Pediatric Research and Reviews

  • THE HOSPITAL TOY LIBRARY AS A HUMANIZATION PLACE IN PEDIATRICS

    Objetives: This work aims to discuss the importance of the hospital toy library as a place of humanization in pediatrics. Methodology: This discussion was constructed from a reported experience in the toy library of a general hospital in Recife/PE. Results: Through the practice in the hospital toy library, it could be noticed that the companions are agents who also need to be taken care during the process of hospitalization in pediatrics. In this context, the toy library is a place that can favor the integral care of hospitalized children and their companions, through playful, musical, theatrical, sharing experiences. Final considerations: The toy library can be a humanized care environment not only for the children, but also for their companions, because, through various possibilities of play, it is a place that facilitates the social interactions between these individuals, as well as their autonomy and creativity, which are so important in the process of seeking the reestablishment of patients’ health as biopsychosocial subjects.

  • INTERDISCIPLINARY WORK IN CARE OF CHILDREN IN ONCOLOGICAL TREATMENT

    Introduction: Cancer is currently considered a worldwide public health problem. In addition, studies have shown that it is one of the most prevalent diseases in children, and its impact on children and their families. To take care of this scenario, the interdisciplinarity that is character-ized by the exchange of knowledges among the professionals in search of a common objective stands out. General objective: To report the experience of nursing students during the care giv-en to children with cancer with an interdisciplinary team in a hospital unit. Methodology: This is an experience report that emerged from participation in a social project that provides assistance to children with cancer and degenerative diseases in a hospital unit. Results: Attendance initially occurred with the presentation of the subjects with the perspective of favoring the formation of bond, where dialogue and listening were the instrument of this reception. The activities, later, were composed of consultations and the development of play activities from the interdisciplinary context. Conclusion: In view of the impact that cancer causes in children and in the family, such as psychological and physical, it is believed that the resources of interdisciplinary work can con-tribute to the improvement of physical, social and mental condition in the search for adaptation to treatment and conditions.

  • Empowering Local Primary Health Care to Improve Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) Adherence among Children with Epilepsy in Outreach District of Pakistan

    Introduction: There is a dearth of data on effectiveness-assessment of community interventions regarding the adherence improvement among children with epilepsy (CWE) in outreach financially-poor settings. This study was therefore designed to determine impact of integration of childhood epilepsy into primary care to improve the level of adherence to antiepileptic drugs and the factors that are associated with non adherence. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of interventions through free community childhood epilepsy center aimed at improving adherence to antiepileptic medication in CWE in an outreach financially constrained district. Methods: During this interventional study, 240 children (160 children being treated and followed in the free community primary care childhood epilepsy center and 80 children not being treated at this center) aged 4 months to 18years, diagnosed with epilepsy and treatment initiated with at least 1 AED for the past 3 months, were selected for data collection. The childhood epilepsy camps were held at local community centres provided open access, and no user fees or charges for medication were made. Local physicians, who were provided with special training and visiting paediatric neurology fellows carried out screening to help the three visiting paediatric neurologists confirming the diagnoses for data collection. Data was collected by a questionnaire divided into three parts: 1) demographical information about patients 2) information about medication adherence profile using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8), and 3) data on intervention-effectiveness of the community childhood epilepsy center (CCEC) on antiepileptic drug adherence. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional ethics committee. Results: Among the 240 children and adolescents with epilepsy who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 160 (66.6%) reported seeking treatment from TDBUCEC and 80 (33.4%) were seeking AED(s) from other sources. Age range was 04 months – 18 years while male to female ratio was 1.26:1. Adherence to…

  • Clinical Manifestations of Chikungunya in Children

    Introduction:The Chikungunya Fever is a febrile, non-contagious infectious disease caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), transmitted by Aedes aegypti and, more rarely, by Aedes albopictus. It presents a picture similar to dengue. The first confirmed case in Brazil was in 2014. The signs and symptoms can last for months, and the treatment is symptomatological. Objective: To describe the most common signs and symptoms presented by children infected by CHIKV in Brazil. Methodology: It was used in this project the PubMed base data, with the following search terms: Chikungunya in children in Brazil, Relatos de casos de Chikungunya em crianças no Brazil. It was obtained a total of 20 articles, of which 17 were excluded and 3 analyzed. Inclusion criteria: case report of chikungunya in childs in Brazil, from January 2014 to July 2017. Results and Discussion: Was observed on the related cases: sudden onset fever not explained by other conditions, and may progress to convulsion or not, macular rash with onset of lower limbs and chest, irritability, hypoactivity, vomiting, arthralgia/arthritis, and anemia. Besides that, it was reported signs of ocular and central nervous system disorders in neonates due to CHIKV virus contamination via birth canal. Conclusion: Based on the work observed, it is evident that there are few case reports in children affected by CHIKV. It is necessary to expand research and notifications in this age group as well as in the more frequent clinical occurrences. We emphasize the importance of early care and diagnosis in pediatrics in countries affected by outbreaks of this virus with the aim of reducing clinical and possibly neurological consequences. Remembering that prevention in vector control should be maintained since arboviruses have seasonal outbreaks: surveillance is one of the paramount importance to avoid complications.

