Amin A. Mohamed Musa1, Sondos A. Abd Alrahem2, Shymaa A. Saeed2, Altayeb Abdulmonem4 , Khalid A. Mohamed 3, Mamoun M A Homeida 1

1Paediatrics, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Sudan; 2 Medical Laboratory Sciences, Department of Microbiology, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Sudan; 3 Sidra Medicine and Weil Cornel Medicine QA; 4Department of Surgery, Ibn Sina Hospital Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality from both acute infection and chronic sequels including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer.

Aim: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and the associated factors among children and adolescent in the traditional schools, East Nile locality.

Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional school-based study. Sero-prevalence survey was conducted among school children and adolescent aged 2–19 years. Total sample of 880 students were tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum using immune-chromatographic assay. Data were analyzed using IBM statistical package for social sciences version 20 with statistical significance of (p<0.05).

Results: A total of 4.2% tested positive for HBsAg, (3.2%) among children and (4.3%) among adolescent, this is lower than the reported prevalence in the country. There was no significant association between the pre-determined risk factors and hepatitis B virus infection in the study group.

Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV infections in this study was lower than the overall prevalence in Sudan. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among children and adolescents in Sudan. Hepatitis B virus vaccine should be implemented in the vaccination program for children, in addition to awareness campaigns about the virus and transmission methods.

Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus, Children, Adolescent, Traditional Schools.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:

Amin A. Mohamed Musa, Sondos A. Abd Alrahem, Shymaa A. Saeed, Altayeb Abdulmonem, Khalid A. Mohamed, Mamoun M A Homeida.Prevalence and Associations of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Students of Traditional Schools, East Nile Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, 2021, 6:10. DOI: 10.28933/ajmi-2021-08-0805


1. Mudawi H.. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Sudan. Clinical and experimental gastroenterology, 2008; 1: 9–13.
2. Christopher B, Sylvester O, Oluchi M, Roland C, Isaac N, Anthony N, Bede C. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Adolescents in Enugu, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 2015; 61: 407–413.
3. Mukhlid Y, Hatim M, Sahar B, Dieter G, Anna K.. Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus in liver disease patients and asymptomatic carriers of the virus in Sudan. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2013; 13:328.
4. Giuseppe I, Philippa E, Geoffrey D, George S, Mei-Hwei C, Claire T, Marc B, et al.. Hepatitis B virus infection in children and adolescents In: Viral hepatitis in children and adolescents Series. Lancet Gastroenterology Hepatology 2019; 4: 466–76.
5. Babbiker M, Humodi A.. Frequency of HBV among Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients in Khartoum State, Sudan. Journal of Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis, 2018; 9 (3):1-4.
6. Purusotam R, Madhu D, Megha R, Huang L, Subash D.. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B infection among mothers and children with hepatitis B infected mother in upper Dolpa, Nepal. BMC Infectious Diseases 2017; 17:667.
7. Griselda E, Nora A, Sonia R, Monserrat M, Eloy Z, Arturo P.. Prevalence of hepatitis A, B and C serological markers in children from western Mexico. ANNALS of Hepatology, 2012; 11(2):194-201
8. Mohammed A, Tarig H. Hepatitis B Virus Seroprevalence among Children With Cancer in Sudan.. Pediatric Blood Cancer. 2016; 63:124–126.
9. LiviaMelo V, Luciane A, Adilson J, Vanessa S, Lia L, Elisabeth L.. Low Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus Markers among Children and Adolescents. BioMed Research International. 2014: 1-5.
10. Gora L, Amina S, Halimatou D, Ndiaye B, Niokhar N, Sokhna M, Babacar N, et al.. Pan African Medical Journal. 2019; 1937:1-9.
11. Prabdial-Sing N, Makhathini L, Smit S, Manamela M, Motaze NV, Cohen C, et al.. Hepatitis B sero-prevalence in children under 15 years of age in South Africa using residual samples from community-based febrile rash surveillance. PLoS ONE. 2019; 14(5): e0217415.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details)

CC BY 4.0
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.