American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology

  • Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in Greek swine farms

    Campylobacter species are one of four key global causes of human diarrheal diseases, according to W.H.O. It is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter coli (C. coli) and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) in Greek commercial swine farms, and describe the antimicrobial resistance of the isolated strains. A total of 1,000 rectal swabs (50 per farm) were collected from twenty swine farms in Greece. Ten rectal samples had been randomly collected from each of five age-groups (suckling piglets, nursery pigs, grower pigs, finisher pigs, sows). Isolation of Campylobacter spp. was performed using the ISO 10272-1:2017. A PCR method, based on the amplification of mapAC.jejuni and ceuEC.coli specific genes, was used for identification of the isolated strains. All isolates were tested for their susceptibility against gentamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and meropenem; EUCAST guidelines were used for the interpretation. The results showed that 16 out of the 20 farms (80%) and 491 (49%) of the samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Prevalence of C.coli was 38% (95% CI 35.1-41.1) and of C.jejuni 10.9% (95% CI 9,1-13.0). Sows were 1.4 times more likely to be colonized by Campylobacter spp than sucking piglets (p

  • Current practices in Greek broiler farms as related to the technical status of the establishments and equipment

    The aim of this study was to describe breeding and managerial practices performed in two main categories of broiler farms as related to their technical status i.e. years of functioning, facilities, equipment, etc. One hundred thirty two farms, randomly selected, sited in regions which represent more than 70% of the Greek broiler production were examined. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data by personal interviews with the farm managers including biosecurity measures, harvesting system, feeding and watering method, staff, microclimate in broiler house, antimicrobial therapy and information about the establishment and equipment of the farm as well as the genotype, age and population of the flock. First results indicate that biosecurity measures in farms in good technical status perceive more importance (presence of anteroom and foot bath, P≤0.05) than farms in bad status. Moreover, 93.3% of the farms in bad technical status use straw as bedding material in contrast with the 28.2 % of the farms in good status where rice hulls is used (P≤0.05). Both categories of farms rear Ross genotype while Cobb genotype is only reared in farms in good technical status (P≤0.05). Finally, water equipment differs significantly (P≤0.05) between the two farm categories. Nipple drinkers without a tray is used by 40.4% of the farms in good technical status while 58.3% the farms in low level of hygiene have water equipment with nipple drinkers with tray. This study presents preliminary results of a PhD thesis in progress aiming to investigate the prevalence of resistant strains of Escherichia Coli producing ß-lactamases in poultry farms.

  • Review on Plants Therapeutic Effects against Gastrointestinal Microbes

    Plants play a vital role in many health care systems, be it rural or an urban community. Plants became familiar as medicine due to the ancient ideologies and believes. Several plants parts of plants served as medicines to so many ailments including gastrointestinal ailments, due to the fact that their active ingredients are powerful against the microbes. Most of the microbes identified were gram negative bacteria as well as some gram positive. Some of the principal antibacterial components of plants were recommended being polar compounds. While most of the acknowledged components with antimicrobial activity extracted from plants were aromatic or saturated organic compounds which were more soluble in polar solvents such as water and methanol. As such plants materials in one way or the other are very active when dealing with microbes due to their active ingredients.

  • Oedematous skin disease (OSD) transmission among buffaloes

    During buffaloe OSD spread in a village affiliating to Assiut Governorate-Egypt, 44 buffaloe cows hosted and owned sporadically were subjected to the study. From 43 buffaloe cows (had closed lesions either edematous or nodular) and a buffaloe cow (had open ulcerative lesion), Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis equi (C. ps. equi) as 72% and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ovis (C. ps. ovis) as 28% were isolated and identified. Blood sucking insects hosted on the infected buffaloe cows (22) louse fly (Hippobosca equine) and 20 Haematopinus eurysternus lice were included during the study where both C. ps. equi and C. ps. ovis were isolated from Hippobosca equina ( H equina) but failed to isolate any biovar of C. ps. from Haematopinus eurysternus lice (H. eur.). Moreover, C. ps. equi was isolated from two H equina pupae – lab deposited – as well as a H equina second generation fly concluding that there is endosymbiosis nature of C. ps. limited only to H. equina fly which can transmit vertically.

