American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology

  • PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATIONS OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG STUDENTS OF TRADITIONAL SCHOOLS, EAST NILE LOCALITY, KHARTOUM, SUDAN

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality from both acute infection and chronic sequels including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and the associated factors among children and adolescent in the traditional schools, East Nile locality. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional school-based study. Sero-prevalence survey was conducted among school children and adolescent aged 2–19 years. Total sample of 880 students were tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum using immune-chromatographic assay. Data were analyzed using IBM statistical package for social sciences version 20 with statistical significance of (p

  • IMPACTS OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION ON THE GRAVITY OF COVID-19 IN INDIVIDUALS CO-INFECTED WITH THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

    Objective: To identify the levels of severity of COVID-19 in individuals co-infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Methods: Expanded summary of the literature review type. The searches were carried out in the main databases of the BVS and CAPES. The above authors declare that they do not have conflict of interest in this study. Results: Most individuals were being treated with antiretrovirals (83-100%) and, therefore, most had a TCD4 lymphocyte count above 200 cells/µL and a viral load ranging between 67-100%. Comorbidities ranged from 33-70% and deaths from 0-14%. The severity picture was mostly mild, at a minimum proportion of 63%, not significantly differing from the population with COVID-19 in general, which on average remains in a mild symptomatic picture, around 80%. Therefore, the percentage of deaths and more severe levels of the disease were lower than expected due to the immune deficiency of HIV positive people. Conclusion: It is rash to make generalizations about the topic or to safely close the hypothesis that the immunosuppression of individuals with HIV, co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 has an increased risk to acquire the most severe form of COVID-19. This is because the studies found in the literature did not have a sample of participants significant enough.

  • PARKINSONIA ACULEATA AS A POTENTIAL PHYTOTHERAPIC FACTOR IN THE INFLAMMATORY AND DYSLIPIDEMIC CONTROL OF WISTAR RATS

    Objective: The study evaluated the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. Aculeata (HEPa/EtOAC) in Wistar rats fed with Westernized diet. Methods: The experiment was approved by the Ethics Committee (Federal University of Pernambuco-23076.027165 / 2010-21). The hydroalcoholic extract (HEPa/EtOAc) was obtained from the aerial parts of P. Aculeata and portioned by acetate/ethanol in different concentrations. 36 male Wistar rats were initially divided into two groups: Control (C, n = 6), fed a commercial diet (26g / 100g of protein; 63g / 100g of carbohydrates; 11g / 100g of lipids) and Westernized (W; n = 30) – fed an experimental diet (15g / 100g of protein; 51g / 100g of carbohydrates; 34 g/100g of lipids) receving water ad libitum. After 4 months of diet, W group was arbitrarily redistributed into six subgroups according to water supplementation, or different extracts concentrations: (n = 6 animals/group): W- distilled water (1mL/kg; po); WG – genfibrozil (140 mg/kg; p.o.); W35- 35 mg/kg; W70 – 70 mg /kg; p.o. and W140- 140 mg/kg; p.o for 30 days. The lipid profile and pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Results: The westernized diet caused dyslipidemia and the treatment with HEPa-EtOAc (140mg / kg), promoted a significant reduction in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in total cholesterol, in the LDLc and serum triglycerides. Conclusion: The reduction of dyslipidemia and pro-inflammatory cytokines from the of P. Aculeata extract corroborate the ethnopharmacological potential of the plant, already used by the population for hypoglycemic purposes.

