Psychological Research and Reviews

  • Adolescent Sexting: A Narrative Review

    This narrative review is based on a literature search on PsycINFO and PubMed that involved entering the terms adolescent sexting for papers published during the last five years. Following exclusion criteria, 52 papers could be classified as sexting studies including research on the prevalence, effects/comorbidities, risk factors and interventions for those problems. Most of the studies have been conducted in the U.S. where the prevalence of sexting has ranged from 5% to 29%. Sexting has typically been consensual, or at least the recipient has been known, although some forwarding of sext messages has occurred. The effects of sexting have included sexual activity, problematic relationships, mental health problems, other addictions and legal problems. The predictor or risk variables have included male gender, extraverted personality, low self-esteem, depression, impulsivity, peer pressure and the lack of parental monitoring. Like other literature on adolescent problems, this research is limited by primarily deriving from self–report and parent report and by the absence of longitudinal data that might inform whether the data being reported are effects of or risk factors for adolescent sexting and the need for prevention/intervention research.

  • Adolescent Violence: A Narrative Review

    This narrative review is based on a literature search on PsycINFO and PubMed entering the terms adolescent violence for papers published during the last five years. Following exclusion criteria, 58 papers could be classified as school–based violence (fighting) and dating violence including research on the prevalence and risk factors for these types of violence. The prevalence of school violence has varied by ethnicity, type of violence and culture. The risk factors for school violence are both intrapersonal and interpersonal. The intrapersonal factors include male gender, minority status, middle school level, maladaptive cognitive/ emotional strategies, depression, callous behavior, conduct problems, low cortisol and high testosterone, unhealthy conditions including concussions and obesity, drug abuse, self-harm, suicidal ideation and carrying weapons. The interpersonal factors include a lack of parental monitoring, conflict and violence in the family, exposure to violence and to violent social media. The prevalence of dating violence has also varied by gender and culture. The intrapersonal risk factors have included externalizing behavior, sexting both off-line and online, alcohol and marijuana misuse. The interpersonal risk factors include anxious attachment, family violence and peer rejection. Surprisingly, given the prevalence and severity of these problems, very little prevention/intervention research appears in this recent literature. Research is also missing on peer relationships, empathy and psychopathy as potential risk factors. Like other literature on adolescent problems, this research is limited by primarily deriving from self–report, parent report and hospital records.

  • Psychological Availability, Psychological Safety and Optimism as Predictors of Innovative Behavior among Workers

    The study examined psychological availability, psychological safety and optimism as predictors of innovative behavior at work among administrative staff of Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA). A total of 120 workers comprising of 82 males and 38 females were used for the study with the mean age of 32.5, standard deviation of 11.2 and age range of 19-60. The participants were selected through multi stage sampling technique, Comprising of randomization and convenience sampling technique. The study made use of four instruments namely Psychological availability scale by Doglass (2004), psychological safety scale by Brown & Leigh, (1996), Life Orientation Test (LOT) developed by Scheier and carva (1985) to measure optimism and Innovative Work behavior Scale by Kleysen and Street (2001). The design for this study was a cross sectional survey design and hierarchical multiple regression was used for data analysis. The study tested three alternate hypotheses. Findings indicated that Psychological availability significantly predicted innovative behavior at work at β=.19.p< 0.01 which accepted hypothesis one. Psychological safety significantly predict innovative behavior at work at β=13,p

  • The Predictive Values of Percieved Self- efficacy and Perceived Social Support on Coping with HIV/AIDS’ Stigma

    This study examined the predictive power of Perceived Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support on Coping with HIV/AIDS’ Stigma. The study seeks to ascertain whether perceived self-efficacy and perceived social support would predict coping with HIV/AIDS’ stigma among patients. Using a sample of 152, with a total number of males 49 with percentage of 32% and females 103 with a percentage of 68%. Their ages ranged from 18-70 and a mean age of 53 years. This was a survey research and the design adopted was correlational design based on the design a multiple regression analysis was adopted as an appropriate statistical tool for analysis. The multiple regression analysis of the first hypothesis which stated that self-efficacy will significantly predict coping among HIV/AIDS’ patients was confirmed at β= .55; t= 2.47, P

  • Testing partial memory with the British video lineup

    Levi has hypothesized that witnesses with poor memory discount some lineup members as not fitting their partial memory of the target, thereby picking him often. In a comparison between British 10-person video lineups and 48-person lineups, they did not differ in identifications. Perhaps sequential video lineups prevented witnesses from hitting upon the discounting strategy. Fifty were asked to count the number of lineup members that they could discount, and then were given the lineup. Others were given the lineup first. We expected that the former group would have more identifications No difference was found. Reasons for this were discussed.

  • Juggling the Many Voices Inside: What It Means to Be an Emerging Adult

    Background: Our late modern society has a focus on self-realization, managerialism and instrumental reasoning. A logic of choice dominates the lives of emerging adults. They are focused on “self-managing” their lives. Although many emerging adults can “flourish”, others are “floundering,” struggling with anxiety or lower self-perceptions. Theories on self-realization which focus on a capability or self-determination approach seem inadequate for understanding this reality. Aim: This article critically examines what it means to be an emerging adult in late modern society. It aims to counterbalance the dominant theories of self-realization by exploring a dialogical view on the “self”. It pays attention to the voices of the “selves” of emerging adults, including the internalized voice of society itself. Method: A narrative approach was followed. First, an interpretive narrative study was carried out with female respondents. The study employed in-depth focus group and individual interviews and the transcripts of the interviews were then analyzed thematically. We further analyzed the data according to the Listening Guide Approach. Findings: Self-realization is a dynamic relational and moral process. The findings illustrate the multiple voices and I-positions of emerging adults. In addition, the findings illustrate that in addition to agency, “passive receptivity” also plays an important role in the process of becoming an emerging adult.

