American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews

  • ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ACTIVITES IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA: A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH

    Over the years, Nigeria as a Nation has been witnessing serious unrest characterized by the ethnic, political, farmer’s-herder’s conflict and activities of the insurgency. The north eastern geo-political zone of Nigeria was not left out of the activities. The activities of the Boko Haram insurgents has led to over ten thousand people losing their life and properties making many homeless. The paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive data and show the spatial distribution of activities of Boko Haram insurgency in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States between 2009 and 2017. The paper utilizes secondary data from Armed Conflict Data (ACLED), printed materials, newspaper records, journals, and security agencies records. The method of analysis utilized in the study is Geographical Information System (GIS) approach using ArcGIS software and graphs to indicate the activities of the insurgency. The finding of the research shows that Borno State has the highest occurrence of insurgency and Yobe State recorded the lowest. The study concludes that the activities of the insurgents are more at the northern part and along the international boundaries.

  • Relationship among Ballast Water, Bioincrustration and Invasion of Exotic Species

    Most species of seaweed that are transported through ballast water may have been transferred also by bioincrustration. Macroalgae of the genus Caulerpa, are native to the Mediterranean. C. taxifolia is an algae indicator of conditions, often harmful, and sometimes irreversible, to the ecosystems of the invaded areas. It is necessary to implement control measures to minimize damage to the endemic species and its im-pact on the areas of occurrence. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of exotic algae on and their relationship and distribution on the coast of Pernambuco, during periods of dry and rainy seasons from 2005 to 2009. Macroalgae were fixed in con-solidated and unconsolidated substrates, being also associated with other algae and even occurring as loose fragments in the sandstone reef. These fragments could be the result of anthropogenic activities or local hydrodynamics. The absence of sea ur-chins and other herbivores associated with C. taxifolia sites pointing to an allelopathic action in the process of colonization. We consider that Caulerpa taxifolia may have been introduced recently in our coast being in process of colonization growing itself most often in sandstone reefs, which suggests an action in inhibiting herbivory through the synthesis of allelochemicals.

  • THE UTILITY OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN URBAN MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES: A REVIEW

    Increasing urbanisation, poor location of urban amenities and utilities in consideration to population concentration has made many cities face environmental, land use and socio-economic challenges. This can be mitigated against through the analysis of the interactions existing between urban natural and human systems as provided for by the geospatial technology notably Remote Sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Photogrammetry. This has made geospatial technology gain primacy in the urban studies and literature on the utility of geospatial techniques in the analysis and modelling of urban morphology has grown over the years. This paper therefore, anchors an understanding on the urban morphology and the role of geospatial techniques in studying the same.

  • The Research of the Willingness and Factors of Households Transfer Land in Exurban Area

    Due to the natural factors such as location, the farmer in exurban area can’t get the added value of land, so they attach less and less importance to land.Land transfer is one of the effective methods to realize the increasing value of farmers their own land. According to the survey data of 268 households from Jinhu sub-district office, Daye city for two exurban villages ,this article used the Binary logistic model and make regression analysis from 5 aspects such as individual characteristics of rural households,family characteristic, characteristics of land transfer, cognition of land and social factors, to explore the main factors for affecting the willingness of rural households in exurban area to transfer land, and put forward the the corresponding policy recommendations.

  • A Verification Method of Thermo- infrared Remote Sensing Temperature Retrieval Algorithm with a CFD Model

    Due to the thermal infrared remote sensing inversion of surface corresponds to the surface temperature of the image pixels is planar, the inversion algorithm of authentication, rarely considering the reference temperature data and inversion of surface temperature on like yuan scale problems.ENVI – met based on the CFD model to simulate the nanjing jiangning district land surface temperature, and by the methods of measurement of analog temperature verification, proved ENVI – met the error of the model to simulate the surface temperature of 0.6 0C, meet the verification accuracy of temperature inversion algorithm.Using ENVI – met model of Landsat8 data.

  • Regionalisation of hydrological model parameters in nested catchments

    A prediction in ungauged basins is one of the challenging tasks for a hydrologist of this century. Even though the physically based hydrological models can be the more appropriate in ungauged basins but data requirement limit the use. Conceptual hydrological models are simple and easy to use. But these model needs calibration before it can be used. Availability of data at all location in the basin limits the calibration of conceptual hydrological models. In this study, a calibration methodology is presented for discharge series limited condition using upstream and downstream data from nested catchment. It has been found that reasonable model parameters can be estimated for middle catchment using immediate upstream and downstream data. The regionalised parameter at the catchment outlet was tested at several locations inside the catchment to test the suitability of the outlet based model parameter for the interior location along the channel. It has been found that the model parameters obtained at the outlet of the catchment by regionalisation methods can be applied to the neighbouring points along the channel. A conceptual hydrological model, HBV-IWS was used for on upper Neckar catchment to demonstrate the methodology.

