American Journal of Public administration

  • WOMEN AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT: ARE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS 2030 ACHIEVABLE? A STUDY OF BRICS COUNTRIES

    The study is aimed at defining, measuring, analysing and recommending policies pertaining to women and child development in BRICS countries. The developmental initiatives and achievements have been linked with Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 2030). The four relevant goals pertaining to women and children have been earmarked for further analysis and detailed cross-country comparative data analysis has been performed. Key measurement indicators have been benchmarked as focus areas. The outcome was inspiring due to the sustainable and increasing trend of the development indicators. The historical policy initiatives of the BRICS countries have been evaluated and landmark policies have been identified with its impact on the socio-economic development. The impact and necessity of public policy preparation and intervention in the light of targeted goal orientation has been elaborated in the paper. In the conclusion, we have highlighted the positive impact of Neoclassical Realist policymaking to ensure implementable and feasible policies to meet developmental needs of SDG 2030.

  • Impact of Disaggregated Public Expenditure on Unemployment Rate of Selected African Countries: A Panel Dynamic Analysis Approach [PDAA]

    The study demonstrated the impact of disaggregated public expenditure on unemployment rate in selected African countries with panel data spanning from 2000 to 2017. The data were majorly sourced from the World Bank Indicator. The study employed Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques for empirical analysis. The findings of two-step system GMM showed that expenditure on infrastructure and education reduce unemployment rate, while expenditure on defense and health increase unemployment rate in the region. The short-run elasticity estimate showed that infrastructure and education expenditures reduce unemployment rate by 9% and 1.83%. A unit rise in defense and health expenditure increase unemployment rate by 5.2% and 84.5%. The long-run elasticity of infrastructure and education expenditure reduce unemployment rate by 3.8% and 7.89 %, while the long-run defense and health expenditure elasticity’s increase unemployment rate by 22.22% and 364.58% in the selected African countries. The policy implication is that, the positive relationship between expenditure on health and unemployment could be attributed to mismanagement of government funds due to corruption, while that of defense and unemployment could be high rate of insecurity and crimes in the region. Therefore, the study recommended among others a drastic measure to further improve the education sector through adequate investment in education that will help in skills, development and training.

  • Community Policing Toward Social Problem Solving: A Study on Sylhet Metropolitan Police

    Community policing is one of the strategies in the police where the traditional model of policing was transformed to involve people in the service delivery. This study examined the model of problem-solving policing, its various problems and preventive measures. It also investigated whether social problem-solving policing criteria is existing in community policing. The social survey method was deployed to collect data and information through fieldwork. Data were collected from the service receivers as well as service providers (Community Police) of Jalalabad Thana and Kotwali Thana under the Sylhet Metropolitan Police (SMP). To know the in-depth information about community policing, several case studies also conducted. The study revealed that Community Policing is working smoothly and solving various social problems (such as social disputes, drug addiction, child marriage, eve-teasing, and domestic violence). They are operating their activities more efficiently in the rural area. However, some displeasure among the service receivers still exists. Many people are not satisfied with the activities of the working committee, coordination committee as well as corrupt practices of community police officers. Thus, initiatives should be taken to deliver objective service to the people and surpass the associated problems.

  • Perception of Community Members on the provision of Low Cost Housing in Kwa-Dlangezwa Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    The South African government of democracy have shown to prioritise the provision of low cost housing to poor communities. This paper critically investigates the perception of community members on the provision of low cost housing. The paper followed qualitative approach with an ethnographic research design and semi-structured interviews, as a result, the open ended questions were used as a tool for data collection. The snowball sampling was adopted as a procedure to sample the intended participants. The sample size of this paper was 36 participants and content analysis was used to analyse and categorise the data. The provision of low cost housing in South Africa was introduced with an intention to deal with racial inequalities created during apartheid period, while also addressing issues related to poor services delivery in local municipalities. Some of the indispensable facets of the findings expose that the local government is struggling to address the existence of bottlenecks in ensuring housing provision and the apparently cumulative demand of housing. The findings of the study found that the low cost housing beneficiaries were not involved during the processes of decision making and implementation phase of the projects. While political affiliation noted as an underlying factor that creates unfairness provision of low cost housing. Therefore, municipal officials through ward councillors and community leaders should play an essential role to facilitate smooth provision of low cost housing, while ensuring that the intervention reaches intended beneficiaries without unnecessary backlogs.

