Constructing Consumers’ Mental Model with ZMET for Online Foreign Language Learning Activities

Constructing Consumers’ Mental Model with ZMET for Online Foreign Language Learning Activities

Yun Zhang

Wuhan, Hubei, China.

The customers’ particular perception of any product, service, or even brand is also the representation of mental models that underlie the customers’ feelings additionally to consequently account for customer behaviour. To amass such customer insight, this article uses a vital customer analysis tool—the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique (ZMET) to urge the perceptual and ideal meaning of customers in thinking levels that are different through visual picture and metaphor imagination, along with further incorporate the mean – end chain theory to produce the incorporated mental map for a team of consumers within the context of online language learning, therefore offering better insight into customers behaviour.

Keywords: Mental model; ZMET; Online learning; Customer behaviour

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Yun Zhang. Constructing Consumers’ Mental Model with ZMET for Online Foreign Language Learning Activities. Global journal of Economics and Business Administration, 2020;5:32. DOI:10.28933/gjeba-2020-08-0205

1. G. L. Christensen, J. C. Olson, “Mapping consumers’ mental models with ZMET,” Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 19(6):477–502, 2002.
2. L. Lucas,Y.Z Jia , “Limits of China’s online education boom start to show,”, para. 7, June. 6, 2019 [Online]. Available:
July. 12, 2020].
3. G. L. Christensen, J. C. Olson, “Involved with what? The impact of heterogeneity in goal hierarchies on high enduring involvement,” Advances in consumer research, Vol. 28, p. 392-401,2001.
4. V. D, Maria, “The ZMET Technique: A New Paradigm for Improving Marketing and Marketing Research” In Proceedings of Conference on ANZMAC, pp. 48-54,2005.
5. C.P. Hu, D.Ma, “The Construction of Users Mental Models Based on ZMET,”Information Science, Vol.29(1):01-05,2011.
6. P. N. Johnson-Laird, “Mental models,” Foundations of cognitive science. The MIT Press. (p. 469–499,1989.
7. Tseng, Ling-Fang and Ling-Tzu Tseng. “Using ZMET to Construct the Consensus Map of the Users on Yahoo Auction Platforms.” International Journal on Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences 4: 334-340,2012.
8. Zaltman, Gerald, R. H, Coulter. “Seeing the Voice of the Customer: Metaphor-Based Advertising Research,”Journal of Advertising Research, Vol.35(4): 35-51,1995.
9. K. L. Keller, “Strategic brand management,” Tokyu Agency, 2000.
10. Mcdonald, Seonaidh et al. “Means-end theory in tourism research.” Annals of Tourism Research 35: 596-599,2008
11. J. L, Zaichkowsky, “Measuring the involvement construct,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.12: 341 – 352,1985
12. G. Zaltman, “Eliciting mental models through imagery 22,” The Languages of the Brain, vol. 6, pp. 363, 2002.
13. N. K. Denzin,: The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1989.
14. T. J.Reynolds, J.Gutman, “Laddering theory, method, analysis, and interpretation,” Journal of advertising research, vol. 28(1):pp. 11-31, 1988.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details)

CC BY 4.0
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.