  • Epidemiological Profile Of Patients With Rheumatic Mitral Valvopathy

    Background: Rheumatic fever (RF) is a systemic, autoimmune and inflammatory, non-suppurative disease in genetically predisposed individuals with cardiac repercussions between 25-45 years old. It is estimated that 500,000 cases are 21,000 cases diagnosed in Latin America, accounting for 70% of cases of valvular disease in Brazil, predominantly in the northeast and southeast regions of the country. Commonly associated with underdeveloped regions and urban agglomerations, the predominance of this condition will be due to sociodemographic conditions, due to this, variables such as: level of schooling, sanitary conditions, primary health care and nutritional status of the susceptible are relevant to justify the predominance in these areas. Objectives: To outline the epidemiological profile of patients with mitral valvular disease with rheumatic etiology. Methodology: This is a descriptive-exploratory integrative review. The searches were carried out through electronic database PUBMED / MEDLINE and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) from August to September 2018. Of the 62 articles found, only 14 articles were selected because they were able to answer the guiding question: what sociodemographic characteristics are determinant for Streptococcus pyogenes infection? Results: The prevalence of pyogenes streptococcal infection in underdeveloped countries is due to poor sanitary conditions and poor access to primary health care that poorer areas face in the face of social inequality, which is indicated by the level of illiteracy, unemployment and lack of which contribute to the susceptibility to group A streptococcal infection. Conclusion: Social inequality is the determining factor for the prevalence of rheumatic fever in underdeveloped countries, further studies are required that encompass all the variables responsible in order to reduce infection with Streptococcus pyogens in childhood.

  • The effect of Transfer Factor as Immunotherapy comparing with the effect of BCG in Mice challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Background: Transfer Factor (TF) is an immune modulator which stimulates the cellular arm of the immune system (killer lymphocytes), activates immune cytokine synthesis and regulates immune function (Lawrence, 1955).TF is very effective in those diseases in which CMI plays a relevant role in protection and control of the disease, such as intracellular bacterial diseases (tuberculosis). ( Estrada Parra, et al1955). TF are low molecular weight products from immune cells that are able to transmit the ability to express delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and cell mediated immunity (CMI) from sensitized donors to non immune recipients (Kirkpatrick, 2000). Objectives: The aim of this experimental study is to determine the protective efficacy of transfer factor (TF) as immunotherapy for mice in comparison to BCG. Materials and methods: A total number of 102 mice were examined for their immunopotency and protective efficacy of Transfer factor (TF) comparing to the protective efficacy of BCG single and second repeated dose against challenge dose of M. tuberculosis (107 CFU) . A number of 20 mice were immunize with the attenuated strain of M. bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). After 21 days of BCG spleens of 10 tuberculous mice were removed aseptically for the preparation of TF. To evaluate the effect of TF 3 groups of inbred BALB/c male mice were injected with TF and challenged with virulent M. tuberculosis, followed by another 3 groups of inbred BALB/c male mice which were immunized with BCG single and second repeated dose. All mice with BCG and TF were tested for tuberculin skin test (TST) so as to determine susceptibility and resistance against tuberculosis, susceptible groups of mice were challenged with virulent M. tuberculosis. Followed by study of humoral response by immunization of a group of mice with immune serum and challenged with M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Followed by an experiment of…

  • Breast Cancer and Herbal Treatment

    All around the world about1.7 millions of females are resulted with breast cancer and arround 522,000 deaths. Which is more common in developed countries than the developing ones. Breast cancer mostly occurs in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Symptoms of Breast cancer includes a lump in the breast, dimpling of skin, change in shape of breast, fluids coming from nipple. Risk factor for development of breast cancer includes age, sex, obesity, lack of physical exercise, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, exposure to ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, and family history. Breast cancer is the most serious health problem in developed countries, proper diet, exercise and healthy life style can reduces the risk of breast cancer. Surgery and chemotherapy are the treatment for breast cancer, as chemotherapy has many side effects 50% weakness occurs due to cancer and 50% weakness occurs due to chemotherapy, hence herbal drugs or herbal treatment is the best option for breast cancer. Number of herbal drugs are effective in breast cancer In this study detailed study of the herbal drug used in breast cancer is discussed in detail.

