Review Article of Global Journal of Urology and Nephrology
The Gestacional Diabetes Mellitus Approach and Their Implications
Silva A.C.M.¹; Xavier A.C.C.¹; Oliveira E.F.S.¹, Torres G.S.S.¹; Silva V.P.B¹; Cordeiro R.P.²
1Pharmacy students of the Academic Center Tabosa de Almeida – ASCES-UNITA, Caruaru-PE; ²University Professor of the Academic Center Tabosa de Almeida – ASCES-UNITA, Caruaru-PE.
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to a deficiency or decrease of insulin, causing metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, water, electrolytes, lipids and proteins, this affects the pancreatic function until the rupture of insulin production. This disease may manifest itself in pregnancy (Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or GDM), when a degree of glucose tolerance is observed, bringing various risks to the mother and fetus. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of Gestacional diabetes, analyzing the complications of GDM, and the main treatments. Methods: Review of published researches from 2010 to 2017 in the Google Scholar, Scielo and Bireme databases, using the descriptors Diabetes Mellitus and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Results: The causes of gestational diabetes mellitus are mainly related to weight gain, family history, and occurrence of the disease during another pregnancy and it may cause damage such as premature rupture of membranes, pre-eclampsia, premature birth and hypertension. The fetus can develop hypocligemia, macrosomia, respiratory disorders, electrolyte disturbances, cardiomyopathy, neonatal asphyxia, among other complications. In the most recommended treatments, it is important to improve the lifestyle of the pregnant woman, and the drug treatment with oral anti-hyperglycemic agents as metformin and glibenclamide, or Insulin therapy, and according to the studies, the most efficient are the insulins glargine, aspart, regular and lispro. Discussion: The change in quality of life refers to the adoption of balanced diet and physical activity being the first treatment option for GDM, if this does not help controlling the glycemic levels, the drug therapy must be used. Conclusion: It is of great importance to be aware of the risks caused in gestational diabetes during the planning of a pregnancy, with emphasis on changing habits of life and weight control and monitoring of health professionals, preventing this and other diseases.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Insulin; Pregnant woman; Treatment.
How to cite this article:
Silva A.C.M.; Xavier A.C.C.; Oliveira E.F.S., Torres G.S.S.; Silva V.P.B¹; Cordeiro R.P.. The Gestacional Diabetes Mellitus Approach and Their Implications. Global Journal of Urology and Nephrology, 2018, 1:4