Objetive: Describe research related to the use of antiparasitic drugs as likely treatment in COVID-19 based on scientific literature. Methods: This is a literature review that uses two platforms as a database: Pubmed and BIREME. Were included in this study twelve published articles, from 2019 to September 2020, which referred to or were related to the use of antiparasitic drugs as a therapeutic alternative to COVID-19. Results: The antiparasitic drugs ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine (HQC), and nitazoxanide (NTZ) were the main drugs extensively studied as therapeutic alternatives for SARS-CoV-2. Ivermectin exhibited a 5000-fold reduction in SARS-CoV-2 RNA over a 48h period, at a concentration of 5μM. While HQC was able to block the entry of SARS-Cov-2 into Vero cells previously treated with 50μM. In addition, NTZ, presented an average inhibition concentration (EC50) of 2.12 μM. The mechanisms of anti-SARS-CoV-2 actions of all the drugs mentioned are not yet fully elucidated. However, it is known that the antiviral potential may be related to the inhibition of essential viral proteins (ivermectin), blockade of interaction in virus-host (HTZ), and immunosuppressant (NTZ). Conclusion: The use of antiparasitic agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 have shown promise. However, it is necessary to further investigate the efficacy of the drugs mentioned in this study, to obtain more satisfactory results, seeking to avoid adverse effects on patients, and ensuring safety for them.
DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC LABLAB PURPUREUS ACCESSIONS IN KENYA AS REVEALED BY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
Lablab purpureus is an important pulse crop in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia but has largely remained underutilized. Understanding the genetic diversity is prerequisite for genetic improvement and utilization of this leguminous crop. The relationships of the local lablab genotypes and those collected from other diverse geographic origins including the wild accessions remain unknown in Kenya. The study was undertaken to determine genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm accessions collected from Kenya and other global regions. Eight simple sequence repeat primer pairs were used to genotype the 189 lablab accessions. A total of 39 alleles were revealed by eight SSR with an average of 4.88 alleles per polymorphic loci. The average PIC was 0.42. The gene diversity among the accessions ranged from 0.26 to 0.52 with an average of 0.38, indicating moderate genetic diversity. Germplasm collected from Kenya showed a moderate genetic diversity of 0.36. Higher genetic diversity (He
Population Structure And Diversity Among Improved Cowpea Varieties From Senegal Based On Microsatellite Markers
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is used in West Africa for both human consumption and animal feeding. Despite its importance, the production of the crop is hampered by biotic and abiotic constraints. To overcome these constraints, the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA) has set up a breeding program since 1960 leading to the release of productive varieties. Information of the genetic diversity for these varieties could improve the effectiveness of further breeding programs. The objectives of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and the population structure of 11 cowpea improved varieties from ISRA collection. Twelve (12) polymorphic microsatellite markers were used and the analysis of genotypic data showed a total of 39 alleles ranging from 2 (SSR6288, SSR6311 and SSR6827) to 6 (SSR6807) per locus. Polymorphism rate ranged from 8.33% (Mougne and Kelle) to 58.33% (Mouride) with an average of 31.06%. Intra varietal genetic diversity was very weak (0.012 to 0.091). The genetic similarity revealed that Melakh and Pakau varieties were genetically the closest while Bambey 21 and Sam were the most distant. These results are confirmed by the dendrogram, which also showed that Thieye, Leona, Kelle, Sam, Mougne and Yacine varieties have a higher genetic stability than Lisard, Melakh, Pakau, Mouride and Bambey 21. Eighty-seven percent (87%) of the total variability was attributed to inter varietal variability while 17% was due to intra varietal variation. These results provide a better knowledge of genetic resources of cowpea varieties released and held by ISRA and constitute important input for further cowpea breeding programs.
