Accurate riverbed information, including riverbed shape, sounding data and elevation data, is needed to simulate the process of flooding in flooded areas by using two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. DEM data is an important feature reflecting topographic changes and plays an important role in hydrological model analysis.However, in the plain area where DEM elevation changes are very small, the extraction and simulation of river network are of low accuracy in the process of hydrologic analysis, and there are great errors in watershed division. Taking the Mihe river basin, shouguang city, shandong province as the research object, based on WMS to abnormal proofreading is smoothing the center line of the river, get in line with the physical meaning of vector river network, the inversion to the original elevation data (DEM), and on this basis, with the river elevation information center line interpolation, construct a sounding data of river model, provide technical support for the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model.
This paper examined the concept of fieldwork and its relevance in geographic studies. In particular, the paper evaluates the pros and cons of fieldwork, and gave reasons why fieldwork is important in geographic research. It was further reiterated that like the laboratory of pure sciences, the field is the laboratory of the geographers as well as other related earth science disciplines because it affords the researcher the opportunity to collect first-hand data and relevant information that may eventually assist in carrying out a reliable research. The stages, benefits and the different approaches to fieldwork are examined. Constraints associated with fieldwork and solutions are provided. It was re-emphasized that although fieldwork is capital intensive and time consuming, early preparations together with a well-articulated aim and objectives, scope and methodology will eventually ensure a successful fieldwork. As a proof of concept, an evaluation of the empirical field studies of Charles Darwin that involved detailed fieldwork in its execution reaffirmed that the field remains a major source of data for any successful geographic research.
Spatio-temporal analysis is one of the suitable method in crime analysis. It is ability to visualize the spatial patterns and control emotionally over a time-ordered sequence of spatial variation. It has been involved the spatial modeling and models of location- allocation, spatial interaction, spatial choice with search, spatial optimization and space-time. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Crime (STAC) is a powerful tool to identify the crime patterns and detect the crime hot clusters in identifying the hotspot areas. The aim of the objective study is to analyze the spatial effects based on space and time difference among the divisions (space and time) and rate of change. The different types of crime occurrence data were collected from fourteen rural police jurisdiction (2003-2006) in Coimbatore district, TamilNadu. For this analysis, crime occurrence data were used through ArcGIS 10.2 version. The study was analyzed the random walk incidences, and moving path of the peak incidences which are effective models used for entire surrounding area. The study was concluded that spatial-temporal dimension of crime in rural police jurisdictions and explaining how these outcomes used to assist the advance development of crime prevention strategies.
To study the grouting anchor cable, high strength anchor cable, constant resistance, large deformation of anchor supporting of coal roadway surrounding rock different control effect, first using drilling into instrument detecting roof inner fracture of surrounding rock and loose circle development situation, again USES the anchor dynamometer, the roof abscission layer meter, convergence rule of surrounding rock of roadway convergence deformation and stress monitoring and supporting artifacts related to data processing and analysis between the drivage and stoping different anchor rope supporting of roadway surrounding rock under the condition of deformation and stress change rule anchor rope.Through the above steps, the grouting anchor cable is found to be the best supporting method.
ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ACTIVITES IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA: A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH
Over the years, Nigeria as a Nation has been witnessing serious unrest characterized by the ethnic, political, farmer’s-herder’s conflict and activities of the insurgency. The north eastern geo-political zone of Nigeria was not left out of the activities. The activities of the Boko Haram insurgents has led to over ten thousand people losing their life and properties making many homeless. The paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive data and show the spatial distribution of activities of Boko Haram insurgency in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States between 2009 and 2017. The paper utilizes secondary data from Armed Conflict Data (ACLED), printed materials, newspaper records, journals, and security agencies records. The method of analysis utilized in the study is Geographical Information System (GIS) approach using ArcGIS software and graphs to indicate the activities of the insurgency. The finding of the research shows that Borno State has the highest occurrence of insurgency and Yobe State recorded the lowest. The study concludes that the activities of the insurgents are more at the northern part and along the international boundaries.
Most species of seaweed that are transported through ballast water may have been transferred also by bioincrustration. Macroalgae of the genus Caulerpa, are native to the Mediterranean. C. taxifolia is an algae indicator of conditions, often harmful, and sometimes irreversible, to the ecosystems of the invaded areas. It is necessary to implement control measures to minimize damage to the endemic species and its im-pact on the areas of occurrence. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of exotic algae on and their relationship and distribution on the coast of Pernambuco, during periods of dry and rainy seasons from 2005 to 2009. Macroalgae were fixed in con-solidated and unconsolidated substrates, being also associated with other algae and even occurring as loose fragments in the sandstone reef. These fragments could be the result of anthropogenic activities or local hydrodynamics. The absence of sea ur-chins and other herbivores associated with C. taxifolia sites pointing to an allelopathic action in the process of colonization. We consider that Caulerpa taxifolia may have been introduced recently in our coast being in process of colonization growing itself most often in sandstone reefs, which suggests an action in inhibiting herbivory through the synthesis of allelochemicals.
Increasing urbanisation, poor location of urban amenities and utilities in consideration to population concentration has made many cities face environmental, land use and socio-economic challenges. This can be mitigated against through the analysis of the interactions existing between urban natural and human systems as provided for by the geospatial technology notably Remote Sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Photogrammetry. This has made geospatial technology gain primacy in the urban studies and literature on the utility of geospatial techniques in the analysis and modelling of urban morphology has grown over the years. This paper therefore, anchors an understanding on the urban morphology and the role of geospatial techniques in studying the same.
Due to the natural factors such as location, the farmer in exurban area can’t get the added value of land, so they attach less and less importance to land.Land transfer is one of the effective methods to realize the increasing value of farmers their own land. According to the survey data of 268 households from Jinhu sub-district office, Daye city for two exurban villages ,this article used the Binary logistic model and make regression analysis from 5 aspects such as individual characteristics of rural households,family characteristic, characteristics of land transfer, cognition of land and social factors, to explore the main factors for affecting the willingness of rural households in exurban area to transfer land, and put forward the the corresponding policy recommendations.
A Verification Method of Thermo- infrared Remote Sensing Temperature Retrieval Algorithm with a CFD Model
Due to the thermal infrared remote sensing inversion of surface corresponds to the surface temperature of the image pixels is planar, the inversion algorithm of authentication, rarely considering the reference temperature data and inversion of surface temperature on like yuan scale problems.ENVI – met based on the CFD model to simulate the nanjing jiangning district land surface temperature, and by the methods of measurement of analog temperature verification, proved ENVI – met the error of the model to simulate the surface temperature of 0.6 0C, meet the verification accuracy of temperature inversion algorithm.Using ENVI – met model of Landsat8 data.
A prediction in ungauged basins is one of the challenging tasks for a hydrologist of this century. Even though the physically based hydrological models can be the more appropriate in ungauged basins but data requirement limit the use. Conceptual hydrological models are simple and easy to use. But these model needs calibration before it can be used. Availability of data at all location in the basin limits the calibration of conceptual hydrological models. In this study, a calibration methodology is presented for discharge series limited condition using upstream and downstream data from nested catchment. It has been found that reasonable model parameters can be estimated for middle catchment using immediate upstream and downstream data. The regionalised parameter at the catchment outlet was tested at several locations inside the catchment to test the suitability of the outlet based model parameter for the interior location along the channel. It has been found that the model parameters obtained at the outlet of the catchment by regionalisation methods can be applied to the neighbouring points along the channel. A conceptual hydrological model, HBV-IWS was used for on upper Neckar catchment to demonstrate the methodology.