Psychological Research and Reviews

  • The mediating role of optimism and resilience on emotional distress in infertility: an integrative literature review

    Objective: To find any role of optimism and/or resilience mediating emotional distress in infertility. Method: We performed a literature search for 2000–2017 in PubMed, PsycINFO and Elsevier, for original articles and reviews, using keywords “resilience,” “infertility,” “optimism,” “LOT-R,” “in vitro fertilization,” and “assisted reproductive technology.” Additional references were collected from articles located thereby. Results: The evidence reveals a growing trend of promoting people´s positive health assets and indicates significant negative associations of optimism and resilience with anxiety and depression and positive associations with self-esteem and perception of control. It seems optimism and resilience heavily influence physical and mental health and diminishes emotional distress due to infertility. Discussion: This review highlights the importance of the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions increasing optimism and resilience against affective dysregulation and emotional distress caused by infertility.

  • GROUP PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION: REPORT OF EXPERIENCE IN THE CURRICULAR PSYCHOLOGY STAGE

    Background: Pain for the loss of health is not easy to be elaborated by the patient, especially when it directly impacts on his quality of life. Group intervention can be a possibility to work on sufferings, because patients share experiences, which favors overcoming difficulties and adaptations. Objective: to report the experience of group psychological intervention, analyzing the role of psychology trainees in group mediation. Methodology: report of experience. Results and discussion: In the group performed by the psychology interns with patients attended at a school hospital in Recife-PE, the group was constituted. The trainees were facilitators under the supervision of the psychologist of the hospital team, sought to preserve individual and group space, managed the speeches, encouraging the silent participants and preventing the predominance of the speakers. At each meeting they used group dynamics, storytelling, poetry readings, collages, favoring speech and peer identification. The trainees made use of careful clinical listening, transfer and group management in the opening, development and closure at each meeting. For each stage of this, supervisor support was essential. Conclusion: By providing speech in the group, the trainees allowed the patients to reflect on themselves and the history of the other, reorganizing their experiences, promoting and preventing health. And this experience for the trainees enabled the development of group management skills, decision making, conflict mediation, communication and clinical listening

  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY AND PAIN DISORDERS: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Introduction: Somatic Symptom Disorder is characterized, by the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, by distressing somatic symptoms linked to abnormal thoughts, feelings and behaviors in response to these symptoms. The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder in primary care is quite significant, and new empirical evidence suggests that there is a clinically relevant interaction between anxiety and pain intensity felt by the patient in a context of somatization of symptoms. Objectives: To analyze in the literature the relationship between anxiety disorders and psychosomatic pain. Methodology: The research was carried out in the CAPES Periodic databases, PubMed and Regional Portal of the VHL. The terms “Anxiety Disorders”, “Pain” and “Psychophysiological Disorders” were considered as descriptors. Articles published between 2013 and 2018 were included. Results: Of the 2095 articles found, only seven were included in the review. Evidence has been found that anxiety may stem from social distress or primary pathologies. It can be expressed somatically under different forms of pain, such as: gastrointestinal, precordial, dental or cephalic. Evidence has also been found that anxiety exac-erbates dental and cephalic pain, and it chronicises localized back pain and cephalic pain. Con-clusion: The literature on the interaction between anxiety and psychosomatic pain is still incipient to the detriment of the complexity and comprehensiveness of the phenomenon. We also high-light the need for further research on diagnostic and therapeutic teaching strategies of health professionals in order to reduce the morbidity resulting from these events.

  • Systematic Review of Attention Testing in Allegedly “Untestable” Populations

    Test use is extremely important, not only for clinical practice, but also for scientific research. Nonetheless, some populations have been considered “untestable”. Among the different cognitive abilities assessed using tests, attention is a fundamental one. The present study presents a systematic review of the literature on attention testing in people with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder, in order to identify: (1) if there are any tests that are fit to assess these populations; (2) which adaptations would be necessary for such tests to become fit; and (3) what limits and needs are involved. Our literature review identified 39 studies (review papers and empirical studies), all of which concern the administration of attention tests for people with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder. The selected papers are presented and discussed from two analysis categories: (a) tests, attention abilities, and populations under study; (b) procedures and adaptations made to the testing settings. We identified 72 attention tests, where the majority of the groups of participants in the studies that were analyzed presented mild symptoms. The main adaptations done to the tests refer to strategies used to assist the comprehension of tasks, to communicate instructions, to assure engagement during the procedure, and ways to emit answers. The implications of our results are discussed.

  • Adolescent Sexting: A Narrative Review

    This narrative review is based on a literature search on PsycINFO and PubMed that involved entering the terms adolescent sexting for papers published during the last five years. Following exclusion criteria, 52 papers could be classified as sexting studies including research on the prevalence, effects/comorbidities, risk factors and interventions for those problems. Most of the studies have been conducted in the U.S. where the prevalence of sexting has ranged from 5% to 29%. Sexting has typically been consensual, or at least the recipient has been known, although some forwarding of sext messages has occurred. The effects of sexting have included sexual activity, problematic relationships, mental health problems, other addictions and legal problems. The predictor or risk variables have included male gender, extraverted personality, low self-esteem, depression, impulsivity, peer pressure and the lack of parental monitoring. Like other literature on adolescent problems, this research is limited by primarily deriving from self–report and parent report and by the absence of longitudinal data that might inform whether the data being reported are effects of or risk factors for adolescent sexting and the need for prevention/intervention research.

