Optics and Photonics

  • The influence of radiation x germ cell and embryonic fetal development

    Objective: In this article the effects generated by ionizing radiation are discussed more precisely by X-rays, in the cells of gametic line and in embryonic/fetal development, when there exposition without proper protection for this type of energy. Methodology: The method used for preparation of this work was the literature review of scientific papers, theses and magazines found in the databases already available. Results and Discussion: Based on the literature review carried potential risks were analyzed and importance of radiation protection, in addition to their negligence consequences.

  • Infrared Thermography as a Predictor of Inflammatory Response in the Elderly with Arthritis

    Among the physiological responses associated with osteoarthritis, the increase in muscle and epithelial temperature is an indicator of pro-inflammatory status. However, however, the association between epithelial temperature increase and osteoarthritis in elderly individuals was not yet measured. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate whether the thermographic pattern is able to predict the inflammatory in lower limbs in individuals with osteoarthritis. The sample consisted of 10 participants with arthritis separated by men (MW: 2; age: 75 ± 10.2 years; body mass: 78.5 ± 12.2 kg; height: 164.5 ± 8.6 cm) and women (FW: 8, age: 75 ± 10.2 years, body mass: 69.1 ± 9.5 kg, height: 153.6 ± 9.9 cm). Infrared thermography (FLIR® thermography) was performed in 6 regions of interest (IR) in the coronal (anterior and posterior) and sagittal (left and right portions) planes. To obtain predictive models, regression analyzes were performed for both sexes, p≤0.05. The results indicated that the presence of inflammation could be predicted by the following models for men: RI Posterior thigh (Exp (B) = 3.023 95% C.I. = 1.065 to 8.578, S.E = 0.532, Wald = 4.331, p = 0.038). While women showed two predictive IRs in the first model, calf thermography (Exp (B) = 3.8442 95% CI = 0.167 to 1.00, SE = 0.457, Wald = 3.84, p = 0.050) and, in the second model, the left anterior calf (Exp (B) = 6.211 95% CI = 1.447 to 21.976, SE = 0.694, Wald = 5.639, p = 0.013) and left anterior cinnamon (Exp (B) = 7.368 95% CI = 0.024 to 0.547 , SE = 0.800, Wald = 0.114, p = 0.007). The findings from this preliminary study may be used by health professionals as a noninvasive method to predict the inflammation caused by osteoarthritis.

  • Eletroencephalographic study of individuals with chronic pain during fibromyalgia

    Introduction: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome that is mainly featured by the chronic pain presence and its phisiophatology is unknown. In the EEG records it is observed a hipersensibility from the envolved areas at the pain process, which can be a resource capable to clarify its phisiophatology. Objective: It was performed a search at Pubmed, Lilacs e Scielo databases with the keywords: Electroencephalogram, electroencephalography and fibromyalgia. The exclusion criterias were the electroencephalogram use for avaliation of other clinic condition beyond fibromyalgia and repeated articles at the databases. Results: After the aplication of the eligibility criterias were found 23 articles. Conclusion: The electrical cortical activity analysis using the electroencephalogram records is set like a promising method of avaliation and identification of a fibromyalgia biomarker.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid analysis of patients with als by x-ray microfluorescence

    Introduction: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease in adults but its etiology remains unknown. Clinically, the patient manifests progressive weakness, paralysis and, usually, evolves to death between 2 to 5 years. The analysis of biological samples provides a powerful strategy to investigate pathological processes and studies indicate an important role of trace elements in ALS. Objective: In this work we aimed to investigate the levels of trace elements in CSF samples from patients with ALS. Methodology: CSF samples from cases of ALS (10) and control cases (6) were treated for analysis of trace elements by X-ray Microfluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation. The measurements were performed on the XRF beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The intensity of the X-ray spectrum for each element was obtained with AXIL software (distributed by the International Atomic Energy Agency). The data obtained were statistically analyzed by General Linear Models, in a method based on multivariate analysis. Results and Discussion: In this study, the following elements were analyzed: aluminum, bromine, calcium, chlorine, copper, chromium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, nickel, rubidium, silicon, sulfur and zinc. In CSF samples from ALS cases a significant increase of calcium, chlorine and potassium concentration was observed when compared to samples from control cases. Conclusion: Excitotoxicity is one of the many factors implicated in the pathogenic process of ALS. The intracellular calcium influx appears to contribute to neurodegeneration in multiple pathways, leading to cell death. Activation of potassium and chlorine channels by increased calcium level has been described and prolonged outflow of both may be involved with apoptosis. Elevated levels of these three elements in the CSF indicate a possible molecular pathway involved in the pathogenic process of the disease.

  • Teleradiography and its importance on cases of obstructive sleep apneia

    Introduction: Teleradiography assists in cephalometric evaluation that allows a basic understanding of the anatomical regions of the upper airways (UA) that maintains an intimate relationship with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It is a valuable aid in the elaboration of the treatment plan, in the observation of the anatomical alterations of the superior airway during the development of OSA and in the evaluation and follow-up of the treatment. Objective: To recognize the importance of the use of teleradiography as a complementary examination of OSA’s treatment. Methodology: A bibliographic research was done on Scielo’s virtual library through the keywords: Teleradiography, apnea, complementary examination. Results: 45 articles resulted from the search. 15 addressed the topic with a specific relevance and only 3 were used in the preparation of the text. Discussion: Obstructive sleep apnea is a respiratory disorder characterized by total or partial obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, which is multifactorial and not fully understood. Currently intraoral appliances are indicated for some cases of OSA. The increase of upper airways with the use of intraoral appliances happens through the traction of the mandible and / or protrusion of the tongue. In addition to the anteroposterior increase of the UA, there is a laterolateral increase. There are also significant modifications in the configuration of the UA demonstrating dimensional gains observed in the cephalograms. With the aid of the cephalostat, it is possible to obtain a standardization of cephalometric radiographs for cephalometric purposes, diagnosis and treatment follow-up. This imaging technique is widely required because it is easy to analyze, low cost and emits minimal levels of radiation. Conclusion: Teleradiography is widely used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the treatment of OSA, since it allows to evaluate the development of clinical cases in a simple, economic and effective way.