American Journal of Public administration

  • STATE EVICTION BANS: A POLICY RESPONSE TO COVID-19

    The COVID-19 pandemic has shined a light on the importance of housing as a social determinant of health. To prevent millions of American renters from being evicted from their homes during the COVID-19 pandemic and potentially becoming homeless, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a temporary eviction ban order on September 4, 2020 that has currently been extended through June 30, 2021. This paper examines the rationale for the CDC temporary eviction ban order from a public health perspective. It then uses statistical techniques to explore the relationship between political and demographic variables and temporary eviction bans enacted in individual states during the pandemic. Results show a statistically significant relationship between political party control of the state legislature and temporary state eviction bans which suggests that partisanship has largely driven the use of temporary eviction bans as a policy response to COVID-19 at the state level.

  • THE NEGATIONISM OF ANTI VACCINE MOVEMENT

    Objective: To identify the causes of the vaccine refusal and thus the severities that the anti-vaccine movement reflected in the population. Methods: Extended abstract of the literature review, researched papers documents in the Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases, the Journal Coordination Portal of Improvement of Higher-Education Personnel (CAPES), Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online), and Google Scholar applying exclusion criteria. Results: In their study Hu et al, 2019, observed 24.9% of vaccine refusal, a higher percentage compared to a sample of 285, where 33.7% have doubt in relation to the efficacy of the vaccine, 34% distrust the pharmaceutical industry, 38.2% are concerned with the vaccine safety, and 37.2% do not consider the vaccine essential, strongly characterizing the anti-vaccine movement. Fonseca et al, 2018, study shows a smaller percentage of vaccine refusals, 0.14%, which is considered low. This result may possibly be related to educational level of the sampled population. 74% of the participants in his study had higher education degrees indicating a possible correlation between education levels and acceptance of vaccination. Conclusion: Results of this study shows a need for further research on the repercussions of the anti-vaccine movement. It also demonstrate a need for additional outreach programs based on awareness and education of the population regarding vaccination.

  • THE HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE NETWORK AS NA INSRUMENT FOR THE STRENGTHENING OF COMPULSORY DISEASE AND CONSEQUENTIAL NOTIFICATION, PERNAMBUCO 2018

    Objetive: Describe the contribution of the State Hospital Epidemiological Surveillance Network of Pernambuco (VEH/PE) for the registration of cases of diseases and conditions of immediate compulsory notification, in Pernambuco, 2018. Methods: Descriptive study, type of experience report, of surveillance of 31 hospitals of the VEH / PE Network, in 2018. The data sources were from the Notifiable Diseases Information System and the data referring to DNCI were from FormSus, available on the Center’s Platform Strategic Health Surveillance Information. The proportions of notifications for Compulsory Notification Disease from the VEH/PE Network were calculated in relation to the total number of notifications made at Sinan. Results: Among the DNC notifications registered by Sinan (Net, Online and Web influenza, 30,1% came from the 31 hospitals of the VEH/PE Network. When analyzed, by information system, the Network was responsible for 28,4% of the records made in Sinan Net by 2.687 reporting units, in Sinan Online, 25,9% in relation to 1.247 reporting units and for Sinan Web Influenza the contribution was 82,3% in relation to the 69 reporting units. Immediate compulsory notification diseases/conditions communicated to CIEVS, 50,2% of the communications came from the Network As for the opportunity for immediate notification of diseases and conditions, 90,7% were communicated in due time by the VEH/PE Network. Conclusion: It is important to strengthen the Network aiming at surveillance, disease/disease control and operationalization of information systems, in order to support the manager in decision making.

  • WOMEN AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT: ARE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS 2030 ACHIEVABLE? A STUDY OF BRICS COUNTRIES

    The study is aimed at defining, measuring, analysing and recommending policies pertaining to women and child development in BRICS countries. The developmental initiatives and achievements have been linked with Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 2030). The four relevant goals pertaining to women and children have been earmarked for further analysis and detailed cross-country comparative data analysis has been performed. Key measurement indicators have been benchmarked as focus areas. The outcome was inspiring due to the sustainable and increasing trend of the development indicators. The historical policy initiatives of the BRICS countries have been evaluated and landmark policies have been identified with its impact on the socio-economic development. The impact and necessity of public policy preparation and intervention in the light of targeted goal orientation has been elaborated in the paper. In the conclusion, we have highlighted the positive impact of Neoclassical Realist policymaking to ensure implementable and feasible policies to meet developmental needs of SDG 2030.

  • Impact of Disaggregated Public Expenditure on Unemployment Rate of Selected African Countries: A Panel Dynamic Analysis Approach [PDAA]

    The study demonstrated the impact of disaggregated public expenditure on unemployment rate in selected African countries with panel data spanning from 2000 to 2017. The data were majorly sourced from the World Bank Indicator. The study employed Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques for empirical analysis. The findings of two-step system GMM showed that expenditure on infrastructure and education reduce unemployment rate, while expenditure on defense and health increase unemployment rate in the region. The short-run elasticity estimate showed that infrastructure and education expenditures reduce unemployment rate by 9% and 1.83%. A unit rise in defense and health expenditure increase unemployment rate by 5.2% and 84.5%. The long-run elasticity of infrastructure and education expenditure reduce unemployment rate by 3.8% and 7.89 %, while the long-run defense and health expenditure elasticity’s increase unemployment rate by 22.22% and 364.58% in the selected African countries. The policy implication is that, the positive relationship between expenditure on health and unemployment could be attributed to mismanagement of government funds due to corruption, while that of defense and unemployment could be high rate of insecurity and crimes in the region. Therefore, the study recommended among others a drastic measure to further improve the education sector through adequate investment in education that will help in skills, development and training.

