Review Article of American Journal of Public administration
Patient Rights in Pharmacy Profession
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Pharmacy is regarded as one of the most trusted professions in the world. Doctors are very important part of our society. They diagnose the disease and prescribe the medicines for the treatment of the diseases. Like Doctors, Pharmacist is also very important personality because he formulates the medicines, which are prescribed by doctors. So, we can say that without pharmacist, doctors cannot improve the public health and cannot cure the disease. Now, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes “the inherent dignity” and the “equal and unalienable rights of all members of the human family”. And it is on the basis of this concept of the person, and the fundamental dignity and equality of all human beings, that the notion of patient rights was developed. In other words, what is owed to the patient as a human being, by physicians and by the state, took shape in large part thanks to this understanding of the basic rights of the person. Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection about pharmacy profession and its characteristics, professional behavior and ethical aspects. The pharmacists have a vital role to play with patient rights.Findings: As a human being, patient have several rights to be followed during treatment intervention. Pharmacists are yet to get their status as a healthcare provider to follow and honor those rights. Materials and Methods: Research conducted a comprehensive year-round literature search, which included books, technical newsletters, newspapers, journals, and many other sources. Medicine and technical experts, pharma company executives and representatives were interviewed. Projections were based on all ethical and professional aspects pharmacists need to cover, including patient rights.Research limitations: Very few areas in Asian countries, the patient rights are recognized or followed. Very few providers like to talk about patient rights because of their commercialism and busy schedule. Pharmacists as healthcare professionals are yet to be explored in this arena. Patient literacy and understanding is also a factor why these rights are merely discussed and followed.Practical Implication: The sole of this article was to detail pharmacy profession and ethics towards patient rights, in simple words. Along with students, researchers and professionals of different background and disciplines, eg. Pharmacists, marketers, doctors, nurses, hospital authorities, public representatives, policy makers and regulatory authorities have to acquire much from this article.Social Implication: Pharmacists have several scopes to work in healthcare system in a country like Bangladesh as there is a scarcity of resources, fewer access to general people for adequate and better treatment. The article should contribute an integrated discussion about the importance of pharmacy professionals at different levels of healthcare settings in detailing the patient rights.
Keywords: Ethics;Consumerism Vs Paternalism; Partnership; Patient Rights; Provider Patient Relationship; Healthcare Policy
How to cite this article:
AK MOHIUDDIN.Patient Rights in Pharmacy Profession. American Journal of Public administration, 2019,1:5.
1. Code of Conduct for Registered Practitioners
2.David BT, Paul B. Ethics and Professionalism Allen, Loyd v V.Jr, “Remingtons the Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Vol 1 / 2, 22nd edition, Pharmaceutical Press Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ©2006.
3.Shaghayegh V,1 Leila H. Patient Involvement in Health Care Decision Making: A Review. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 Jan; 16(1): e12454. doi: [10.5812/ircmj.12454] PMID: 24719703
4.Montague T. Patient-provider partnerships in healthcare: enhancing knowledge translation and improving outcomes. Healthc Pap. 2006;7(2):53-61; discussion 68-75. PMID: 17167320
5.McCarthy RL. Health Care Ethics. (Case Study)
6.Web WHO. Patients’ rights. Genomic resource centre. URL: https://www.who.int/genomics/public/patientrights/en/
7.Yolanda S. Ethics in Pharmacy. Reviewed by Damien Jonas Wilson. News Med-ical Life Sciences. URL: https://www.news-medical.net/health/Ethics-in-Pharmacy.aspx
8.Salari P, Namazi H and others. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation. J Res Med Sci. 2013 May; 18(5): 442–448.
