Research Article of International Journal of Archaeological Research
RESETTLEMENT AND ITS IMPACTS: THE CASE OF METEKEL AWARAJJA
Bogale Aligaiz Agalu
Department of History, Injibara, Ethiopia
The resettlement projects in Ethiopia have been carried out mainly as a response to extreme problems of drought, food insecurity, population growth and land degradation during the imperial and Derg regime in the 1960’s and 1980’s. The disastrous famine of 1984-85 brought equally disastrous response of Derg government which relocated peasants from famine affected north to the sparsely populated and unoccupied southwest of the country. One of the targeted areas to perform was the Metekel area called Pawie or Beles resettlement site along North Western Ethiopia, originally inhabited by the Gumuz shifting cultivators. The inadequately planned of the Pawie or Beles resettlement site from the 1984-85 was affected the relocated people and the indigenous Gumuz communities. This program resulted Gumuz communities clashed with state sponsored settlers. After a long time tension, the settlers and the host communities formed a bond of relationship known as Wadaj.
Keywords: Resettlement, Resettlers, host communities
How to cite this article:
Bogale Aligaiz Agalu. RESETTLEMENT AND ITS IMPACTS: THE CASE OF METEKEL AWARAJJA. International Journal of Archaeological Research, 2020,1:5
1. Abeje Menberu(2011). “Differential Livelihood and Adaptive Strategies of Spontaneous and organized Resettlers in Guraferada Woreda Of South Western Ethiopia, (SNNP).” M.A. Thesis in Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University, PP.26-82.
2. Berhanu Geneti(2007). “The Impact of Resettlement in Woodland Vegetation: The Case of Chewaka Resettlement Area, Southwestern Ethiopia.” M.A. Thesis in Environmental Science, Addis Ababa University, P.11.
3. Berihun Meberate(2009). “The Gumuz: Are they Shifting Cultivators?” Proceeding of the Sixteenth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Norway: Trondheim, P.351.
4. Bisrat Worku(2011). “Impact of Resettlement on the Livelihood of settler Population in Abobo Woreda, Gambella People’s Regional State.” M.A. Thesis in Population Studies, Addis Ababa University, PP.9-11.
5. Dejenie Abere( 2011). “Impact of Resettlement on Woody Plant Specious and Local Livelihood: The Case of Gurafereda Woreda in Bench Maji Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia.” M.A. Thesis in Environmental Science, Addis Ababa University, P.9.
6. Dessalegn Rahmato(1988). “Settlement and Resettlement in Metekel, Western Ethiopia.” Rivista trimestrale di Studie documentaziole dell Istituto italiano per I Africa e. I’oriente, Anno. 43, No.1, P.18.
7. Elizabeth, Sara (2003). “Eco Health and Displacement: A Case Study of Resettlement and Return in Ethiopia.” FES Outstanding Graduate Student Paper Series, Vol.7, No.1, Toronto: York University, P.40.
8. Getachew Wolde Meskel(1989). “The Consequences of Resettlement in Ethiopia.” African Affairs, Vol.88, No.352, Oxford University Press on the Behalf of the Royal African Society, P.364.
9. Gebre Yntiso(2002). “Differential Reestablishment of Voluntary and Involuntary Migrants: The Case of Metekel Settlers in Ethiopia.” African Study Monographs, Vol.23, No.1,Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies: Kyoto University, PP.32-35.
10. Jira Mekura(2008). “A History of Gumuz People of Metekel(1941-1991).” M.A. Thesis in History and Heritage Management, Addis Ababa Univerity, PP.80-82.
11. Kassa Belay(2004). “Resettlement of Peasants in Ethiopia.” Journal of Rural Development, P.225.
12. Kloos, Helmut and Aynalem Adugna(1989). “Settler Migration during the 1984/85 Resettlement Program in Ethiopia,” Geo Journal, Vol.19, No.2, Springer: Kluwer Academic Publisher, P.116.
13. Ofcansky, Thomas.P and Berry, Leverie(1991). Ethiopia a Country Study. Federal Research Division of congress, P.49.
14. Pankhurst, Alula (1992), “Resettlement and Famine in Ethiopia: The Villagers’ Experience.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol.27, No.1, Manchester: Manchester University Press, P.218.
15. Stelmacher, Till and Eguavoen, Irit(2011). “The Rules of Host and New comers: Local Forest Management after Resettlement in Ethiopia,” Center for Development Research University of Bonn: Germany, P.4.
16. Sivini, Giordano (1986). “Famine and the Resettlement Program in Ethiopia,” Africa: RivistabTrimestrale Di Studi’e Doucmenttazine Dell’Istito italino Per I’Oreiente, Anno.41, No.2, Istituto Italiano Per I’Africa e I’ Orie,, P.21.
17. Taddese Tamrat(1982). “Early Trends of Feudal Super Imposition on Gumuz Society Western Gojjam.” International Symposium on History and Ethnography in Ethiopia Studies, P.2.
18. Tewodros George(2011). “Long-term resettlement and Integration Experience of Resettlers in Ethiopia: The Case of 1980s Resettlers in Sheko Woreda of Bench-Maji Zone, SNNP.” M.A. Thesis in Sociology, Addis Ababa University, PP.19-22.
19. Terefe Zeleke(2012). “Resettlement and Sustainable Food Security: A Comparative Study of Inter-Zonal and Intra-Zonal Resettlement Schemes and Host communities in Dawuro Zone Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia.” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, Vol.14, No.2, Clarion: Clarion University of Pennsylvania,P.134.
20. Tizazu Gezahegne(2011). “Socio-Cultural Integration: The Case of Kuti Resettlement Sites in Kaffa Zone.” M.A. Thesis in Social Work, Addis Ababa University, P.24.
21. Wolde Sellassie Abutte(2000). “Social Re-articulation after Resettlement: Observing the Beles Valley Resettlement Scheme in Ethiopia,” In M.cernea and C.Mc(Eds.). Risks and Reconstruction: Experience of Resettlers’ Refugees, World Bank: Washing Dc., PP.412-423.
22. “The Dynamics of Socio-Economic Differentiation and change in the Beles Valley(Pawie) Resettlement Area, North Western Ethiopia.” M.A. Thesis in Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa Univerity,PP.26-119.
23. Gumuz and Highland Resettlers: Differing Strategies of Livelihood and Ethnic Relations in Metekel, North Western Ethiopia. Institute of Ethnology Gottingen: Gottingen University Press, P.82.
24. Zanardi, Dario. The Tana- Beles Resettlement Project in Ethiopia, PP.80-86.