The transcription factor Zic2 is member of Zic family, at early stages it has been involved in several processes during embryonic development and later on in morphogenesis and organogenesis. An important role has been attributed to Zic2 during the development of the neural system. It has been involved in neural tube and neural crest formation. Both process structures will form the central and peripheral neural system. Mutation of Zic2 provokes holoprosencephaly in humans and in mouse also spina bifida. To date, there is not well elaborated the specific mechanisms under which Zic2 affect neural tube formation and the differences may exist between mouse and human phenotype. Almost the same ambiguity is for the specific role of Zic2 during neural crest development. Here is given are resumed latest studies and are given new insight about the role of Zic2 in these two processes and its new target genes.
Introduction: The SNAP 4Dx is a rapid test device that uses ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) technology manufactured by the IDEXX Laboratory (Maine, USA) for rapid diagnosis of hemoparasitosis in dogs. SNAP® ELISA technology utilizes unique conjugate and substrate that amplifies the results. The bidirectional flow process evidences the antigen-antibody binding, providing high sensitivity and reliable results. Objective: evaluation of hematological parameters and serological detection of hemoparasitoses in dogs with Snap 4Dx. Methodology: A cross – sectional, descriptive and observational clinical research was carried out between September 2014 and October 2014 at Pet Dream Veterinary Medical Clinic, located in the city of Recife / PE. The hemogram was performed using a manual technique using blood collected with EDTA. The detection of the antigen of Dirofilaria immitis and the antibodies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia ewingii, was performed with SNAP 4DX Plus device. Results and Discussion: 62 dogs of different races were used, without specifying age or sex, attended at the Clinic. The blood samples were collected by venipuncture cephalic or jugular, according to the size of the animal. The samples were packed in eppendorf microtubes containing EDTA as anticoagulant. The differential count was performed through blood smearing, stained in panopticus, observed with a 100X immersion objective. The rapid test for serological diagnosis showed the following result: Ehrlichia canis (32.25%), Anaplasma platys (6.45%), Dirofilaria immitis (6.45%). Discussion: The results found in the present study suggest that the 4DxPlus Kit was efficient for the diagnosis of hemoparasitoses, which cause diseases in small animals. Conclusion: hematological changes were varied, but thrombocytopenia was the main alteration. The animal with thrombocytopenia may present it silently or start to have symptoms such as: bleeding on the skin; nose bleeds; fever; cough; lethargy; urinary bleeding.
To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Streptomyces spp. J181 against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes
Introduction: Streptomyces comprise the genus of actinobacteria most studied, as they have the ability to synthesize a variety of bioactive metabolites, of these many are antibiotics. Streptococcus pyogenes is a gram-positive coccus belonging to Group A of Lancefield. Among streptococci, it is the most relevant clinical agent in infections of the oral cavity due cases of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis and its sequels: rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. They are also related to other pathologies such as endocarditis, septic arthritis, cellulitis, pyoderma and scarlatina. Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Streptomyces spp. J181 against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes. Methodology: Blocks of 10 mm diameter obtained from the cultivation of the actinobacteria seeded on ISP-2 agar were transferred to Petri dishes containing 18 mL of blood agar previously seeded with S. pyogenes, then the plates were incubated at 35 ° C ± 1 ° C for 24 hours. After the incubation period, the inhibition halos were read in millimeters. To assess the susceptibility profile, the antibiogram of the bacterial isolates was carried out according to the recommendations of the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute. The tests were performed in triplicate, the results expressed in average plus standard deviation and the coefficient of variation adopted was ≤ 10%. Results and Discussion: The susceptibility profile of S. pyogenes isolates didn’t show resistance to the evaluated antibiotics, resulting in sensitivity to therapy commonly adopted in the medical clinic. The lineage of Streptomyces spp. J181 was demonstrate efficient in the production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity, presenting inhibition halos with an average value of 17.4 mm, a good result, whereas in the assay performed the bioactive metabolites are secreted directly into the culture medium, without any purification process. Conclusion: The lineage Streptomyces spp. J181 presents potential for to production of metabolites with anti-streptococcal activity.