  • Elevated Serum Procalcitonin an Adjunct for Early detection of Infant Tuberculosis in Paediatric HIV/AIDS

    In countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a frequent cause of acquired pneumonia (AP) amongst people living with HIV/AIDS and the differential and early diagnosis of TB from common bacterial pneumonia is difficult. The varying clinical and radiographic presentation of Acquired Pneumonia and Tuberculosis according to patient age and comorbidity and the low sensitivity of acid-fast bacillus microscopy make it even more difficult to distinguish TB from common bacterial pneumonia. Therefore, an adjunct diagnostic method that can determine early pulmonary tuberculosis in infants living with HIV/AIDS in order to differentiate it from other bacterial pathogens causing acquired pneumonia. Although a confirmatory microscopy test for Tuberculosis detection was carried out which would have a clinical role in terms of isolating patients with TB and administering appropriate anti-TB medication or antibiotic treatment at an early stage. The use of serum procalcitonin (PCT) for early detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) from infants with paediatric HIV/AIDS in Adamawa state, Nigeria a country with an intermediate TB burden and one with the highest number of people living with HIV/IADS in West-Africa. A prospective study, enrolling 50 infants with paediatric HIV/AIDs with suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a community-based referral hospital. A clinical assessment was performed before treatment, serum and PCT were measured. The test results were compared to the final diagnoses 50 patients, 35 had Pulmonary Tuberculosis and 15 had bacterial associated pneumonia TB. The median PCT level was 0.564 ng/mL (range, 0.01 to 27.75) with bacterial acquired pneumonia and 0.044 ng/mL (range, 0.01 to 0.87) with pulmonary TB (p

  • Heamatologic Indices and Anti-Spermatogenic Effects of Dietary Supplemented Carica papaya seeds on Wister Rats

    The continuous usage of indegienious plants as an intervention tool for diseases that affect both humans and animals is as old as orthodox medicine in its self in this study we evaluated the overall effect of carica papaya seeds extract on wister rats to determine its heamatoligic stimulatory effect and the anti-spermatic effect. A total of eighty rats where orally administered the various doses of the extract over a period of time and the heamatoligic and spermatologic parameters where analyzed. From the results obtained there was a slight stimulatory effects as the total white blood cell increased according to the varying doses of 100mg and 200mg respectively (6.56±0.38 and 6.96±0.10) with mean packed cell volume of 38.0±0.84 and 37.4±1.03 also noticeable is the slight rise in the Lymphocytes from the control group to the varying doses of exposure 70±2.06 and 68.6±1.12, the total Sperm cell count across the varying doses where 11.6×106 +0.5cells/mm3 and 11.3×106 +0.5cells/mm3 respectively. The above showed a a little marked increase the heamatologic parameters there was a slight increase in the lymphocyte although there was a marked decrease of sperm cell count from the control down the doses of exposure.

  • Observed variations of Plasma Procalcitonin Amonsgt Sexually Active Males With Suspected Bacterial-Urogenital Infection In Yola Metropolis

    Background: Male urogenital infection in Nigeria has increased due to alarming rise of unprotected sex amongst the sexually active males in Nigeria. Most of these case leads to a limiting advanced disease state such as kidney infections, bacteropsermia/infertility and reinal failure. AIM: To study the elevated serum Procalcitonin levels on patients with bacterial urogenital infections as an adjunct of bacterial-fungi-viral urogenital infections for diagnosis/prognosis and antimicrobial monitoring. PATIENTS and METHODS: The study group cut across adults from the ages of 20 years and above, 40 males who were suspected to have urogenital infection and 40 who were confirmed cases of urogenital infections those with suspected urogenital infections and those with confirmed urogenital infections. Using standard microbiological techniques urine and urethral swabs were taking and proper cultural techniques were carried out to isolate the bacterial/Fungi origin of infection, blood samples were collected from patients with suspected and confirmed urogenital infections for further analysis of the Procalcitonin ratio. RESULT: a total of 40 suspected males with signs and symptoms of urogenital infections where included in this study, a microbiological analysis was carried out on MSU(midstream urine clean catch) and urethral swab, and seminal fluid analysis, 40% yielded growth of gram Staphylococcus aureus and CoNs, 22.5% yielded growths of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Acinectobacter spp, Klebseilla oxytoca while 15% had fungi/Parasitic origins,( Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis) 22.5% showed no significant growth. The mean PCT ratio across the infectious agents were, bacterial origin ( 0.4-1.1 CI 0.34-0.62) fungi/parasitic origin (0.3-1.0 CI 0.28-0.56) Conclussion: although there was no remarkable difference between the confirmed cases of urogenital infection and suspected cases this showed the accuracy of PCT and its use. The reasonable increased levels of PCT in urogenital infections may serve as prognosis for asypmtomatic cases which often result to infertility, although most of the…