  • PROFILE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Objective: To describe the profile of the population with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Brazil from 2009 to 2019. Methods: This is a descriptive, quantitative study, performed with secondary data from the Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS). The analyzed data referred to cases diagnosed with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome between 2009 and 2019. The variables evaluated were selected from categories, “year of diagnosis”, “sex”, “age range”, “race/skin color” and “exposure category”. Data were made available in absolute frequency, and relative frequencies were calculated in Microsoft Excel ® 2016 software. Results: It is observed that 91.14% (n=383,531) of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome cases in Brazil occur in the population from 20 to 59 years. Among these, 66.44% (n= 254,840) were male and 33.55% (n=128,691) female. Since 44.97% (n=108,327) were white people; 10.93% (n=26,337) black; 0.48% (n=1.168) yellow; 43.30% (n=104.306) brown; 0.32% (n=772) indigenous. And, 24.03% (n=49,596) from homosexual exposure category; 6.40% (n=13,216) bisexual; 65.27% (n=134,703) heterosexual; 3.70% (n=7,623) UDI; 0.02% (n=48) transfusion; 0.01% (n=14) Biological material accident; 0.54 (n=1,126) vertical transmission; 0.03 (n=53) hemophiliac. Conclusion: Epidemiological profile of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Brazil, presents a greater prevalence in male, aged from 20 to 59 years, white, posteriorly the brown race, being of heterosexual exposure category. This knowledge enables contributions to the scientific field and planning of possible public policies for the prevention and treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

  • RIPARIN II POSSES ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECT AND REDUCES NEUROINFLAMATION IN MICE SUBMITTED TO CHRONIC UNPREDICTABLE MILD STRESS

    Introduction: Depression is a common and disabling disorder and stress is considered one of the main factors involved in its etiology. Many patients treated with conventional antidepressants do not respond adequately to treatment, so the development of new drugs is relevant. Objective: To evaluate the effect of riparin II on the immobility time in the forced swimming test and on the cytokines’ levels in the hippocampus of mice submitted to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress. Methods: Male mice (19-25g) were divided into three groups: control(1), stressed(2), stressed+riparin II(3) and stressed+fluoxetine(4). Groups 2, 3 and 4 were subjected to 28 days of exposure to unpredictably applied stressors. From the 14th day, groups 2 and 3 were treated with riparin II and fluoxetine, respectively (oral). On the 28th day, the animals were euthanized and the brain areas were removed for the measurement of cytokines (Interceucin1-β and Tumor Necrosis Factor). Results: Immobility time and cytokine levels were increased by chronic stress, compared to control animals. Treatment with riparin II decreased these parameters, compared to the stressed group. [Forced Swimming: F (3, 30)= 15.80; 1vs2: p=0.0002, 2vs3: p=0.0002, 2vs4: p

  • ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PROSOPIS CINERARIA STEM BARK

    Infectious diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Nowadays, medicinal plants play a major role in treatment of infectious diseases and they are easily available and more affordable as compared to synthetic compounds. The emerging trends of multidrug resistance among several groups of microorganisms against different classes of antibiotics led different researchers to develop efficient drugs from plant sources to counter multidrug resistant strains. This study investigated two different concentration of methanol extracts of stem bark of Prosopis cineraria to determine their efficacy against multidrug resistant microbes. Powdered barks of the tree were treated with methanol using hot extraction method. Crude methanol extracts of the bark of P. cineraria was investigated for their antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria (both gram-positive and gram-negative) by disc diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin was used as standard. Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), E. coli (ATCC 8739), Salmonella enterica (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) were used in the study. The methanolic bark extracts of P. cineraria showed a remarkable inhibition of the microorganisms. The potency shown by these extracts recommends their use against multidrug resistant microorganisms. The present study suggests that the methanol extract of the stem bark of P. cineraria exhibited a potential antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms and could be a potential source of new antimicrobial agents.

  • PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI AND CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI IN GREEK SWINE FARMS

    Campylobacter species are one of four key global causes of human diarrheal diseases, according to W.H.O. It is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter coli (C. coli) and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) in Greek commercial swine farms, and describe the antimicrobial resistance of the isolated strains. A total of 1,000 rectal swabs (50 per farm) were collected from twenty swine farms in Greece. Ten rectal samples had been randomly collected from each of five age-groups (suckling piglets, nursery pigs, grower pigs, finisher pigs, sows). Isolation of Campylobacter spp. was performed using the ISO 10272-1:2017. A PCR method, based on the amplification of mapAC.jejuni and ceuEC.coli specific genes, was used for identification of the isolated strains. All isolates were tested for their susceptibility against gentamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and meropenem; EUCAST guidelines were used for the interpretation. The results showed that 16 out of the 20 farms (80%) and 491 (49%) of the samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Prevalence of C.coli was 38% (95% CI 35.1-41.1) and of C.jejuni 10.9% (95% CI 9,1-13.0). Sows were 1.4 times more likely to be colonized by Campylobacter spp than sucking piglets (p

  • CURRENT PRACTICES IN GREEK BROILER FARMS AS RELATED TO THE TECHNICAL STATUS OF THE ESTABLISHMENTS AND EQUIPMENT

    The aim of this study was to describe breeding and managerial practices performed in two main categories of broiler farms as related to their technical status i.e. years of functioning, facilities, equipment, etc. One hundred thirty two farms, randomly selected, sited in regions which represent more than 70% of the Greek broiler production were examined. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data by personal interviews with the farm managers including biosecurity measures, harvesting system, feeding and watering method, staff, microclimate in broiler house, antimicrobial therapy and information about the establishment and equipment of the farm as well as the genotype, age and population of the flock. First results indicate that biosecurity measures in farms in good technical status perceive more importance (presence of anteroom and foot bath, P≤0.05) than farms in bad status. Moreover, 93.3% of the farms in bad technical status use straw as bedding material in contrast with the 28.2 % of the farms in good status where rice hulls is used (P≤0.05). Both categories of farms rear Ross genotype while Cobb genotype is only reared in farms in good technical status (P≤0.05). Finally, water equipment differs significantly (P≤0.05) between the two farm categories. Nipple drinkers without a tray is used by 40.4% of the farms in good technical status while 58.3% the farms in low level of hygiene have water equipment with nipple drinkers with tray. This study presents preliminary results of a PhD thesis in progress aiming to investigate the prevalence of resistant strains of Escherichia Coli producing ß-lactamases in poultry farms.

  • REVIEW ON PLANTS THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBES

    Plants play a vital role in many health care systems, be it rural or an urban community. Plants became familiar as medicine due to the ancient ideologies and believes. Several plants parts of plants served as medicines to so many ailments including gastrointestinal ailments, due to the fact that their active ingredients are powerful against the microbes. Most of the microbes identified were gram negative bacteria as well as some gram positive. Some of the principal antibacterial components of plants were recommended being polar compounds. While most of the acknowledged components with antimicrobial activity extracted from plants were aromatic or saturated organic compounds which were more soluble in polar solvents such as water and methanol. As such plants materials in one way or the other are very active when dealing with microbes due to their active ingredients.

  • OEDEMATOUS SKIN DISEASE (OSD) TRANSMISSION AMONG BUFFALOES

    During buffaloe OSD spread in a village affiliating to Assiut Governorate-Egypt, 44 buffaloe cows hosted and owned sporadically were subjected to the study. From 43 buffaloe cows (had closed lesions either edematous or nodular) and a buffaloe cow (had open ulcerative lesion), Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis equi (C. ps. equi) as 72% and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ovis (C. ps. ovis) as 28% were isolated and identified. Blood sucking insects hosted on the infected buffaloe cows (22) louse fly (Hippobosca equine) and 20 Haematopinus eurysternus lice were included during the study where both C. ps. equi and C. ps. ovis were isolated from Hippobosca equina ( H equina) but failed to isolate any biovar of C. ps. from Haematopinus eurysternus lice (H. eur.). Moreover, C. ps. equi was isolated from two H equina pupae – lab deposited – as well as a H equina second generation fly concluding that there is endosymbiosis nature of C. ps. limited only to H. equina fly which can transmit C.ps. vertically.