayochukwu
Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy Kaduna, Nigeria
Over the years, Nigeria as a Nation has been witnessing serious unrest characterized by the ethnic, political, farmer’s-herder’s conflict and activities of the insurgency. The north eastern geo-political zone of Nigeria was not left out of the activities. The activities of the Boko Haram insurgents has led to over ten thousand people losing their life and properties making many homeless. The paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive data and show the spatial distribution of activities of Boko Haram insurgency in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States between 2009 and 2017. The paper utilizes secondary data from Armed Conflict Data (ACLED), printed materials, newspaper records, journals, and security agencies records. The method of analysis utilized in the study is Geographical Information System (GIS) approach using ArcGIS software and graphs to indicate the activities of the insurgency. The finding of the research shows that Borno State has the highest occurrence of insurgency and Yobe State recorded the lowest. The study concludes that the activities of the insurgents are more at the northern part and along the international boundaries.
Keywords: Insurgency, Boko Haram, North-eastern Nigeria, Geographical Information System (GIS).
How to cite this article:
Kajaria Divya. Management of Post Bilateral Pontine Haemorrhage with Ayurveda. American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews, 2019; 2:13. DOI: 10.28933/ajgrr-2019-06-1205
1. Akubor, E. O. (2011). Civil Unrest in Northern Nigeria: Beyond the Literal Boko Haram, The Constitution, 2(4): 71-93
2. Bamigbose, J. A. (2011). Boko Haram and Democracy in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic, The Constitution, 11(4): 58-70
3. Blanchard, L. P. (2014). Nigeria’s Boko Haram: Frequently Asked Questions. In CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service
4. Brown, D., Dalton, J. and Hoyle, H. (2004). Spatial Forecast Methods for Terrorist Events in Urban Environments, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
5. Chainey, S. and Ratcliffe, J., (2005). GIS and Crime Mapping, TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall
6. Goyei, F. G. (2018). Nigeria’s Boko Haram and its Security Dynamic in the West Africa Sub-Region, Journal of Language, Technology and Enter. In Africa, 9(1):102-132
7. Hammes, T. X. (2006). Countering Evolved Insurgent Networks, Military Review
8. Hellesen, P. (2008). Counterinsurgency and Its Implications for the Norwegian Special Operations Forces. A Thesis for the Naval Post Graduate School, Monterey, California
9. Jiawei, H. (2003). Mining Spatiotemporal Knowledge: Methodologies and Research Issues, KDVis Workshop
10. Murtada, A. (2013). Boko Haram in Nigeria: Its Beginnings, Principles and Activities in Nigeria, Retrieved July, 23, 2014.nhaj.com/pdf/SalafiManhaj_BokoHaram.pdf
11. Mustafa, I.A and Helda, S.B. (2017). Spatial-temporal Analysis of Boko Haram Insurgency and Its Implication on National Security in Borno State. In M.L. Rilwan & I.E. Bello (Eds.), Geoinformatics for Socio-Economic Diversification and Environmental Management (Pp. 42-53). Publication of Nigerian Cartographical Association
12. Mustapha, A. A., Ummu A. A. Z and Mohammad Z. A. (2018). The Negative Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on Women and Children in Northern Nigeria: An Assessment, American International Journal of Social Science Research, 3(1):27-33
13. Nwanegbo, C. J. and Odigbo, J. (2013) Security and National Development in Nigeria: The Threat of Boko Haram, International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(4): 285-291
14. Nwozor, A. (2013). National Security, Religious Anarchism and the Politics of Amnesty in Nigeria, Covenant Journal of Politics and international Affairs, 1(1): 1-14
15. O’Neill, B. E. (1990). Insurgency and Terrorism: Inside Modern Revolutionary Warfare, Washington DC: Brassey’s Inc.
16. Rayar, A. J. (1996). Desertification and Soil Degradation in Arid and Semi Arid regions in Nigeria. University of Maiduguri Inaugural Lecture Series, 55:1– 9
17. Reed, B. (2007). A Social Network Approach to Understanding an Insurgency, Parameters, Summer: 19-30
18. Sadiya, T.B., Oladiti, I., James G.K., Shaba, H.A., Mamfe, V., Muhammed, S.O., Xu M., Sha, J. and Sanusi, M. (2016). Military Terrain Trafficaility Analysis for North-East Nigeria: A GIS and Remote Sensing-Based Approach, Journal of mobile computing & Application, 4, 34-46.
19. Sani, S. (2011). Boko Haram: History, Ideas and Revolt, Journal of Constitutional Development, 11 (4), 1-16
20. Siegel, L. J. (2007). Criminology: Theories, Patterns and Typoligies, 11th Edition, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning
21. Smith, M. (2014). Factsheet: Explaining Nigeria’s Boko Haram and its Violence Insurgency, Retrieved from https://africacheck.org/factsheets/factsheet-explaining- nigerias-bokoharam-and-its-violent-insurgency
22. The Nation (2014). Chibok Girls’ Abduction: U.S. Prepares for a Long Tough Fight against Boko Haram, Editorial, May 23: 2-3
23. United States Agency International Development (2012). Activities of Terrorism in the United State. USAID Publication. Washington, D.C
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.