Psychological Research and Reviews

  • Social Media and Mental Health in Youth During COVID-19: A Narrative Review

    Social media effects on youth during COVID-19 have been studied in the context of excessive use and mental health. Although some positive effects have been reported including connecting and social support, the COVID-19 research has typically noted negative effects including sedentary behavior, limited social interaction, depression and anxiety. This narrative review of eighteen COVID-19 publications on social media effects on youth includes sections on prevalence, on effects and on mediators/moderators of those effects. The prevalence of social media use by youth during COVID-19 has varied between 5% and 97% across 22 countries as a function of location, quarantine/lockdown, and type of social media, although the overall prevalence has significantly increased by 27% during the pandemic and has averaged 38% across studies. The most popular social media have been Facebook, What’s App, Instagram and Twitter. The prevalence of mental health symptoms has also varied across countries but has averaged 27% for anxiety, 34% for depression and 35% for stress. Mediators for the relationships between excessive social media and mental health symptoms have included rumination, psychological capital, sense of control and active use and moderators have included mindfulness, academic burnout and “flow”. Limitations of this literature are its sampling of self-reports from university students via cross-sectional surveys and confounding variables including pre-existing psychopathology, lockdown conditions, and sedentary behavior. Research is needed on the specific reasons for excessive social media use (e. g. information seeking, social interaction and escape from negative feelings including loneliness and touch deprivation) to inform intervention protocols for reducing this addictive behavior and its negative consequences on mental health symptoms in youth.

  • Self-Efficacy and Political Deviant Behaviour in the Cameroonian Public Service

    This paper investigates the relationship between self-efficacy and deviant behaviour at work by cameroonian civil servants. The problem raised by this research is that of the practice of deviant political behavior at work by public officials in Cameroon. According to Robinson & Bennett (1997), this is administrative gossip; administrative favoritism, spreading rumors and blaming colleagues and / or users unnecessarily and without reason. The objective of this research is to show that a self-efficient employee does not practice deviant political behaviors at work. Such an objective is part of the research axis of the psychological and developmental sciences, precisely in the field of organizational and occupationnal psychology. The data collection method is the survey and the tool is the questionnary in the form of measurement scales. Simple random sampling yielded the sample of 500 participants. The self-efficacy scale is that of Sherer and Coll (2005) translated and adapted by Chambon (2013) and the deviance scale is that of Bennett and Robinson (2000). Data collection took place in Yaoundé and the analysis was descriptive and regressive. 70% of the participants in this research believe that the practice of deviant political behavior is a reality in public service Cameroon. HRI: β = 0.25; HR2: β = 0.21; HR3: β =0.22: these results show that the three hypotheses are not validated. P = 0.000 the hypothesis is significant. Our regression result based on data collected on a sample of 500 civil servants shows that a self-efficient employee can produce deviant political behavior at work. A self-efficient employee can also produce deviant political behavior at work.

  • Spirituality and Meditation During a COVID-19 Lockdown

    Spirituality and meditation have been associated with emotional and physical well-being, but studies on their relationships are surprisingly missing from the COVID-19 lockdown literature. In this Survey Monkey study conducted during a COVID-19 lockdown, 72% of 260 respondents reported feeling spiritual and 48% meditated. Correlation analyses suggested that spirituality and meditation were positively correlated. Spirituality was also positively related to health practices and working on projects and negatively correlated with COVID-related stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. And, meditation was positively correlated with health and working scale scores. Spirituality and meditation may be buffers for these COVID-19 related stressors.

  • Use of Ketamine as a Date Rape Drug: a Systematic Scoping Review

    Background and Objectives: The interdependence of ketamine and rape represent an emerging issue for both the developed and the developing countries. Ketamine is rarely used in human surgery nowadays, but there is a range of traits concerning the aforementioned drug making it the most appropriate one for committing a sexual assault. Methods: An advanced search in Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus and Cohrane Library and ScienceDirect was conducted. Identified articles were published between 2005 and 2020. Results: Eight empirical studies were included that comprised the number of victims who had consumed unwillingly ketamine leading to rape. Conclusion: Ketamine as a rape drug is an emerging issue, the extent of which we do not yet acknowledge. Community based informative programs for the public should be implemented, concerning the hazards following the consumption of ketamine.

  • Extracurricular Types and Academic Success

    Previous research has already determined that there is a positive correlation between extracurriculars and academic performance. Extracurriculars establish personal connections with others and increase motivation for many. However, there is limited research on the individual types of extracurriculars. Not all extracurriculars are the same. Therefore, I have decided to examine this issue through my research question: “Which extracurricular types were the most beneficial to academic success for 9th through 12th graders in School X in the 2020-2021 school year?” To ensure that I do not explain connections between variables, I establish an explore approach through a non-experimental survey. I ask students to list their top three extracurriculars to prevent an influx of data. After collecting my data, I organize my results into ten categories and explore recurring trends and themes. I examine mean GPA, mean class rank, personal connections with peers and adults, time spent, skills, passion, and correlating academic classes. In the end, I conclude that activities focused on leadership resulted in the highest scores overall. Student government and youth development programs may have been the most beneficial to overall academic success due to this leadership. I also determined that academic or professional organizations, the arts, and school sports may have been the most beneficial to academic success in correlating academic courses due to increased knowledge and passion. Overall, this is an essential issue to consider because over half of American students today are involved in at least one extracurricular. By establishing which extracurriculars are the most beneficial to one’s success, they can better understand which activities they should be joining to make the best use of their time.