  • International Experience and China’s Practice in Optimizing the Business Environment: Based on the Analysis of the World Bank’s Doing Business

    The World Bank’s Doing Business covers more than 190 economies. By 2019, China’s best ranking is 46. Against the background of the increasingly strong economic globalization, China’s reform must not only adapt to the national conditions, but also to the international standard, so as to create a good international reputation, attract more international investment and promote the sustained and high-speed development of the domestic economy while promoting the rapid improvement of the government’s own capabilities. Based on the assessment method and China’s coordinates of World Bank’s Doing Business as the starting point of logic analysis, this paper attempts to find out the reasons behind the ranking of China’s business environment and proposes targeted solutions based on the analysis framework of “actor-process”.

  • Patient Compliance: Fact or Fiction?

    The word ‘compliance’ comes from the Latin word complire, meaning to fill up and hence to complete an action, transaction, or process and to fulfil a promise. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the relevant definition is ‘The acting in accordance with, or the yielding to a desire, request, condition, direction, etc.; a consenting to act in conformity with; an acceding to; practical assent”. Compliance with therapy is simply patients understanding of medication, motivation toward having this medication is a prescribed manner with the belief that the prescriber and prescribed medicine will be beneficial for his well-being. Although this is often the case, in a number of situations, the physician and pharmacist have not provided the patient with adequate instructions or have not presented the instructions in such a manner that the patient understands them. Nothing should be taken for granted regarding the patient’s understanding of how to use medication, and appropriate steps must be taken to provide patients with the information and counseling necessary to use their medications as effectively and as safely as possible. 20% to 30% of new prescriptions are never filled at the pharmacy. Medication is not taken as prescribed 50% of the time. For patients prescribed medications for chronic diseases, after six months, the majority take less medication than prescribed or stop the medication altogether. There are both federal and state laws that make using or sharing prescription drugs illegal. If someone take a pill that was prescribed to someone else or give that pill to another person, not only is it against the law, it’s extremely dangerous.

  • Patient Rights in Pharmacy Profession

    Pharmacy is regarded as one of the most trusted professions in the world. Doctors are very important part of our society. They diagnose the disease and prescribe the medicines for the treatment of the diseases. Like Doctors, Pharmacist is also very important personality because he formulates the medicines, which are prescribed by doctors. So, we can say that without pharmacist, doctors cannot improve the public health and cannot cure the disease. Now, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes “the inherent dignity” and the “equal and unalienable rights of all members of the human family”. And it is on the basis of this concept of the person, and the fundamental dignity and equality of all human beings, that the notion of patient rights was developed. In other words, what is owed to the patient as a human being, by physicians and by the state, took shape in large part thanks to this understanding of the basic rights of the person. Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection about pharmacy profession and its characteristics, professional behavior and ethical aspects. The pharmacists have a vital role to play with patient rights.Findings: As a human being, patient have several rights to be followed during treatment intervention. Pharmacists are yet to get their status as a healthcare provider to follow and honor those rights. Materials and Methods: Research conducted a comprehensive year-round literature search, which included books, technical newsletters, newspapers, journals, and many other sources. Medicine and technical experts, pharma company executives and representatives were interviewed. Projections were based on all ethical and professional aspects pharmacists need to cover, including patient rights.Research limitations: Very few areas in Asian countries, the patient rights are recognized or followed. Very few providers like to talk about patient rights because of their commercialism and busy schedule….