  • Mind in the Brain-Creation of the Greatest Virtual World

    Human mind is a functional capability of the brain, by which information about sensory-motor contacts made through the nervous system are perceived and interpreted by the mind. While the detection and interpretations are subjective and experiential, they are based purely on a cascade of neurocognitive processes that unfold in the brain in response to external events or sequential changes detected over time and space. Experiential or subjective interpretations are generally based on the selected choices, and often depends on the cognitive judgments made by the individual. The cognitive judgments mold the drive present in the individual and it is experienced as positive or negative emotions by the individual. Drive is the fuel or energy present in the system for all responses and actions related to “seeking”, and they are automatically initiated when the drive reaches a Critical Level of Potentiation (Mukundan et al. 1). It is possible for an individual to become aware of the presence of the drive as well as the process of initiation of actions in the attempt to satisfying the drive. Scientific observations of the changes that occur in the physical and social environment, which are normally detected by the sensory-motor systems are repeatable and explain the time-space sequential relationships that exist in the physical universe. The major role of the mind is the experiential detection and interpretations of the sensory-motor events, which are experienced and expressed by the mental processes related to detection and expression. Subjective interpretations are generally based on personal experiences, which are highly suggestable and as per the needs experienced at personal and group levels by the individual minds. Individuals create goals and purposes for all actions, and in the process, the new functional systems of the mind are also created according to neuroscientific principles. The physical world shaped by man scientifically…

  • Psychic itinerary of the cesarean section in six Cameroonian primiparous

    Statement of the Problem: The birth of a child does not create a split with the pregnancy and desires of the conception of the parents but rather confirms the continuity of the fantasies, the representations which animate these and more still the mother since the desire of the child. These fantasies and daydreams inherent in pregnancy and described by Bydlowsky are relegated to the background, and sometimes even ignored by families, but especially by obstetric care professionals during birth. Methodology: This article is an intrusion using semi-directive interviews in the psychic dynamics of six Cameroonian primiparous women who gave birth by cesarean section in a specialized hospital, from the preoperative to the postoperative through the operative. Findings: It emerges from this study that when the normal process of birth is changed, the mother can undergo this event considered natural in her cultural universe. Cesarean section is certainly a birth, but it is anti-physiological, because of the lack of passage that leads to a feeling of foreignness in women. In the Caesarean section, there seems to be a lack of narcissistic investment in the reproductive apparatus. Caesarized parturients feel guilty for not having given life according to the accepted model, both on the religious, social, cultural and psychic level. They feel guilty for not being able to repeat the act that women have been doing in their environment since the beginning of time. For their own family they bring denigration, for the in-laws they are incapable, for the other parturients they are inferior, and for themselves they are guilty. Conclusion: This birth-related surgery does not give women a leeway to become involved in the process. The physical undergoes invasive gestures that are not felt in a present but are imagined with a shift of time, of reality and resonance on the…

  • Social determinants of contraception in a context of chronic illness in hospitals in Senegal

    Objective: We studied the socio-cultural aspects of contraception in a population of women followed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the introduction of methotrexate. RA is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints; methotrexate, its standard of care, which requires effective contraception before starting. Patients and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that included 42 women with RA of reproductive age. Results: The mean age of the patients was 34 years, extreme 20 and 49 years. The age group of 30-34 years was the most representative. In our study population 93% of women were married. The average duration of progression of their rheumatic disease was 60 months. Different constraints to the practice of contraception were identified: need of downstream of the spouse (90,47%), need of downstream of the beautiful family (23,8%), fear of the side effects (45,23%) , the desire of pregnancy for a better image in society (14,28%). Conclusion: several socio-cultural aspects hinder the practice of contraception in our study population. Their taking into account and a good involvement of the family is essential.

  • The Problem with Dropping Out and Why Students Leave School Before Graduating

    There is currently a major cultural problem taking place across American society in regard to students dropping out of school. Millions of Americans drop out of high school and college each and every year. Millions never earn a high school diploma or college degree. This study looked at the reasons why students dropped out of school (N = 367). Some of the major reasons found were the need for money, disinterest in classes, family issues, poor grades, lack of support, pregnancy, and so forth. The study analyzed differences across various groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, age, and social class) in relation to dropping out, returning to school after dropping out, highest level of schooling achieved, and regretting dropping out. The study results demonstrated numerous connections between a number of key variables (e.g., social class and its association to dropping out), gender (e.g., women were more likely to regret dropping out and were more likely to return to school), and disinterest in classes (e.g., poor grades, absenteeism, suspensions, etc.). It was also found that most of the respondents dropped out of school for more than one reason and that the highest percentage of students dropped out at the community college level. The study brings forth additional data that can help educators and school administrators to better understand this larger cultural problem and what can potentially be done to help reduce these overall dropout rates that are currently afflicting the nation.