Predictive Value of Heart Rate Measures on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Critical Review of Select Recent Studies
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive psychophysiological changes, such as a reduced vagal tone and hyperarousal, indicating autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In particular, physiological measures of heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) have been linked with PTSD expression, indicating that these measures may have diagnostic value. It remains unclear, however, whether altered heart rate and HRV contribute to the risk of PTSD development. This paper provides an overview of the present understanding of psychophysiological factors that may causally contribute to the manifestation of PTSD. The predictive value of heart rate and HRV measures are evaluated. The following sources of evidence are critically reviewed: relationships between momentary HRV components and PTSD symptom severity, predictions of PTSD development from post-trauma heart rate, and predictions of PTSD development from pre-trauma HRV. Available data challenge preliminary findings that abnormalities in heart rate and HRV currently offer reliable insight into PTSD development, but suggest that with additional research, there is a promising role for physiological biomarkers of autonomic dysregulation in risk prediction of future psychopathology.
The role of play therapy as a research tool is examined after its use in a project directed to study family with at least one migrant member in deprived rural contexts in Mexico. Eighteen families were approached throughout home visits as part of social support services. Videos of the interaction with family members by using play therapy techniques were analyzed with the purpose to establish its advantages and limitations to collect information about the family dynamics. It was found that play therapy is an effective research tool in family studies, since this is a non-intrusive way to elicit feelings, spontaneous behaviors, and change in the family dynamics. Some of the advantages and limitations of this technique are further discussed eliciting practical guidelines for its use.
Touching your kids and your partner, self-touching, and touch deprivation have had different effects on individuals during a COVID-19 lockdown. In this Survey Monkey study conducted during a COVID-19 lockdown (N= 260 respondents), 26% said they were touch deprived a lot, 21% said they were touching their kids a lot, 33 % touching their partner a lot, and 32% self-touching a lot (e.g. yoga and stretching). Correlation analyses suggested that touch deprivation was related to scores on the Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, Sleep Disturbances and PTSD scales. The three types of touching were positively related to scores on the Health Scale, at home projects, and outdoor exercising with others. Touching partner was also related to lower scores on the Stress, Depression, and PTSD Scales and Self-touching was related to lower scores on the Fatigue and Sleep Disturbance Subscales. The results of these data analyses are limited by the self-reported data from a non-representative, cross-sectional sample. Nonetheless, they highlight the negative effects of touch deprivation and the positive effects of touching your kids and partners and self-touch during a COVID-19 lockdown.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disease that affects many psychopathological segments with the predominance of obsessive ideas or uncontrollable behaviors. Obsessions are presented as intrusive thoughts that cause increased anxiety; while compulsions present themselves as repetitive behaviors or mental acts aimed at minimizing anxiety. OCD was considered a very rare and poor prognosis, but with advances in scientific research, this concept is in the process of changing.
Proposal for Group Intervention With Family of Users in a Mental Health Day-hospital Through Psycho-education
Objective: present a proposal for psychological intervention, through a therapeutic group, with the family members of users of a Reference Mental Health Service aiming at strengthening the institution / family bond. Methodology: The Arco de Maguerez was used, an instrument developed in the 70s and the basis for the application of the Problem-solving Methodology. In this methodology, the study takes place from a certain aspect of social reality and consists of five stages: the observation of reality, the key points, the theorization, the hypotheses of solution and application to reality. Results and discussion: It is proposed that the group be divided into three modules. Module I, Crisis in Mental Health, is designed to address issues related to the crisis (concepts and definitions, alerts and signs, creative possibilities of the crisis, among others). Module II, Family member as caregiver, aims to explore the role and responsibilities assumed by family members of reference in the context of the service user’s illness. Finally, module III, Caregiver Self-Care, aims to stimulate reflections and provide a moment of self-care. Final considerations: During the meetings, it is expected to create a space where family members can share experiences, aiming at strengthening the group to deal with the difficulties and complexities of daily life, as well as enabling a discussion on mental health and the search for strategies that ease the burden of care and the family’s suffering.