  • When gambling with derivative products can become problematic: a case report of excessive trading

    For some individuals, trading can become a problematic activity and be considered a gambling disorder due to its adverse consequences. Because few studies have been conducted to date investigating this issue, the aim of this study is to improve knowledge on this topic by presenting a case study of a participant playing the stock market. A research interview was conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using Alceste®. This case study revealed three classes of meaning: the role of family in trading behavior; trading history, motives, and beliefs; and the tilt. Results shed light on the link between gambling and trading activities, and tend to support the existence of a trading behavior resembling addiction, which may be more significant when trading with high-risk derivative products due to their unique characteristics.

  • The predictive power of approach and autonomous goal motivation for work engagement among public sector employees

    This paper compares the relative predictive power of approach goal motivation and autonomous goal motivation for work engagement among public sector employees. To do so, it employs the goal-striving reasons framework within which people’s approach goal motivation is measured as well as the self-concordance theory which measures people’s autonomous goal motivation. Findings are based on cross-sectional and longitudinal data of 132 public service employees at time 1 and 78 employees at time 2. Overall, the results show, using multiple regression analysis, that approach goal motivation significantly predicts work engagement whereas autonomous goal motivation is not a significant predictor of work engagement. On an individual goal-reason level, a similar picture emerges. Pleasure and altruism, the two approaching goal-striving reasons, are descriptively more strongly correlated with work engagement than their comparable self-concordance reason of intrinsic and identified goal motivation. When testing the predictive power of pleasure and altruism with intrinsic and identified goal motivation simultaneously, using multiple regression analysis, pleasure remains the only significant predictor of work engagement at time one and time two. The findings suggest that approach motivation is a stronger predictor of work engagement than autonomous goal motivation for public sector employees. Additionally, the findings also indicate that pleasure is more important for the work engagement of public sector employees than their altruistic goal motivation on an individual goal-reason level.

  • Social Media, Physical and Mental Health During a COVID-19 Lockdown

    Social media including texting, internet use, and Facebook time have differential effects but those have not been studied during the social isolation of lockdowns when they might be more prevalent. In this Survey Monkey study, as many as 98% of 260 respondents reported texting, 100% using the internet, and 91% being on Facebook. The percentiles for those using the different media “a lot” were 45%, 77% and 42% respectively. Correlation analyses suggested that texting and internet use were positively related to Connecting Scale scores. However, internet use was also positively related to scores on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Scales and Facebook use was positively related to not only scores on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Scales but also to scores on Fatigue, Sleep Disturbance and PTSD scales. ANOVAS based on comparisons between groups reporting no to moderate use versus “a lot” of use were confirmatory of the correlation analyses. These results are limited by their being self-reported data from a non-representative, cross-sectional sample. Nonetheless, they highlight the positive and negative effects of different social media during a COVID-19 lockdown.

  • Social Interaction and Social Media At Airport Departure Gates

    An observational study was conducted at airline departure gates in several U.S. and European countries. Thirty-second observations were randomly made of 1360 different individuals ranging in age from infants to the elderly, although 79% of the travelers were adults. Most of the individuals were traveling with someone, except for adults who were more often traveling alone (58% vs. 42% time). Of the different types of social interaction and social media observed, cell phone texting/scrolling was significantly more frequently observed (at 53% time) than cell phone talking (13 % time), face-to-face interaction (13% time), on computer (7%) and touching (4%) which was the least frequently observed behavior. Significantly more cell phone texting/scrolling time occurred when adults were traveling alone (58% time). These data suggest that airline travelers are spending significantly more airport departure gate time on social media (specifically cell phone texting/scrolling) than face-to-face interaction or touching. Unfortunately, the observations that were made by professors and students were from too great a distance (10 feet away) in order to be unobtrusive but unable to code the precise type of cell phone texting/scrolling that was occurring.

  • Office Clutter: Comparing Lower and Upper-Level Employees on Work-related Criteria

    Office clutter might significantly impact productivity, yet no study examined workers differences across upper and lower employee status. The present study surveyed 202 U.S. on-site workers on work-related variables, including office clutter. Job classifications were aggregated, creating two groups: upper- and lower-level employees. A significant difference in office clutter impacted worker-levels: upper-level workers compared to lower-level workers had higher office clutter scores. Exploratory factor analysis created a two-factor solution (explaining 62.6% of the common variance): satisfaction/pleasure from one’s work and risk for work-related burnout/tension. There was a significant difference in office clutter perception: upper-level workers were significantly more likely to report clutter and being at risk for burnout/tension than lower-level workers. Office clutter significantly negatively predicted satisfaction with one’s job and positively related with risk for work-related burnout. Frequently reported office clutter items (in order of frequency) were paper, trash (e.g., used coffee cups), and office supplies.