Review Article of Global Journal of Molecular Biology
THE USE OF ANTIPARASITIC DRUGS AS A TREATMENT FOR COVID-19: A NARRATIVE REVIEW
Paulo Henrique Valença Nunes1,2, Guilherme Albuquerque de França Monteiro2, Diogo Nascimento da Silva2, Sthefany DPaula Elias Torres Gonçalves2, Akíria Ohana Torreão2, Francisca Janaína Soares Rocha2
1 Laboratory of Immunopathology Keizo Asami; 2 Federal University of Pernambuco
Objetive: Describe research related to the use of antiparasitic drugs as likely treatment in COVID-19 based on scientific literature.
Methods: This is a literature review that uses two platforms as a database: Pubmed and BIREME. Were included in this study twelve published articles, from 2019 to September 2020, which referred to or were related to the use of antiparasitic drugs as a therapeutic alternative to COVID-19.
Results: The antiparasitic drugs ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine (HQC), and nitazoxanide (NTZ) were the main drugs extensively studied as therapeutic alternatives for SARS-CoV-2. Ivermectin exhibited a 5000-fold reduction in SARS-CoV-2 RNA over a 48h period, at a concentration of 5μM. While HQC was able to block the entry of SARS-Cov-2 into Vero cells previously treated with 50μM. In addition, NTZ, presented an average inhibition concentration (EC50) of 2.12 μM. The mechanisms of anti-SARS-CoV-2 actions of all the drugs mentioned are not yet fully elucidated. However, it is known that the antiviral potential may be related to the inhibition of essential viral proteins (ivermectin), blockade of interaction in virus-host (HTZ), and immunosuppressant (NTZ).
Conclusion: The use of antiparasitic agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 have shown promise. However, it is necessary to further investigate the efficacy of the drugs mentioned in this study, to obtain more satisfactory results, seeking to avoid adverse effects on patients, and ensuring safety for them.
Keywords: Drugs replacements. Antiparasitic. COVID-19.
How to cite this article:
Paulo Henrique Valença Nunes, Guilherme Albuquerque de França Monteiro, Diogo Nascimento da Silva, Sthefany DPaula Elias Torres Gonçalves, Akíria Ohana Torreão, Francisca Janaína Soares Rocha. THE USE OF ANTIPARASITIC DRUGS AS A TREATMENT FOR COVID-19: A NARRATIVE REVIEW. .Global Journal of Molecular Biology, 2021, 3:9. DOI: 10.28933/gjmb-2021-06-1805
1. Pascarella G, Strumia A, Piliego C, Bruno F, Buono R Del, Agr FE, et al. COVID-19 diagnosis and management : a comprehensive review. J Intern Med [Internet]. 2020;(March):1–15. Available from: www.escs.edu.br/revistacss.
2. Vasques MDAA, Mamede MMS, Castro BDA, Monteiro OL, Ribeiro AP, Gomes LF, et al. Abordagem profilática da nitazoxanida e ivermectina na COVID-19 : Sumário de Evidências. Comun em Ciências da Saúde [Internet]. 2020;31:144–61. Available from: www.escs.edu.br/revistacss
3. Roberto M, Sousa N, Paula A, Oliveira M. Patogênese e perspectivas de tratamento da Covid-19: uma revisão Pathogenesis. 2020;9(7):1–14.
4. Duarte DB, Coelho LJ, L GN. Atualidades da farmacoterapia da covid-19. Rev Desafios-Revista Interdiscip da Univ Fed do Tocantins. 2020;7(3):81–8.
5. CASAS CPR, SILVA J, CASTRO R, RIBEIRO-ALVES M, FRANCO CM. Avaliação de tecnologias em saúde: tensões metodológicas durante a pandemia de Covid-19. Estud Avançados. 2020;34(99):77–96.
6. Andersen PI, Ianevski A, Lysvand H, Vitkauskiene A, Oksenych V, Bjørås M, et al. Discovery and development of safe-in-man broad-spectrum antiviral agents. Int J Infect Dis [Internet]. 2020;93:268–76. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.018
7. Heidary F, Gharebaghi R. Ivermectin : a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen. J Antibiot (Tokyo) [Internet]. 2020;(December 2019):593–602. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-020-0336-z
8. Chaccour C, Hammann F, Ram S. Ivermectin and COVID-19 : Keeping Rigor in Times of Urgency. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;102(6):1156–7.
9. Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG, Jans DA, Wagsta KM. The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2020;178(April):3–6.
10. Wagstaff KM, Sivakumaran H, Heaton SM, Harrich D, Jans DA. Ivermectin is a specific inhibitor of importin α / β -mediated nuclear import able to inhibit replication of HIV-1 and dengue virus. Biochem Soc. 2012;443:851–6.
11. Choudhary R, Sharma AK. Potential use of hydroxychloroquine , ivermectin and azithromycin drugs in fi ghting COVID-19 : trends , scope and relevance. New Microbes New Infect [Internet]. 2020;35:100684. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100684
12. Ferner RE, Aronson JK. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in covid-19 Use of these drugs is premature and potentially harmful [Internet]. Vol. 1432, BMJ. 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 26]. p. 9–10. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1136/bmj.m1432
13. Kumar A, Singh A, Shaikh A, Singh R, Misra A. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome : Clinical Research & Reviews Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 with or without diabetes : A systematic search and a narrative review with a special reference to India and other developing countries. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev [Internet]. 2020;14(3):241–6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.011
14. Liu J, Cao R, Xu M, Wang X, Zhang H, Hu H, et al. Hydroxychloroquine , a less toxic derivative of chloroquine , is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Cell Discov [Internet]. 2020;6–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0
15. Gautret P, Lagier J, Parola P, Doudier B, Courjon J, Scola B La, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents [Internet]. 2020;56(1):105949. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
16. Zou L, Dai L, Zhang X. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine : a potential and controversial treatment for COVID ‑ 19. Arch Pharm Res [Internet]. 2020;43(8):765–72. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-020-01258-7
17. Xu S, Yamamoto N. Anti ‑ infective nitazoxanide disrupts transcription of ribosome biogenesis ‑ related genes in yeast. Genes Genomics [Internet]. 2020;42(8):915–26. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-00958-0
18. YAVUZ SŞ, ÜNAL S. Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Turkish J Med Sci. 2020;50(April):611–9.
19. To L, Editor THE. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus ( 2019-nCoV ) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020;30:2019–21.
20. Mahmoud DB, Shitu Z, Mostafa A. Drug repurposing of nitazoxanide : can it be an effective therapy for COVID-19 ? J Genet Eng Biotechnol. 2020;18(35):1–10.
21. Machado EL, Oliveira HN De, Ribeiro AP, Federal U, Gerais DM, Medicina F De. Condições de trabalho e falta de informações sobre o impacto da COVID-19 entre trabalhadores da saúde Working conditions and lack of information on the impact of Métodos Discussão. Rev Bras Saúde Ocup. 2020;6369(24):1–8.
22. Thorlund K, Mills E, Mehta C. COVID-19 Clinical Trial Tracker [Internet]. Cytel. 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 26]. Available from: https://www.covid-trials.org/
23. Farrar J. COVID-19 clinical trials : learning from exceptions in the research chaos. Nat Med [Internet]. 2020; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1077-z
24. Menezes CR, Sanches C, Chequer FMD. Efetividade e toxicidade da cloroquina e da hidroxicloroquina associada ( ou não ) à azitromicina para tratamento da COVID-19 . O que sabemos até o momento ? Effectiveness and toxicity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine associated ( or not ) with azith. J Heal Biol Sci. 2020;8(1):1–9.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.