This study analysed the long run relationship between economic growth, foreign direct investment, foreign trade, inflation, exchange rate, imports and exports for the period of 1980-2011 using annual time series analysis. It examined the dependency of economic growth on foreign trade, exchange rate, inflation and foreign direct investment. Trade openness, foreign direct investment and inflation are found stationary at level while imports, exports, exchange rate and economic growth are stationary at first difference. All the variables have long run relationship according to cointegration results. DOLS results showed that imports and exports have significant positive relationship, inflation and foreign trade have significant negative impact, and exchange rate and foreign direct investment have insignificant positive influence on economic growth. The negative impact of foreign trade can be overcome by producing import substitutes and creating conditions for trade surplus. Other policy reforms are also required to enhance the economic growth.
At present, power grid construction is playing a more and more important role in development of China power sector because of maldistribution of electric energy. This passage is based on three steps in the electrified wire netting construction process: power transformation, transmission, distribution. By summing up the feature of them, some conclusions about influence factors of power grid operating costs are required. After that, this paper analyzes negative influence of high costs. At last, keeping a reasonable control on single cost is put forward to make controlling total costs strongly possible.
This paper explores the impact effects of different knowledge capital investment on the industrial enterprises added in China. Using 2007-2016 China’s industrial enterprises panel data of 31 provinces, we analyze the space spilt effect of knowledge capital in different regions and explores the causal relationship between knowledge capital and industrial enterprises added by using the dynamic space Dubin model. The results show that: the knowledge capital investment of industrial enterprises has obvious spatial agglomeration ef-fect, and the agglomeration effect increases gradually with time. The results also show that: the estimated results under three kinds of spatial weight matrices show that the positive spillover effect of knowledge cap-ital on enterprise income is significant.
A key aim in the behavioral sciences is to understand the mechanisms behind individuals’ motivation to participate in health behaviors (Godin & Kok, 1996). This goal are important in a sports activity context in light of research supporting the physiological and psychological benefits of regular exercise in adults and young people (Gutin & Owens, 1996). Sport consumer behavior research, suggests that sport consumer behavior represents consumer behavior relative to products and services offered in the sport and leisure industry. Trying to understand the customer, first of all, we must understand the cognitive structures or mental models that underlie consumer involvement. Zaltman metaphor-elicitation technique (ZMET) (Zaltman, 1996) is a powerfull tool that helps researchers to build a consumer map of involvement in a product knowledge structure. As a result, qualitative research using ZMET technique will be the main instrument to develop this stady. Highly involved sportiest will be chosen for the purpose of this study because high involvement often, correlates with high product knowledge and expertise (Celsi & Olson, 1988). The results of this paper will be presented in a consumer map, which will show the most important motives of Albanian Youth Involvement in sports activities.
The impact of gender diversity in the boardroom on dividend policy: evidence from Swedish listed companies
In recent times, shareholders, regulators and researchers have increasingly shown concern about the gender diversity in the boardroom and dividend policy. Many researches show that women in the board can better represent the shareholders’ interest. There are different findings in the previous literature regarding the relationship between gender diversity in the boardroom and dividend policy in Sweden. This paper aims at examining the relationship between women directors in the boardroom and dividend payout, in additional, examining the components of women directors in the boardroom, that is, how the proportion of women directors, the proportion of independent women directors, the proportion of executive women directors and the proportion of institutional women directors affect dividend payout. The study analyzed the 273 companies currently listed on the Nasdaq OMX Stockholm Stock during the period 2011 and 2015. Three different two-way fixed effects models and regression analysis are used to obtain the required data. Our findings indicated that there is a positive significant relationship between the percentage of women directors, independent women directors and dividend payout in three different models. By the regression result of these three models, there is no significant relationship between the proportion of executive women directors/institutional women directors and dividend payout. Thus, our result confirms that the proportion of women directors and independent women directors in the boardroom has effect on the dividend payout. The empirical evidence on this study can support Swedish board gender quota proposal, which requires at least 40% of their board members of public traded companies are female by 2019.
Bank Selection Criteria in the Saudi Community Empirical Study of Saudi Banks Customers in Tabuk City
The study aims to investigate the determinant factors of bank choice among Saudi community; to rank these determining factors according of the customer’s priority; and to examine whether Saudi banks ‘customers will be a homogeneous group concerning the way they select a bank or not.it follows a descriptive survey research design, quantitative research approach is adopted through the semi-open structure questionnaire. Total of 178 respondents from different banks (full fledge Islamic, conventional and Islamic window banks) as of a single point in time in the form of quantitative measures. Exploratory Factor Analysis is employed to rank factors effect bank choice criteria among Saudi people. Results of factor analysis reveal that ranks of factors affect customer decision in selecting a bank service based on mean, are satisfaction(mean =4.05) ,service quality (mean=3.74),Islamic value (mean =3.7),service cost(mean=3.5),financial intermediate (mean =3.39). Moreover it discovers that Customers in Saudi banks are homogeneous. Lessons to be learned from the study result, Saudi banks should focus on service quality,; note that Saudi Arabia is one of transfers’ countries, and Islamic banks should be emphasizing on customers ‘trust about services consistent with sharia’h provision.
