Tremendous advantages of virtualization and cloud computing innovations have invigorated the Information and Communication Technology sector towards embracing cloud computing. Different ICT-empowered service providers additionally have either embraced cloud computing or began moving administrations to cloud framework. Be that as it may, the expanding interest for cloud based foundation has come about into extreme issue of managing the resources and load balancing for cloud specialist providers and customers. Specialists have recommended various different load balancing techniques for effective resource usage in cloud. An epic load balancing strategy speaking to migration of workload from over-loaded VM to daintily stacked VM in cloud computing condition is introduced in this paper. An endeavor is made to help the cloud partners to overcome the imbalanced resource usage issue is displayed in this paper.
As Internet, can be considered as a Queue of packets, where transmitting nodes are constantly adding packets and some of them (receiving nodes) are removing packets from the queue. So, consider a situation where too many packets are present in this queue (or internet or a part of internet), such that constantly transmitting nodes are pouring packets at a higher rate than receiving nodes are removing them (Cardwell, Cheng, Gunn, Yeganeh, & Jacobson, 2016). This degrades the performance, and such a situation is termed as Congestion. Main reason for congestion in a network system is a greater number of packets into the network than it can handle. So, the objective of congestion control can be summarized as to maintain the number of packets in the network below the level at which performance falls off dramatically (Faisal Shahzad1, Ullah, Siddique, Khurram, & Saher, 2015). The nature of a Packet switching network can be summarized in following points: • A network of queues • At each node, there is a queue of packets for each outgoing channel • If packet arrival rate exceeds the packet transmission rate, the queue size grows without bound • When the line for which packets are, queuing becomes more than 80% utilized, the queue length grows alarmingly When the number of packets dumped into the network is within the carrying capacity, they all are delivered, expect a few that have to be rejected due to transmission errors). And then the number delivered is proportional to the number of packets sent (Evans & Filsfils, 2007). However, as traffic increases too far, the routers are no longer able to cope, and they begin to lose packets. This tends to make matter worse. At very high traffic, performance collapse completely, and almost no packet is delivered. Congestion is an important…
Wireless sensor networks have enticed lot of spotlight from researchers all around globe, owing to its wide applications in industrial, military and agricultural ﬁelds. Energy conservation and node deployment strategies play a paramount role for effective execution of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering of nodes in the wireless sensor networks is an approach commenced to achieve energy efﬁciency in the network. Clustering algorithm, if not executed properly can reduce life of the network. In this paper, a Two -Step Uniform Clustering (TSUC) algorithm has been proposed with the aim to provide connectivity to the nodes in every part of the network. This algorithm increases networks lifetime and throughput by re-clustering isolated nodes rather than providing them connectivity by already connected node. Results obtained after simulation showed that proposed TSUC algorithm performed better than the other existing clustering algorithm.
The underwater wireless sensor network consists of sensors that enable the exploration of natural undersea resources and gathering scientific data in collaborative monitoring missions. Underwater wireless sensor Network consists of variable number of floating and anchored sensors, sink and vehicles that are deployed over an area to be explored. Applications of underwater sensing range from oil industry to aquaculture, and include instrument monitoring, pollution control, climate recording, Prediction of natural disturbances, search and survey missions, and study of marine life. UWSN is a network of autonomous sensor nodes. Which are spatially distributed underwater to sense the water-related properties such as quality, temperature, and pressure? The sensed data can be utilized by variety of applications that can be used for the benefit of humans. The sensor nodes, stationary or mobile are connected wirelessly via communication modules to transfer various events of interest. In this paper, several fundamental key aspects of underwater acoustic communications are investigated. Different architectures for two-dimensional and three-dimensional underwater sensor networks are discussed, and the underwater channel is characterized. The main challenges for the development of efficient networking solutions posed by the underwater environment are detailed at all layers of the protocol stack. Furthermore, open research issues are discussed and possible solution approaches are outlined.
Advancement in the field of Information Communication Technology (ICT) has led to creation of new technologies, one of such is Over-The-Top technology. This new technology offers low-cost delivery of digital information content and services which includes VoIP services, instant messaging services and so on to consumers. The Over-The-Top services do not have a network system of their own but instead rely on of telecommunication operator networks and other Internet Service providers for the delivery of their services, without any policy or lease agreement with these operators. This work focuses on considering the perspectives of the regulatory board, the telecommunication operators and the consumer has it relates to this technology. We also analyse the impact of the Over the Top technology has on the Nigerian economy also.