Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is initiated by the accumulation of dental biofilm, where dysbiosis leads to a chronic non-resolving condition, and destructive inflammatory response. The destruction of tissues that we clinically recognize as periodontitis (that is, destruction of the periodontal ligament, periodontal pocket formation and alveolar bone resorption) is caused mainly by the host’s inflammatory response to the bacterial challenge presented by the biofilm . Periodontitis affects, in its severe forms, approximately 10% of the global population, which represents almost 750 million people worldwide. The prevalence of periodontitis among all adults aged 30 years and over registered by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States is 46% . In addition, periodontitis has been found to be more severe and 3 times more likely to occur in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the general population [14,25], and the level of glycemic control is the key to determining risk, and similar to other diabetes complications, the risk of periodontitis increases with a worse glycemic index . DM, a chronic non-communicable metabolic disease, occurs when blood glucose levels are increased, or because the body cannot produce any, or enough insulin, or use insulin effectively .
The cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is defined as a neurological disease capable of debilitating or leading to death. It develops through the obstruction or rupture of a blood vessel, causing the tissues around the lesion to lack oxygen and compatible substrates for correct functioning. The aforementioned pathology is a case of great concern for public health worldwide. Every year, about 17 million individuals are affected by stroke and 6.5 million of these patients die, leaving 26 million with sequelae and/or permanently incapacitated. The risk factors for the onset of stroke are divided into two classes, the first of which comprises the non-modifiable, which include age, color, ethnicity and heredity, and the second, the modifiable ones: arterial hypertension, cardiovascular pathologies, dyslipidemias, overweight, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcoholism, high hematocrit/inflammatory process, periodontal disease and antiphospholipid antibody. Hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor, with about 80% of the cause among the types of stroke. The prevention of stroke in relation to risk factors consists of small daily and consecutive gestures. Adhering to a good diet is essential, this action will prevent overweight and facilitate the reduction of cholesterol, as well as the practice of daily physical activities is extremely important to keep away from sedentary lifestyle. There are many risk factors, although there is more emphasis on high hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking.
INCIDENCE OF HYPOTENSION AND ASSOCIATED-RISK FACTORS IN EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA WITH 2% LIDOCAINE AND EPINEPHRINE DURING ELECTIVE CESAREAN SECTION, EFFICACY AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT
Background: Cesarean section is a worldwide common surgery that requires anesthetic techniques. Many local anesthetics are being now used, but are associated with, dose- dependent and at different level, some side effects including toxicity. Hypotension was described as the first and threat side effect associated to neuraxial techniques. Despite many preventive strategies, it continues to challenge anesthesia providers around the world. Lidocaine was found to be less toxic compared with others commonly used and has been recommended for anesthesia procedures requiring large dose of local anesthetic including epidural anesthesia. The main purpose of this research was to determine the incidence of hypotension and identify the possible risk factors associated with it and thus, assess the efficacy and safety when lidocaine is applied together with epinephrine, in epidural anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Materials and methods: This retrospective observational institutional-based study, recruited 612 parturients who underwent elective cesarean section under epidural anesthesia with 2% lidocaine and 1/200000 epinephrine, at 1st affiliated hospital of Chongqing Medical University in 2019. Exclusion criteria included any contraindication to elective cesarean section delivery, general anesthesia, baseline systolic blood pressure < 100mmh and > 140 mm hg, gestational age < 37 weeks and > 42 weeks etc. SPSS 26.0 version and different appropriated tests were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: The hypotension incidence was 13.2%, and identified factors associated with it were Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure < 120mmhg, gestational age < 40 weeks, maternal body weight ≤ 60 kg and duration of cesarean delivery (surgery) > 45 minutes. Conclusion: The variables in correlation with increased hypotension rate are baseline systolic blood pressure, gestational age, maternal weight, and surgery duration. 2%Lidocaine with epinephrine as adjuvant presented best outcomes towards both mother and neonates, was therefore efficacy and safe under…
Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is a more common neurodegenerative disease, affecting 25 million people worldwide, or accounting for about 60 to 70% of all dementia cases. There is currently no exact mechanism to explain the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, however, cascading metabolic amyloid and post-translational review of tau protein are used as major hypotheses. Objective: To demonstrate in the literature new approaches in the development of Alzheimer’s disease modifiers. Methodology: For the accomplishment of this study made in the bibliographical survey of scientific literature and respect to the approached subject, in the databases PUBMED, ScienceDirect, Scielo and Scopus. Results: Alzheimer’s disease-modifying drugs are not yet available, but many patients may, however, develop phase III clinical trials and are intended to modify as pathological stages leading to the disease. As disease-modifying therapies under study, these changes also affect Aβ and tau protein and also cause inflammation and oxidative damage. The results obtained in the clinical trials performed were positive and promising and are still under study. The results show that there is still a long way to go in the development of Alzheimer’s disease modifying drugs. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that there is still a long way to go in the development of Alzheimer’s disease modifying drugs, but nevertheless levels at the research level should be continued in order to improve the pathophysiology of the disease and find an effective treatment for this disease the same.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF MORBID OBESE CANDIDATES FOR BARIATRIC SURGE
Objective: To investigate the relationship between perception of quality of life, levels of physical activity and socioeconomic status of morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery, registered in the outpatient clinic of HC/UFPE/EBSERH. Methods: Cross-sectional observational research conducted with sixty-two morbidly obese individuals candidates for bariatric surgery with age=39,53±10,72 years and BMI=50,05±9,26 kg/m², where they were interviewed using the IPAQ, SF-36 and ABEP questionnaires. Spearman’s correlation was used to correlate continuous variables and differences between groups were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The Physical Functioning domain had a significantly higher score (p=0,01) for the level of Moderate physical activity (61,05±25,03; n=19) compared to the Low level (40,83±23,20; n=30); the Role-Physical domain had a significantly higher score (p=0,029) for the level of High physical activity (65,38±36,14; n=13) compared to those of Low level (35,83±35,77; n=30). Individuals of socioeconomic status B (n=17) had scores significantly higher than individuals of status C (n=45) in the Physical Functioning [X² (1) = 4,800; p
ACUTE EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING WITH DIFFERENT INTENSITIES ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS OF GRADE III OBESE WOMEN
Objective: To compare the acute effects of a high-intensity (AI) resistance training protocol with a moderate-intensity (MI) resistance training protocol on inflammatory markers in grade III obese women. Methods: This is a crossover controlled clinical trial carried out with 9 obese grade III women (BMI=48.29±5.06 kg/m²; age=35.22±10.93 years), where blood samples were collected in the pre, 15 minutes and 24 hours after two different training protocols, high and moderate intensity, being analyzed the plasma concentrations of the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN- γ. For data analysis, the Friedman and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Participants performed the AI protocol and one week later the MI protocol. The training consisted of 4 exercises with the total volume equalized, with intensities 75 and 85% of 1RM for the MI and AI protocols, respectively. Results: There were no significant differences between the three temporal measures in the AI group [IL-02 (p=0.459); IL-04 (p=0.368); IL-06 (p=0.368); IL-10 (p=0.895); TNF-α (p=0.895) and IFN-γ (p=0.895)] or MI [IL-02 (p=0.459); IL-04 (p=0.368); IL-06 (p=0.459); IL-10 (p=0.368); TNF-α (p=0.641) and IFN-γ (p=0.121)]. In the analysis between groups, the IL-04 value was significantly higher in the AI group at the PRE moment (p=0.008), with no other significant difference for any of the variables and moments analyzed. Conclusion: Moderate and high intensity strength training protocols did not cause acute changes in the inflammatory profile of grade III obese women, and can be applied to this audience without harming low-grade chronic inflammation.