  • Perceptions of Ghanaian Migrant Mothers Living in London towards Postnatal Depression during Postnatal Periods

    The concept of postnatal depression might be constructed differently by people with different cultures resulting in the adoption of different coping mechanisms. Ghanaian migrant mothers living in London are no exception. The aim of this paper is to examine the perception of Ghanaian migrant mothers living in London towards postnatal depression during the postnatal period. In-depth interviews, augmented with informal conversations, were conducted with 25 Ghanaian migrant mothers who were within the postnatal period in London. Data were thematically analysed and presented. The study found that although Ghanaian migrant mothers reported experiencing stressful situations due to breastfeeding, infant temperament, lack of social support and housing problems, they were reluctant to seek help from maternal mental health services because they did not trust those health professional they encountered. Ghanaian migrant mothers appreciated the support of health visitors but the absence of family support increased their stressful situations. They, therefore, sought help when they are depressed mostly from religious leaders, friends, and distanced relatives while in London. We argue that since the Ghanaian migrant mother is a subsystem of her larger family which consist of individual elements such as the spouse or partner and her child and also relates with the wider UK environment including the health care system and the church, a change in one has an effect on all. Thus, health professionals must clarify their roles to mothers and take measures to assess migrant mothers on all aspects that influence their postnatal experiences. Identifying additional support needs of these mothers by health professionals is also paramount.

  • Theoretical Framework And Its Relevance To Geographic Studies: An Application Of Innovation Diffusion Theory In CWM

    This paper examines the meaning of concept, theory and theoretical framework and their relevance in geographic studies. In particular, the paper discussed the rationale behind the formulation and application of theoretical framework in carrying out a reliable geographic study. A categorical distinction in the use of ‘concept’ and ‘theory’ interchangeably was established and it was reiterated that every science has a goal, especially in the understanding and explanation of the real world phenomena. The paper also reiterated that although geography is short on theories and long on facts, yet development of theory seems to be vital both to satisfactory explanations and to the identification of geography as an independent field of study. An empirical application of innovation diffusion theory in geographic study (collaborative web mapping – CWM) is presented. The paper concludes that, like the human body, a theoretical framework plays a central role in geographic studies because it is the skeleton on which principles, methods and overall research goals are hinged.

  • Role of Geospatial technology in Crime Mapping: A case study of Jharkhand state of India

    Crime is a social stigma which needs to be addressed beyond talks. In developed country Geospatial technology has become well established within the criminology and forensic fields in recent past. In order to achieve this proper database of various crimes (state/ district level) should be available for decision making. The present study was an attempt made to study the district wise crime data (IPC crime registered) for murder, rape, kidnapping, dacoity, burglary, theft and riots of state of Jharkhand for the year 2013 to understand the crime trend. We have generated various maps including crime density map of Jharkhand based on crime types using ARC/ GIS Software and MS EXCEL. The crime density such as murder, rape, kidnaping and riots were found in the range of (2.2 to 17.8), (1.6 to 12.6), (2.3 to 10.4) and (1.0 to 17.5) respectively. Murder crime density was highest in Gumla district whereas it was found to be lowest in Gridih district. Sahebganj district has high crime density for rape and kidnapping. Palamu district had low crime density in rape, whereas Ranchi district recorded low crime density in kidnapping. Crime density for riots was found lowest for district Simdega whereas highest for Koderma. The Indian police and law enforcement departments has not yet exploited the GIS aspect which will fetch better result as far as crime control is considered.

  • Evaluation of Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting

    Long-term streamflow forecasts are essential for optimal management of water resources for various demands, including irrigation, fisheries management, hydropower production and flood warning. In this paper, a probabilistic forecast framework based on Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) technique is presented, with the basic assumption that future weather patterns will reflect those experienced historically. Hence, past forcing data (input to hydrological model) can be used with the current initial condition of a catchment to generate an ensemble of flow predictions. The present study employs the ESP-based approach using the TopNet hydrological model. The objective of this present paper is to evaluate and assess the uncertainty due to initial condition of the catchments and forcing (meteorological input to the model) data for (ESP) based streamflow forecasting using the TopNet hydrological model in New Zealand catchments. An ensemble of streamflow predictions which provide probabilistic hydrological forecasts, reflecting the intrinsic uncertainty in climate, with lead time up to three months is presented for the four catchments on New Zealand’s South Island. Verification of the forecast over the period 2000-2010 indicates a Ranked Probability Skill Score of 23% to 69% (over climatology) across the four catchments. In general, improvement in ESP forecasting skill over climatology is greatest in summer for all catchments studied. The major uncertainty associated with ESP forecast is combination of uncertainty due to initial state and climate forcing. The analysis indicates that the sensitivity of flow forecast to initial condition uncertainty depends on the hydrological regime experienced by the basin during the forecast period. On average, the relative importance of initial condition is greatest within two weeks to months of the start of the simulation for all catchment and all season. After this time period uncertainty in forecast is mainly due to uncertainty in forcing data. Finding of this study can be valuable…