  • Health Education Under a Panoramic Approach to AIDS Prevention in Adolescents: a Review

    Introduction: The HIV / AIDS epidemic is a worldwide reality. Vertical transmission and risky sexual practices in adolescents represent the main factors related to transmission. In Brazil, 2,972 cases were registered between 10 and 14 years of age, and 14,526, between 15 and 19 years of age in 2014. In this scenario, health education presents as an essential method to prevent these occurrences, making nurses a transformative agent in epidemiological characteristics presented. Objective: to characterize health education as a nursing tool in the prevention of HIV / AIDS from an integral perspective. Method: integrative literature review. We include studies with integral text in Portuguese, English and Spanish published in the period of 10 years, indexed in the databases: Lilacs, Medline, BDENF related to the thematic axis according to the optics of the authors. It carried out the research in the bases through the VHL using the intersection of the Descriptors in Health Sciences (DECS) adapted the URSI form in the construction of the results. The articles were organized by year of publication and classified by levels of evidence between VI, analyzed by 2 different evaluators, achieving agreement in the classification and I. Results and discussion: After the analysis and synthesis of the data, the selected articles were separated into thematic categories, arranged in tables. The repercussions on the health of adolescents resulting from HIV infection are caused by some biological and psychosocial aspects, and prevention becomes the effective method of changing this process. Conclusion: Health education is an instrument of nursing care capable of contributing to the prevention of HIV infection in adolescents, reducing the consequences generated by the virus in biopsychosocial development.

  • Zika Congenital Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics of Children Accompanied in the IMIP Rehabilitation Center

    Introduction: The microcephaly epidemic in Brazil, decreed as a National Public Health Emergency, was confirmed as a result of the congenital infection by ZIKA Virus (ZIKV). From November 2015 to April 2017 there are already 2,653 confirmed cases throughout the country and despite presenting characteristics similar to known microcephaly, the severe anomalies caused by ZIKV are unique and have been termed ZIKV Congenital Syndrome (SCZV), whose complete spectrum is still not well defined. Objective: To identify and describe the main clinical findings of children with SCZV, aged between 12 and 15 months. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study, realized at the Centro de Reabilitação e Medicina Física Prof. Ruy Neves Baptista of Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP) in Recife – PE. The study included children who were followed up at the Centro de Reabilitação do IMIP and diagnosed with microcephaly by ZIKV, and the children’s data were collected, including imaging tests, followed by a clinical evaluation of the characteristic findings of SCZV. Results and Discussion: A total of 38 children, 65.8% female, with a mean head circumference (HC) of 28.6 cm, were evaluated. All the children presented abnormalities in the findings of cranial tomography, calcifications were found throughout the sample, and ventriculomegaly in almost 90% of them, constituting the most important alterations. The main clinical findings were: hypertonia in 34 children, visual deficit in 30, occurrence of spasms in 25, and dysphagia in almost half of the sample. In addition to microcephaly, the children presented several other findings and symptoms that varied widely between them, some already well described in the literature, others such as auditory deficit and hydrocephalus as yet little discussed. Conclusion: The large phenotype resulting from this new syndrome has generated serious and distinct repercussions in children. In addition to new researches, the multiprofessional follow –…

  • Lifting Services in Respect of Children Victims of Violence in a Regional of Pernambuco

    Introduction: Violence can be defined as the intentional use of physical force or real or threatening power against itself, against another person, or against a group or a community, resulting in or likely to result in injury, death, psychological damage, developmental disability or deprivation. Objective: To provide subsidies to child health professionals in order to map care services to children victims of violence in a Health Region in the Northern Zone of the state of Pernambuco. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, in which a survey of services was carried out in the municipalities of the Regional Health XII that are currently working in the modality of reception and / or care for children victims of violence. Results and Discussion: Based on the study and survey carried out, it was possible to discriminate the various types of violence and the knowledge of the services in several sectors that work with the subject. Thus, the construction of a map indicating the specific services for the reception and / or care of children victims of each type of violence was carried out in each municipality, so that the services that are most present in the municipalities are the Basic Health Units, and, on the other hand, the services that are still non-existent in the ten municipalities are the Centers for Child Psychosocial Care (CAPSi). Conclusion: Through this work it was possible to conclude that the network of care and care services for child victims of violence in the Regional XII is still incipient, so that the sectors involved still do not demonstrate a well defined flow and a connection between them. Therefore, it is important to emphasize the importance of integrating and strengthening the actors / sectors involved in a joint and organized manner, in order to provide a qualified and…

  • Prevalence of Children With Lactose Intolerance in an Interior of Pernambuco

    Introduction: Among the food intolerances frequently found in pediatrics is lactose intolerance, which is incapable of digesting lactose due to the deficiency of lactase, an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose. This pathology is a risk for the development of malnutrition. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerant children, their nutritional status and their correlation with family history. Methodology: Descriptive study, of a quantitative and transverse nature. Primary and secondary data were used with appreciation of the Ethics and Research Committee. Results and Discussion: Of the 623 medical records examined by children between 0 and 10 years old, 8 were diagnosed with Intolerance to lactose, most of which presented adequate nutritional status and 75% of them had a history of lactose intolerance in the family. In childhood, the lactase deficiency may present physical and nutritional complications due to the presence of its signs and symptoms. There is evidence that initial bacterial selection within the gastrointestinal tract is partly genetically determined. Most of the mothers presented deregulate intestinal function and reported a history of lactose intolerance in the family, which can be correlated to the fact that the maternal intestinal microbiota and genetic factors interfere in the initial bacterial selection of the child. Conclusion: In view of the health problems that can be generated in children with lactose intolerance and the influence of their symptoms on child development and growth, the study corroborates as subsidies for health professionals in this city and new studies related to this pathology.