  • Ethics and Professionalism: Pharmacy Profession

    Pharmacy is regarded as one of the most trusted professions in the world. Doctors are very important part of our society. They diagnose the disease and prescribe the medicines for the treatment of the diseases. Like Doctors, Pharmacist is also very important personality because he formulates the medicines, which are prescribed by doctors. So, we can say that without pharmacist, doctors cannot improve the public health and cannot cure the disease. Pharmacist is the backbone of medical profession. Without his expertise, doctors cannot do anything. They cannot fully cure the ill person. Pharmacist not only formulate the medicine, which are prescribed by physician, he also assesses the suitability of the medication for particular patient considering their medical history as well as the pharmacist tells us about the side effects of drug and interaction with other drugs and give clear understanding of the medication. Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection about pharmacy profession and its characteristics, professional behavior and ethical aspects. The pharmacists have a vital role to play healthcare associate as well as provider. Findings: Pharmacists are yet to get their status as a healthcare provider. Materials and Methods: Research conducted a comprehensive year-round literature search, which included books, technical newsletters, newspapers, journals, and many other sources. Medicine and technical experts, pharma company executives and representatives were interviewed. Projections were based on all ethical and professional aspects pharmacists need to cover. Research limitations: Pharmacists are not the sole healthcare providers. The article comprises only ethical issues of pharmacists in healthcare profession. Practical Implication: The soul of this article was to detail pharmacy profession and ethics. Along with students, researchers and professionals of different background and disciplines, eg. Pharmacists, marketers, doctors, nurses, hospital authorities, public representatives, policy makers and regulatory authorities have to acquire much from this article. Social Implication:…

  • Integration of Value Management (VM) Process in Bangladesh: Disaster Management (DM) projects

    Over the past decades global leaders and communities’ attention have increased to the management of natural and human induce disasters because of significant intensity and frequency of disasters all over the world. Now a day’s disaster and its management have intersected and transcend country’s local boundaries and geographical area. From the time immemorial Bangladesh is one of the worst and wide varieties of disaster victim countries in this world which are tropical cyclones, floods, tornadoes, storm surges, river and coastal erosion, torrential rains, earthquake, droughts, epidemics and arsenic contamination. The main reasons behind this are – geographical location, multiplicity of rivers, land characteristics, coastal morphology and the monsoon climate. For that reason so many projects and programs are running in this country to face the problem and manage hazards. Critical learning from over decades with many programs and projects a mentionable initiatives “Comprehensive Disaster Management Program” (CDMP) in Bangladesh is a holistic collaborative effort of GoB, UNDP, DFID and a host of stakeholders. But overall result is still unsatisfactory. To overcome (DM) problems and establish an effective DM system in Bangladesh, it is important to evaluate current systems and projects structures. In contemporary world (VM) as a tool is now widely accepted for offering more values of the projects by engaging stakeholders at all stages of a project. VM always gives more emphasis on people’s participation from policy making to implementation. One of the most important matters in VM is quality assurance of project. Before initiating DM project, it also set plan or actions, workshops for feedback from all level stakeholders, assess needs, follow up meeting, training etc. to improve merit and adequate confidence about optimally fulfilling the customer’s expectation which carry out the spirit of VM. VM tools and techniques are generally used by practitioners to instigate projects providing…

  • Readiness of the Unioun Parishad for Achieving the Decent Work and Economic Growth Goal of SDGs: A Case Study of Chandanpath Union Parishad, Rangpur Sadar, Rangpur,Bangladesh

    This After 2015 Sustainable Development Goals or UN Agenda-2030 is now a reality to go with this goals and targets for its all member countries. The purpose of this paper is to account for how lowest tier of our local government that is Union Parishad can help to achieve sustainable development Goals. In this paper my objective is to know whether our Union Parishad is ready to achieve SDGs Goal no 08 that is “Decent Work and Economic Growth” or not. To do this I have chosen a Union Parishd which is “Chandanpath” under Rangpur Sadar, Rangpur. I have collected my information through face to face interview of Public Representatives of Chandanpath UP, Focused Group Discussion with stakeholders and related document analysis. Combination of document analysis and information gained through interviews shows that our local governments are not in ready position to respond to and address today’s development challenges. After studying the different relevant documents we see that in developed countries local government playing a vital role in educating, mobilizing, cultural awareness, reduced prejudices and stereotypes, increased understanding of global inequality, and knowledge of the partner community and country responding to the public to promote decent work and contributing sustainable economic development. Though this practices on ground unequal, but in our country lack of knowledge and competence of public representatives, political unwillingness and insufficient resource are hindering the cooperation from having a larger impact in unemployment situation. This knowledge from study can be used to take further necessary steps from the policy planners and implementers of our country in a new light to achieve real economic growth.