  • Community Policing Toward Social Problem Solving: A Study on Sylhet Metropolitan Police

    Community policing is one of the strategies in the police where the traditional model of policing was transformed to involve people in the service delivery. This study examined the model of problem-solving policing, its various problems and preventive measures. It also investigated whether social problem-solving policing criteria is existing in community policing. The social survey method was deployed to collect data and information through fieldwork. Data were collected from the service receivers as well as service providers (Community Police) of Jalalabad Thana and Kotwali Thana under the Sylhet Metropolitan Police (SMP). To know the in-depth information about community policing, several case studies also conducted. The study revealed that Community Policing is working smoothly and solving various social problems (such as social disputes, drug addiction, child marriage, eve-teasing, and domestic violence). They are operating their activities more efficiently in the rural area. However, some displeasure among the service receivers still exists. Many people are not satisfied with the activities of the working committee, coordination committee as well as corrupt practices of community police officers. Thus, initiatives should be taken to deliver objective service to the people and surpass the associated problems.

  • Perception of Community Members on the provision of Low Cost Housing in Kwa-Dlangezwa Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    The South African government of democracy have shown to prioritise the provision of low cost housing to poor communities. This paper critically investigates the perception of community members on the provision of low cost housing. The paper followed qualitative approach with an ethnographic research design and semi-structured interviews, as a result, the open ended questions were used as a tool for data collection. The snowball sampling was adopted as a procedure to sample the intended participants. The sample size of this paper was 36 participants and content analysis was used to analyse and categorise the data. The provision of low cost housing in South Africa was introduced with an intention to deal with racial inequalities created during apartheid period, while also addressing issues related to poor services delivery in local municipalities. Some of the indispensable facets of the findings expose that the local government is struggling to address the existence of bottlenecks in ensuring housing provision and the apparently cumulative demand of housing. The findings of the study found that the low cost housing beneficiaries were not involved during the processes of decision making and implementation phase of the projects. While political affiliation noted as an underlying factor that creates unfairness provision of low cost housing. Therefore, municipal officials through ward councillors and community leaders should play an essential role to facilitate smooth provision of low cost housing, while ensuring that the intervention reaches intended beneficiaries without unnecessary backlogs.

  • International Experience and China’s Practice in Optimizing the Business Environment: Based on the Analysis of the World Bank’s Doing Business

    The World Bank’s Doing Business covers more than 190 economies. By 2019, China’s best ranking is 46. Against the background of the increasingly strong economic globalization, China’s reform must not only adapt to the national conditions, but also to the international standard, so as to create a good international reputation, attract more international investment and promote the sustained and high-speed development of the domestic economy while promoting the rapid improvement of the government’s own capabilities. Based on the assessment method and China’s coordinates of World Bank’s Doing Business as the starting point of logic analysis, this paper attempts to find out the reasons behind the ranking of China’s business environment and proposes targeted solutions based on the analysis framework of “actor-process”.

  • Patient Compliance: Fact or Fiction?

    The word ‘compliance’ comes from the Latin word complire, meaning to fill up and hence to complete an action, transaction, or process and to fulfil a promise. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the relevant definition is ‘The acting in accordance with, or the yielding to a desire, request, condition, direction, etc.; a consenting to act in conformity with; an acceding to; practical assent”. Compliance with therapy is simply patients understanding of medication, motivation toward having this medication is a prescribed manner with the belief that the prescriber and prescribed medicine will be beneficial for his well-being. Although this is often the case, in a number of situations, the physician and pharmacist have not provided the patient with adequate instructions or have not presented the instructions in such a manner that the patient understands them. Nothing should be taken for granted regarding the patient’s understanding of how to use medication, and appropriate steps must be taken to provide patients with the information and counseling necessary to use their medications as effectively and as safely as possible. 20% to 30% of new prescriptions are never filled at the pharmacy. Medication is not taken as prescribed 50% of the time. For patients prescribed medications for chronic diseases, after six months, the majority take less medication than prescribed or stop the medication altogether. There are both federal and state laws that make using or sharing prescription drugs illegal. If someone take a pill that was prescribed to someone else or give that pill to another person, not only is it against the law, it’s extremely dangerous.

  • Patient Rights in Pharmacy Profession

    Pharmacy is regarded as one of the most trusted professions in the world. Doctors are very important part of our society. They diagnose the disease and prescribe the medicines for the treatment of the diseases. Like Doctors, Pharmacist is also very important personality because he formulates the medicines, which are prescribed by doctors. So, we can say that without pharmacist, doctors cannot improve the public health and cannot cure the disease. Now, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes “the inherent dignity” and the “equal and unalienable rights of all members of the human family”. And it is on the basis of this concept of the person, and the fundamental dignity and equality of all human beings, that the notion of patient rights was developed. In other words, what is owed to the patient as a human being, by physicians and by the state, took shape in large part thanks to this understanding of the basic rights of the person. Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection about pharmacy profession and its characteristics, professional behavior and ethical aspects. The pharmacists have a vital role to play with patient rights.Findings: As a human being, patient have several rights to be followed during treatment intervention. Pharmacists are yet to get their status as a healthcare provider to follow and honor those rights. Materials and Methods: Research conducted a comprehensive year-round literature search, which included books, technical newsletters, newspapers, journals, and many other sources. Medicine and technical experts, pharma company executives and representatives were interviewed. Projections were based on all ethical and professional aspects pharmacists need to cover, including patient rights.Research limitations: Very few areas in Asian countries, the patient rights are recognized or followed. Very few providers like to talk about patient rights because of their commercialism and busy schedule….