Identification and susceptibility of the genus staphylococcus isolated from vegetables and legumes of economic interest
Introduction: Microorganisms of Staphylococcus genus are Gram-positive cocci catalase-positive bacteria of clinical interest due to their pathogenicity in humans and animals. Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal microbiota and can be responsible for suppurations of wounds, abscesses also it may transmit a toxinfection caused by the intake of toxins elaborated by the infectious agent present in foods. Objectives: Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus in products of economic interest cultivated in Pernambuco. Material and Methods: 25 g of the samples (cassava, carrot, coriander and cabbage) were added in 225 mL of 0.1% peptone saline, serial dilutions until 10-3 were made. The dilutions of 10-2 and 10-3 were seeded in Baird Parker medium and the colonies characteristic of the genus Staphylococcus were identified by the catalase, Gram, coagulase, Carbohydrate (Glucose, Trehalose, Ramnose, Mannose, Maltose, Lactose, Xylose, Sucrose and Inositol) and disc test with Polymyxin and Novobiocin. In addition, the Antibiogram of the isolated colonies was performed using the antibiotics Erythromycin, Vancomycin, Clindamycin, Sulfamethoxazole, Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin. Results and Discussion: Eight colonies were isolated: cassava (1), coriander (1), carrot (1) and cabbage (5) and submitted to identification tests. Staphylococcus pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri (3), S. hominis subsp. hominis and two classified as coagulase negative Staphylococcus. In the antibiogram 50% of the isolates presented resistance to erythromycin, 12.5% to oxacillin and gentamicin. Conclusion: The majority of the isolates can be found in food and only one causes infections in the urinary tract. No positive coagulase Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus) was found and the samples analyzed were within the standards established by RDC No. 12 of 02/01/2002. A negative coagulase lineage isolated from carrot showed resistance to oxacillin and erythromycin in the antibiogram
Introduction:The increase in bacterial resistance has generated the need to increase research for the discovery of new drugs, and medicinal plants are a proven source of bioactive products with great therapeutic potential. Objectives: To analyze the modulating activity of the ethanolic extracts of cumaru, angico, artemisia, terramicina and espinheira in front of strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Modulating activity was determined by the disc diffusion method, analyzing three strains of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus with the antibiotics erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, oxacillin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, cipropofloxacin and cefoxitin. Each antibiotic disk was soaked with 20μL of the extract. The disks were placed on the surface of the culture medium already seeded with the microorganisms and incubated at 35 ° C for 24 hours. The diameters of inhibition halos (HI) were measured in mm and compared to those determined by HI of the antibiotics alone. The increase in HI diameter ≥ 2 mm, synergistic effect; antagonistic effect when the HI diameter was smaller than that of the isolated antibiotic; and, indifferent effect, when the increase in HI diameter
Introduction:The treatment used in neoplasias, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, generate a series of side effects that undermine the prognosis of cancer patients. Aiming mainly at nutritional status and mucosal integrity, we found the need for prevention in cases of patients who present with mucositis during anti-neoplastic treatment. Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the available knowledge about glutamine supplementation in the treatment of mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic treatment. Method: This is a literature review, selecting articles published between 2013 and 2015, in the Medline and Lilacs databases through Pubmed, with the following descriptors: glutamine and radiotherapy, glutamine and cancer and mucositis. Results: Studies indicate that the tumors that most affect the nutritional status of patients are head and neck neoplasms, esophagus, digestive tract and lung. Considering that the side effects of antineoplastic agents, such as vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, xerostomia, increased basal metabolic rate and mucositis, trigger a decrease in food intake, Leading the patient to malnutrition and cachexia. Mucositis is a result of inflammation of the oral mucosa or gastrointestinal tract. Several studies have evaluated the use of glutamine supplementation during antineoplastic treatment, since it depletes it over time, being related to cachexia, loss of muscle mass and, consequently, muscle glutamine, with substrate reduction for rapidly replicating cells, and may therefore be related to aggravation of oral mucositis and gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: The use of glutamine in cancer treatment may be a viable option, especially in relation to the prevention of more severe degrees of mucositis. It is necessary the participation of a multidisciplinary team for the early identification of the alteration of the oral mucosa for a better treatment.