Psychological Research and Reviews

  • Proposal for Group Intervention With Family of Users in a Mental Health Day-hospital Through Psycho-education

    Objective: present a proposal for psychological intervention, through a therapeutic group, with the family members of users of a Reference Mental Health Service aiming at strengthening the institution / family bond. Methodology: The Arco de Maguerez was used, an instrument developed in the 70s and the basis for the application of the Problem-solving Methodology. In this methodology, the study takes place from a certain aspect of social reality and consists of five stages: the observation of reality, the key points, the theorization, the hypotheses of solution and application to reality. Results and discussion: It is proposed that the group be divided into three modules. Module I, Crisis in Mental Health, is designed to address issues related to the crisis (concepts and definitions, alerts and signs, creative possibilities of the crisis, among others). Module II, Family member as caregiver, aims to explore the role and responsibilities assumed by family members of reference in the context of the service user’s illness. Finally, module III, Caregiver Self-Care, aims to stimulate reflections and provide a moment of self-care. Final considerations: During the meetings, it is expected to create a space where family members can share experiences, aiming at strengthening the group to deal with the difficulties and complexities of daily life, as well as enabling a discussion on mental health and the search for strategies that ease the burden of care and the family’s suffering.

  • The Influence of Psychosocial-Affective Factors on Language Delay

    According to Nóbrega and Minervino (2011) , language is a corticocerebral func-tion that develops based on the environment and stimuli to which individuals are ex-posed, as well as being a vehicle of communication, since language allows to establish in-terpersonal relationships. Since childhood, people use some form of human communication, which is not composed solely by the use of words and phrases. Language development begins through the contact of babies with other people, through crying, looking, gestures, interaction be-tween mother and child, among other forms of communication and interaction. Thus, adults play a crucial role during this period by establishing a channel of affection and communication with the child, since adults are responsible for intermediating the baby’s relations with the world, through how they communicates with the child (AMORIM et al., 2012) . Based on this principle, Carvalho (2015) reports that the early years are an essen-tial period for the development of language skills, as many factors influence the language acquisition and development, such as: innate biological conditions; affection; cognitive, memory, organic-functional skills and the contexts in which the child is inserted. All children follow similar steps in the language development process, although it is susceptible to variations caused by some factors, such as: biological; psychological and social/environmental factors. In addition, an imbalance of these factors may slow this process, thus causing a language delay. Giacheti and Lindau (2016) explain that language delay is not associated with organic disorders or any other developmental problem, whether intellectual disability or genetic syndromes, since this is a transient condition in which in most cases is due to lack of family stimulation.

  • Between the Body and the Word: the Effects of Language on a Suffering Body

    Objective: This work has the purpose of analyzing some theoretical reasons which led Dr. Sigmund Freud to distance himself from the Neurology field, consequently creating his own new investigation method called Psychoanalysis, which opened an entirely new field of comprehension and intervention of the treatment of the discontent in its psychic cause. By distance from the Neurological field we can understand the creation of Psychoanalysis, and a conceptual shift where the body is no longer a cause, but an object: in this case, a discursive object. Results: The main consequence of this turnout was the vouching of the effects of language in the sick individual’s body, specifically in reference of the many forms of pain and discontent. Conclusion: The Psychoanalysis, thus founded in the word and in the language, has become fundamental to the health sciences for the understanding of all forms of illness, which can be better understood through the patient’s words and their due listening.

  • Monitoring in an Active Teaching Methodology: an Experience Report

    Objective: This article intends to report an experience inside the monitoring process in a Psychology course, within a active teaching methodology. One of the most interesting activities offered in the active teaching methodology filed is the monitoring, that motivates the student to exercise his autonomy and initiative, introducing him to the teaching experience. Method: This experience’s report allows for a sharing of the narrative, meaning to contribute to future monitor’s experience, as well as exercise its scientific production abilities. Results: The monitoring experience provides the student’s exploration of his role as author of his own knowledge in a active way, boosting the group work and initiative elements of his work, as well as creating opportunities for a better understanding of the teaching experience. Conclusion: Throughout the monitoring experience, the student can notice the benefits of an active teaching method, and also execute it along the tutor to boost the students‘ learning process, but also finds several hardships, especially when the class isn’t well- adapted to the method and shows apathy and lack of interest.

  • Adolescent Pornography: A Narrative Review

    This narrative review is based on a literature search on PsycINFO and PubMed that involved entering the terms adolescent pornography. Following exclusion criteria, 31 papers could be classified as adolescent pornography studies including research on the prevalence, effects and risk factors for pornography. Most of the studies have been conducted in other countries where the prevalence of adolescent pornography has ranged from 8%-22% for habitual use. The effects of pornography have included legal problems, permissive attitudes and unrealistic expectations regarding sex as well as problematic behaviors including victimization and assault. The predictor or risk variables have included male gender, family dysfunction and sensation-seeking. Like other literature on adolescent problems, this research is limited by primarily deriving from self–report and parent report and by the absence of longitudinal data that might inform whether the data being reported are effects of or risk factors for adolescent pornography and the need for prevention/intervention research.