According to Nóbrega and Minervino (2011) , language is a corticocerebral func-tion that develops based on the environment and stimuli to which individuals are ex-posed, as well as being a vehicle of communication, since language allows to establish in-terpersonal relationships. Since childhood, people use some form of human communication, which is not composed solely by the use of words and phrases. Language development begins through the contact of babies with other people, through crying, looking, gestures, interaction be-tween mother and child, among other forms of communication and interaction. Thus, adults play a crucial role during this period by establishing a channel of affection and communication with the child, since adults are responsible for intermediating the baby’s relations with the world, through how they communicates with the child (AMORIM et al., 2012) . Based on this principle, Carvalho (2015) reports that the early years are an essen-tial period for the development of language skills, as many factors influence the language acquisition and development, such as: innate biological conditions; affection; cognitive, memory, organic-functional skills and the contexts in which the child is inserted. All children follow similar steps in the language development process, although it is susceptible to variations caused by some factors, such as: biological; psychological and social/environmental factors. In addition, an imbalance of these factors may slow this process, thus causing a language delay. Giacheti and Lindau (2016) explain that language delay is not associated with organic disorders or any other developmental problem, whether intellectual disability or genetic syndromes, since this is a transient condition in which in most cases is due to lack of family stimulation.
Objective: This work has the purpose of analyzing some theoretical reasons which led Dr. Sigmund Freud to distance himself from the Neurology field, consequently creating his own new investigation method called Psychoanalysis, which opened an entirely new field of comprehension and intervention of the treatment of the discontent in its psychic cause. By distance from the Neurological field we can understand the creation of Psychoanalysis, and a conceptual shift where the body is no longer a cause, but an object: in this case, a discursive object. Results: The main consequence of this turnout was the vouching of the effects of language in the sick individual’s body, specifically in reference of the many forms of pain and discontent. Conclusion: The Psychoanalysis, thus founded in the word and in the language, has become fundamental to the health sciences for the understanding of all forms of illness, which can be better understood through the patient’s words and their due listening.
Objective: This article intends to report an experience inside the monitoring process in a Psychology course, within a active teaching methodology. One of the most interesting activities offered in the active teaching methodology filed is the monitoring, that motivates the student to exercise his autonomy and initiative, introducing him to the teaching experience. Method: This experience’s report allows for a sharing of the narrative, meaning to contribute to future monitor’s experience, as well as exercise its scientific production abilities. Results: The monitoring experience provides the student’s exploration of his role as author of his own knowledge in a active way, boosting the group work and initiative elements of his work, as well as creating opportunities for a better understanding of the teaching experience. Conclusion: Throughout the monitoring experience, the student can notice the benefits of an active teaching method, and also execute it along the tutor to boost the students‘ learning process, but also finds several hardships, especially when the class isn’t well- adapted to the method and shows apathy and lack of interest.
This narrative review is based on a literature search on PsycINFO and PubMed that involved entering the terms adolescent pornography. Following exclusion criteria, 31 papers could be classified as adolescent pornography studies including research on the prevalence, effects and risk factors for pornography. Most of the studies have been conducted in other countries where the prevalence of adolescent pornography has ranged from 8%-22% for habitual use. The effects of pornography have included legal problems, permissive attitudes and unrealistic expectations regarding sex as well as problematic behaviors including victimization and assault. The predictor or risk variables have included male gender, family dysfunction and sensation-seeking. Like other literature on adolescent problems, this research is limited by primarily deriving from self–report and parent report and by the absence of longitudinal data that might inform whether the data being reported are effects of or risk factors for adolescent pornography and the need for prevention/intervention research.
Introduction: The pregnancy is a period in which the woman goes through physiological and emotional changes. Given this, it is observed that women with low education and low income are vulnerable to being affected by Postpartum Depression (PPD). There are factors that are related to the case series of this disease, so it is necessary to identify them so that a better strategy for caring for women with PPD. Objective: Conduct an integrative review on the psychosocial factors involved in the development of postpartum depression, according to literary publications from 2009 to 2019. Methodology: This was an integrative bibliographic review conducted from February to June 2019. The databases consulted were: VHL, SciELO and PubMed, using the following descriptors: “Postpartum Depression”, “Postpartum Period” and “Mental Health”, combined by the operators “AND” and/or “OR”. We found 273 publications, which after reading and applying the inclusion and exclusion criterion left 07 publications. Results: The main factors related to PPD were stress, lack of psychosocial support, anxiety and distress, as well as unwished pregnancy and family problems. In addition, specific protocols for the diagnosis of this disease and lack of preparation of health professionals for reception are lacking. Conclusion: More efficient public policies and specific protocols for the treatment of PPD are needed, as well as the creation of new strategies to reduce the incidence of PPD. Emphasizing the importance of monitoring these women by a multidisciplinary health team in order to gain a holistic view of this problem.