PHOTODYNAMIC POTENTIAL OF XANTHENIC PHOTOSENSITIZERS ABOUT A STANDARD STRAIN OF PSEUDOMONES AERUGINOSA
Introduction: Microbial control has proven to be an increasingly difficult obstacle to be controlled, making it a constant research focus. Researchers seek new alternative methods guaranteeing treatment without the use of antimicrobials or associating them, since its used has being neglected, causing an increase in the resistance of microorganisms, making it even more difficult to choose a treatment. The microorganism under study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative, highly virulent bacterium found in the community and in a hospital environment, with difficult control due to its high capacity for antibiotic resistance, favored by the incorrect use of antibiotic therapies. Photodynamic Therapy consists of the use of a dye associated with the irradiation of a light on the microorganism, promotes dye-light-bacteria interaction, so that it can be inhibited or have its capacity for proliferation reduced. Objective: This research aimed to present an alternative method to its treatment through the use of xanthene dyes and a photosensitizer in a way that would sensitize the bacteria. Plants of the Baixada Maranhese (Punica granatum and Terminalia cattapa) and an LED light source that was irradiated for 40 seconds. The combinations between dye, plant extracts and elimination were organized into 7 groups. Results: The two most successful groups had combinations with the dye Rosa-bengal and in the presence of light, their bactericidal potential was strengthened. In the group in which Punica granatum extract was used alone, there was bacterial proliferation in the absence of the light source; in its presence, the reduction of colonies was not aesthetically relevant. Conclusion: Photodynamic Therapy presents itself as a new resource, acting independently of antibiotic therapy, avoiding and, concomitantly, reducing bacterial resistance. Thus, it appears as a viable alternative in the treatment of patients with “diabetic foot”, considering its possible application with different types of photosensitizers or even in combination…
POTENTIALS OF NUTRITIONAL FOLLOW-UP IN A DIABETIC PATIENT HOSPITALIZED WITH ULCERATION TABLE IN PLANT REGION
Introduction: Approximately 15% of diabetic individuals are affected with foot ulceration, one of the main causes of lower limb amputation. The percentage of diabetic survival after amputation of a lower limb (MI) is 50% three years after the surgical procedure and the mortality rate varies between 39% to 68% after five years. The impact on the quality of life of diabetic people is high, not only economically, the feelings involved contribute to a negative prognosis. Therefore, adequate metabolic and nutritional control, as well as periodic assessment of immunity and comorbidities, should be part of the therapeutic routine of diabetic patients. Experience report: The work in question refers to the nutritional approach performed on a 71-year-old female patient admitted to the hospital with an ulcer in the right plantar region. In anthropometry, the nutritional status indicators indicated eutrophy with nutritional risk. The biochemical evaluation identified anemic condition and sepsis. Physical evaluation showed the presence of edema in the right and left MI. Glycemic and blood pressure levels were monitored daily. A hypercaloric and hyperprotein diet was prescribed, plus protein supplementation with specific immunomodulators for special metabolic situations that prevent energy-protein malnutrition, in addition to the adequacy of vitamins and minerals, in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies arising from the drug-nutrient interaction. Nutritional monitoring lasted 13 days. Ulceration regressed from the entire plantar region, only to the right hallux, which was amputated. Final considerations: There was an improvement in nutritional and biochemical parameters until hospital discharge.
OPTICAL NEUROPATHY: ANTIGLAUCOMATOUS TREATMENTS OFFERED BY THE UNIQUE HEALTH SYSTEM IN BRAZIL, AN ANALYSIS OF THE LAST DECADE
Introduction: Optical neuropathy with progressive loss of visual field, glaucoma represents the main cause of irreversible blindness. Objectives: To analyze the frequency of antiglaucomatous procedures performed by the Unified Health System (SUS), in the last 10 years, requiring hospitalization and outpatient care. Methods: This is a cross-sectional quantitative retrospective study, carried out through consultations and data analysis of antiglaucomatous procedures in the DATASUS system, between January 2010 and December 2019. Results: In Brazil, trabeculectomy was the most performed procedure in the last 10 years. Outpatient care had an average of 10,661 per year, on the other hand, the need for hospitalization increased by 70%. The second procedure that generated the most hospitalizations was the implantation of an anti-glaucomatous prosthesis, which doubled in the corresponding period. Cyclodialysis was the least used procedure in the 10 years of analysis, both on an outpatient and hospital basis, and is reserved for the final stages of glaucoma. Surgical iridectomy, used for acute treatment, showed a reduction, in 2019 it represented less than a third compared to 2010. As for outpatient procedures using lasers, such as phototrabeculoplasty and iridotomy, they showed significant growth. Conclusion: Trabeculectomy is considered the gold standard, justifying its greater frequency, both on an outpatient and hospital basis. Procedures using laser are expanding, trabeculoplasty as an alternative to primary therapy, and iridotomy for greater safety in acute treatment. As the population ages, glaucoma tends to be increasingly prevalent, contributing to the progressive increase in trabeculectomies.
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile of congenital syphilis in the state of Alagoas from 2015 to 2019. Methods: Epidemiological study characterized as descriptive, observational, retrospective and cross-sectional, carried out based on data collected from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) and made available by the Department of Chronic Conditions and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Results and Discussions: When observing the cases of congenital syphilis, 2019 saw a significant drop in cases compared to the years 2015 to 2018. Conclusion: It is concluded that the epidemiological profile of DES demonstrates that the number of cases is higher among children under 7 days of age, the mother’s age range between 20 and 29 years, the mother’s education level from 5th to 8th grade incomplete and race / color of the mother, brown. This reflects for health professionals to seek more strategies to eradicate the disease in the state and in Brazil.