  • Psychosocial Factors Involved with the Development of Postpartum Depression: an Integrative Review

    Introduction: The pregnancy is a period in which the woman goes through physiological and emotional changes. Given this, it is observed that women with low education and low income are vulnerable to being affected by Postpartum Depression (PPD). There are factors that are related to the case series of this disease, so it is necessary to identify them so that a better strategy for caring for women with PPD. Objective: Conduct an integrative review on the psychosocial factors involved in the development of postpartum depression, according to literary publications from 2009 to 2019. Methodology: This was an integrative bibliographic review conducted from February to June 2019. The databases consulted were: VHL, SciELO and PubMed, using the following descriptors: “Postpartum Depression”, “Postpartum Period” and “Mental Health”, combined by the operators “AND” and/or “OR”. We found 273 publications, which after reading and applying the inclusion and exclusion criterion left 07 publications. Results: The main factors related to PPD were stress, lack of psychosocial support, anxiety and distress, as well as unwished pregnancy and family problems. In addition, specific protocols for the diagnosis of this disease and lack of preparation of health professionals for reception are lacking. Conclusion: More efficient public policies and specific protocols for the treatment of PPD are needed, as well as the creation of new strategies to reduce the incidence of PPD. Emphasizing the importance of monitoring these women by a multidisciplinary health team in order to gain a holistic view of this problem.

  • Prevalence in the Use of Anxiolytics Among Nursing Professionals: an Integrative Review

    Introduction: Anxiety disorders have increased significantly in the last century, mainly due to the profound transformations that occurred in the economic and cultural context that were accompanied by the pressures of a modern, technological and mainly increasingly competitive society. Health professionals have a weakness and ease regarding the use of psychotropic drugs due to excessive stress, excessive workload, charges, dissatisfaction in the workplace or family. Objective: To identify prevalence of anxiolytic use by nursing professionals between 2013 and 2018. Methodology: Integrative review conducted in the LILACS, VHL and Pubmed databases, including quantitative research articles in Portuguese and English. Those whose methodological descriptions provided insufficient information were excluded. Results: The searches led to 400 articles which, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, formed a corpus of 07 articles. The results indicate a high prevalence of anxiolytic use among health professionals for female nursing workers, married, with working hours of 40 hours or more per week, aged between 18 and 47 years. Among the main side effects of anxiolytic consumption were sleepiness and decreased reflexes. Conclusion: There is a need for stricter control in dispensing these drugs, as in their indications, thus preventing inappropriate consumption or the occurrence of dependence by professionals. Psychosocial support is fundamental for the rational use of these drugs and in improving the quality of life of health professionals.

  • Romantic breakup distress in university students: A narrative review

    This narrative review of literature on romantic breakup distress and recovery includes studies on the effects of this distress, risk and protective factors for breakup distress and interventions. The effects include sadness, anger and broken heart syndrome. The risk factors for breakup distress include being the “dumpee” versus the “dumper”, internet surveillance of the “dumper”, having been in a spiritual relationship, intrusive thoughts, an orientation towards future relationships or a fear of being single, having the relationship as part of your identity or your self-worth and experiencing social constraints like criticism. Protective factors include having been more committed to the relationship and then continuing to experience closeness in that relationship but also having a rebound relationship. Effective interventions include a writing task describing the breakup, online group discussions of the breakup and tryptophan for its serotonin-enhancing properties. Limitations of this literature include lack of generalizability from the mostly female university student samples and potentially biased self-report data.

  • Reflections on Social Psychology while reading Hannah Arendt

    Two recent articles in the American Psychologist (Vol 74, no. 7, 2019) on the Stanford Prison Experiment induced me to re-read Hannah Arendt’s The Human Condition (1958), On Totalitarianism (1973). and Eichmann in Jerusalem (Arendt and Kroh, 1964). This re-reading and reflection deepened my understanding of the value and role of social psychology and Arendt’s deep understanding of human speech and action as it relates to the Human Sciences and understanding our role in the social and political world. The review includes an experiment by Arthur Asch on “Opinion and social pressure” published in 1955 and then looks at Stanley Milgram’s experiment on obedience published in 1963. The review of these articles provides a context for looking at Philip Zimbardo’s Sanford Prison Experiment (1973) and a critique of that experiment which led to my re-reading Hannah Arendt. This article continues an exploration of my efforts (Morehouse, 2012; Morehouse, 2015; Morehouse et al, 2019) at integrating some elements of psychology and philosophy with the goal of deepening understanding of contemporary issues.

  • Impact of Workplace Bullying Amongst First Responders- Systematic Review

    The phenomenon of workplace bullying is pervasive and exposure to bullying leads to long-term, systemic and individual negative impacts to targets of bullying and the organizations in which they work. Multiple studies confirm that workplace bullying is associated with psychological trauma and serious negative long-term outcomes for targets including mental health disorders and in extreme cases suicide. Emergency service organizations by design are hierarchical in nature, creating power structures that can lead to increased potential for bullying. The literature shows that first responders who work in emergency service organizations report rates of workplace bullying at upwards of 60% (six times the National average). The prevalence of workplace bullying amongst first responders, given their already high stress jobs, along with the long term negative impacts to a targets health, mental health and wellbeing are significant and constitute a serious crisis within the emergency services community.