  • Adolescent Violence: A Narrative Review

    This narrative review is based on a literature search on PsycINFO and PubMed entering the terms adolescent violence for papers published during the last five years. Following exclusion criteria, 58 papers could be classified as school–based violence (fighting) and dating violence including research on the prevalence and risk factors for these types of violence. The prevalence of school violence has varied by ethnicity, type of violence and culture. The risk factors for school violence are both intrapersonal and interpersonal. The intrapersonal factors include male gender, minority status, middle school level, maladaptive cognitive/ emotional strategies, depression, callous behavior, conduct problems, low cortisol and high testosterone, unhealthy conditions including concussions and obesity, drug abuse, self-harm, suicidal ideation and carrying weapons. The interpersonal factors include a lack of parental monitoring, conflict and violence in the family, exposure to violence and to violent social media. The prevalence of dating violence has also varied by gender and culture. The intrapersonal risk factors have included externalizing behavior, sexting both off-line and online, alcohol and marijuana misuse. The interpersonal risk factors include anxious attachment, family violence and peer rejection. Surprisingly, given the prevalence and severity of these problems, very little prevention/intervention research appears in this recent literature. Research is also missing on peer relationships, empathy and psychopathy as potential risk factors. Like other literature on adolescent problems, this research is limited by primarily deriving from self–report, parent report and hospital records.

  • Psychological Availability, Psychological Safety and Optimism as Predictors of Innovative Behavior among Workers

    The study examined psychological availability, psychological safety and optimism as predictors of innovative behavior at work among administrative staff of Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA). A total of 120 workers comprising of 82 males and 38 females were used for the study with the mean age of 32.5, standard deviation of 11.2 and age range of 19-60. The participants were selected through multi stage sampling technique, Comprising of randomization and convenience sampling technique. The study made use of four instruments namely Psychological availability scale by Doglass (2004), psychological safety scale by Brown & Leigh, (1996), Life Orientation Test (LOT) developed by Scheier and carva (1985) to measure optimism and Innovative Work behavior Scale by Kleysen and Street (2001). The design for this study was a cross sectional survey design and hierarchical multiple regression was used for data analysis. The study tested three alternate hypotheses. Findings indicated that Psychological availability significantly predicted innovative behavior at work at β=.19.p< 0.01 which accepted hypothesis one. Psychological safety significantly predict innovative behavior at work at β=13,p

  • The Predictive Values of Percieved Self- efficacy and Perceived Social Support on Coping with HIV/AIDS’ Stigma

    This study examined the predictive power of Perceived Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support on Coping with HIV/AIDS’ Stigma. The study seeks to ascertain whether perceived self-efficacy and perceived social support would predict coping with HIV/AIDS’ stigma among patients. Using a sample of 152, with a total number of males 49 with percentage of 32% and females 103 with a percentage of 68%. Their ages ranged from 18-70 and a mean age of 53 years. This was a survey research and the design adopted was correlational design based on the design a multiple regression analysis was adopted as an appropriate statistical tool for analysis. The multiple regression analysis of the first hypothesis which stated that self-efficacy will significantly predict coping among HIV/AIDS’ patients was confirmed at β= .55; t= 2.47, P

  • Testing partial memory with the British video lineup

    Levi has hypothesized that witnesses with poor memory discount some lineup members as not fitting their partial memory of the target, thereby picking him often. In a comparison between British 10-person video lineups and 48-person lineups, they did not differ in identifications. Perhaps sequential video lineups prevented witnesses from hitting upon the discounting strategy. Fifty were asked to count the number of lineup members that they could discount, and then were given the lineup. Others were given the lineup first. We expected that the former group would have more identifications No difference was found. Reasons for this were discussed.

  • Juggling the Many Voices Inside: What It Means to Be an Emerging Adult

    Background: Our late modern society has a focus on self-realization, managerialism and instrumental reasoning. A logic of choice dominates the lives of emerging adults. They are focused on “self-managing” their lives. Although many emerging adults can “flourish”, others are “floundering,” struggling with anxiety or lower self-perceptions. Theories on self-realization which focus on a capability or self-determination approach seem inadequate for understanding this reality. Aim: This article critically examines what it means to be an emerging adult in late modern society. It aims to counterbalance the dominant theories of self-realization by exploring a dialogical view on the “self”. It pays attention to the voices of the “selves” of emerging adults, including the internalized voice of society itself. Method: A narrative approach was followed. First, an interpretive narrative study was carried out with female respondents. The study employed in-depth focus group and individual interviews and the transcripts of the interviews were then analyzed thematically. We further analyzed the data according to the Listening Guide Approach. Findings: Self-realization is a dynamic relational and moral process. The findings illustrate the multiple voices and I-positions of emerging adults. In addition, the findings illustrate that in addition to agency, “passive receptivity” also plays an important role in the process of becoming an emerging adult.