For the better performance in the business, significance of Intellectual Capital (IC) has got world glance. Current study analysis is primarily based on the investigating the impact of intellectual capital on the overall financial performance and financial efficiency of manufacturing firms in Pakistan. For this purpose, panel data regression analysis has been conducted to check the effect of major explanatory factors like human capital efficiency (HCE), structural capital efficiency (SCE), and capital employed efficiency (CEE) has been considered for the outcome factor. Intellectual capital is considered as major IV with three components of HCE, SCE, CEE while firm performance is considered through Return on the assets (ROA) of the business which is considered as major DV. The outcomes of the study reveal the fact that there exists the significant association between the various components of Intellectual Capital and the firm performance. The study will be very much beneficial for the various policy makers in considering the significance of intellectual capital in evaluating the financial performance of the business. However, among the key limitations, this study is not covering the other sectors like service industry in the same region of Pakistan. Therefore, adding some other sectors from Pakistan will provide some more meaningful results like the service industry to conduct the future research. Future studies can be carried while adding some more predictors like social capital and spiritual capital for the consideration of firm performance. In addition, cross sectional comparison in coming time will provide a comprehensive empirical evidence in present literature as well.
This paper examines the effect counseling in eradicating the problems of entrepreneurship education. The study actually tried to find the extent at which counselling has enhanced entrepreneurship education significantly and how Cognitive Behavior Modification Strategies (CBMS) can be used to instill awareness of entrepreneurship education. The study made use two hypotheses. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample for the study comprised 62 staff of Center for Entrepreneurship Studies Ogun State University Nigeria. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analyzed using Chi-square technique. The research indicates that there is a positive and significant relationship between Counseling and Entrepreneurship Education. Also, the result shows that Cognitive Behavior Modification Strategies of counseling (CBMS) can be used to instill awareness of Entrepreneurship Education. Based on the results of the study, the study recommended that Counselors should use practical tools rather than theories, make use of available resources in their localities and encourage students to be involved in the local trades in their communities; these will help to enhance students’ skills and knowledge of entrepreneurship education needed and also Workshops, seminars and refresher courses should be organized for practicing counselors from time to time on career counseling skills improvement for the challenges of entrepreneurship education.
The study aimed to establish the effect of trading volume on market returns of securities traded in Kenyan securities exchange market. The study used secondary data from all the firms listed in NSE during the period 2004 to 2016. The target population of the study consisted of the sixty 62 companies listed in Nairobi securities exchange market that is, both financial and non-financial companies. The study was a census study of all the sixty 2 companies listed in the Nairobi security exchange market for 13 years starting the year 2004 to the year 2016. The study started with descriptive and then diagnostic tests. The measures of central tendency used to test normality were mean, median, maximum and minimum value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and Jarque-Bera (JB) test. The results from these tests showed that the variables were fairly normally distributed. The study further sought to investigate the stationality properties of market returns, trading volume. The study used five panel data unit root tests. Particularly the test were, Levin, Lin and Chu t, Breitung t-stat, Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat developed, Fisher-type tests using augmented dickey fuller ADF and (Phillip and Peron) PP tests. The all these tests revealed that the variables were stationary on average. The study also sought to test the granger causality among the variable. The results from granger causality showed that some of the variables granger caused one another. The cointegration results showed that there was long-run equilibrium. The regression techniques used was Cross-section fixed (dummy variables) and Period fixed (dummy variables). The regression results revealed that the variables were statistically significant effect on market returns trading volume had a positive effect on the market returns. It is therefore in this light that the future research should consider other variables which would increase the predictive power of…
The study focused on the factors affecting internal auditors ‘performance in public universities in Kenya. It aimed at achieving the objectives: to determine how the working environment, to assess how the challenges to the independence of internal auditors, to assess the impact of the level of technical competency affects the performance of internal auditors in public universities in Kenya. Thus this study evaluates the effect of working environment, establishes the effect of internal auditor’s independence and the effect of internal auditors competence on the performance of internal auditor in public universities in Kenya. Descriptive research design was applied, with a target population of the chief internal auditors from 31 chartered public universities in Kenya which are registered by the Higher Education ministry. A random simple sampling technique was applied o give the sample size of 31. Primary data was used for analysis. The study found out that the internal auditors working environment, internal audit independence and authority, internal auditor’s technical competence impacted on the performance of internal audit function. The study recommended that auditors should consider complying with professional standards as the most important contributor to internal auditing performance. The management in the public universities should keep organizing seminars and workshops where the internal auditors would be trained frequently by experts either internally or externally.