9.Snyder J.E. and Gauthier CC. Evidence-Based Medical Ethics© Humana Press, Totowa, NJ https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-246-9_2 Online ISBN 978-1-60327-246-9
10.Hiroyasu GOAMI The Physician-Patient Relationship Desired by Society 259
JMAJ, May / June 2007 — Vol. 50, No. 3 URL: http://www.med.or.jp/english/pdf/2007_03/259_263.pdf
11.Satyanarayana KHR. Informed Consent: An Ethical Obligation or Legal Compul-sion? J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2008 Jan; 1(1): 33–35. doi: [10.4103/0974-2077.41159] PMID: 20300341
12.Annie Cushing and Richard Metcalfe Optimizing medicines management: From compliance to concordance Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007 Dec; 3(6): 1047–1058. PMID: 18516274
13. John Paling Strategies to help patients understand risks BMJ. 2003 Sep 27; 327(7417): 745–748. doi: [10.1136/bmj.327.7417.745] PMID: 14512489
14.Good Medical Practice: A Code of Conduct For Doctors in Australia Code of Conduct | Pharmacy Board Of Australia | March 2014
15.Peter Schröder-Bäck, corresponding author Peter Duncan, William Sherlaw, Caroline Brall, and Katarzyna Czabanowska Teaching seven principles for pub-lic health ethics: towards a curriculum for a short course on ethics in public health programmes BMC Med Ethics. 2014; 15: 73. doi: [10.1186/1472-6939-15-73] PMID: 25288039
16.Gillon R Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope BMJ
1994; 309:184 (16 July) URL: http://www.ht.lu.se/media/utbildning/dokument/kurser/FPRB01/20132/gillon.pdf
17.Schröder-Bäck P, Duncan P and others. Teaching seven principles for public health ethics: towards a curriculum for a short course on ethics in public health programmes. BMC Med Ethics. 2014; 15: 73. doi: [10.1186/1472-6939-15-73]
18.Leslie Gelling Fidelity: the third ethical principle Feb 18, 2015
19.Altilio JV. The pharmacist’s obligations to patients: dependent or independent of the physician’s obligations? J Law Med Ethics. 2009 Summer;37(2):358-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-720X.2009.00379.x. PMID: 19493080
20.Joal Hill Conduct and compassion Veracity in medicine THELANCET
• Vol 362 • December 6, 2003 URL: https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673603149914.pdf
21.Dan W. Brock, Allen Buchanan Ethical Issues in For-Profit Health Care For-Profit Enterprise in Health Care Bradford H. Gray, Ph.D., editor NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986 Page 225
22.Wolff J. Models of distributive justice. Novartis Found Symp. 2007;278:165-70; discussion 170-80, 216-21. PMID: 17214316
23.Hadler RA, Rosa WE. Distributive Justice: An Ethical Priority in Global Palliative Care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2018 Apr;55(4):1237-1240. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.12.483 PMID: 29288878
24.Shelton RL. Human rights and distributive justice in health care delivery. J Med Ethics. 1978 Dec; 4(4): 165–171. PMID: 739512
25.Wolff J. Models of distributive justice. Novartis Found Symp. 2007;278:165-70; discussion 170-80, 216-21. PMID: 17214316
26.Rockville. Chapter 2 Culture Counts: The Influence of Culture and Society on Mental Health. Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Office of the Surgeon General (US); Center for Mental Health Services (US); National Institute of Mental Health (US). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2001 Aug.
27.Chentsova-Dutton YE, Jeanne LT, Ian HG. Further Evidence for the Cultural Norm Hypothesis: Positive Emotion in Depressed and Control European Ameri-can and Asian American Women. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2010 Apr; 16(2): 284–295.
doi: [10.1037/a0017562] PMID: 20438167
28.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Linda L. Emanuel Four Models of the Physician-Patient Re-lationship JAMA. April 22/29, 1992-Vol 267, No. 16
29.José HO. Evolution and changes in the physician-patient relationship Colomb. Med. vol.42 no.3 Cali July/Sept. 2011
30.Julie SMA, Grumbach K and others. Effect of Physician and Patient Gender Concordance on Patient Satisfaction and Preventive Care Practices J Gen Intern Med. 2000 Nov; 15(11): 761–769. doi: [10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000. 91156.x] PMID: 11119167
31.The Practice Guide: Medical Professionalism and College Policies Ending the Physician-Patient Relationship the College of Physicians and Surgeons of On-tario 80 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2E2 URL: https://www.cpso.on.ca/Policies-Publications/Policy/Ending-the-Physician-Patient-Relationship