Villagization in the areas of Ethiopia began in the 1970’s and then the project took place in Mandura district of the Metekel area, North West Ethiopia in the 1980’s during Derg government. The program was practical in the district from 1986-87. The process of villagization and regrouping of communities from scattered homesteads into villages established at Dutch Alem Tsehay, Gumdia, Daffele, Dabhie, Anze Baguna, Kuter Hulet, Dukill, Babeistha and Mekesegene kebeles. Gumuz, Agew and Amhara were villagized communities in the district. But, the program was failed because of the lack of feasibly studies, deteriorating of security conditions and lack of supplying infrastructures for the newly villagized communities in the district.
The resettlement projects in Ethiopia have been carried out mainly as a response to extreme problems of drought, food insecurity, population growth and land degradation during the imperial and Derg regime in the 1960’s and 1980’s. The disastrous famine of 1984-85 brought equally disastrous response of Derg government which relocated peasants from famine affected north to the sparsely populated and unoccupied southwest of the country. One of the targeted areas to perform was the Metekel area called Pawie or Beles resettlement site along North Western Ethiopia, originally inhabited by the Gumuz shifting cultivators. The inadequately planned of the Pawie or Beles resettlement site from the 1984-85 was affected the relocated people and the indigenous Gumuz communities. This program resulted Gumuz communities clashed with state sponsored settlers. After a long time tension, the settlers and the host communities formed a bond of relationship known as Wadaj.
The study clarifies the relations of Nile Basin countries after independence. Nile Basin countries are Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Egypt, North and newly independent South Sudan. Members of the region are independent in history; politics, economy and geography but tie by the Nile River. Economy determined by the agriculture supported by Pastoralism and agro-Pastoralism among the member countries. Their political development of the region was biased by the colonization and the cold war. From the time when the end of colonization and the cold war, the Nile basin countries can be attained relations in history, politics, economy and geography through the use of Nile Basin Initiative which played a role to the possibilities for cooperation and smooth relations among Nile basin countries.
A NEW PROPOSED TRANSLATION OF THE “JAMES OSSUARY” INSCRIPTION: JAQOB, SON OF JESHUA’S BROTHER JOSEPH OR JAQOB, SON OF JOSEPH, NEPHEW OF JESHUA
In the first part of this paper I recall the long and dramatic story of ossuary owner Mr Oded Golan. In 2003 Mr Golan was accused by the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) of the crime of forgery of the second part of the Aramaic inscription on the long side of the ossuary, יעקובבריוסףאחוידישוע , translated by Prof. André Lemaire “James son of Joseph brother of Jeshua”. Between 2007 and 2012, a very detailed case conducted at the New Court in Jerusalem concluded that Mr Oded Golan was NOT GUILTY of forgery. During this case the authenticity of the entire Aramaic inscription was supported by new scientific evidence, including the presence of a biopatina (created by microorganisms living for centuries on the lime box) covering all walls and letters of the inscription. In the second part of this paper I propose a new translation of the inscription. The word “achui d” may have been mistranslated because brother translates to “ach” in Aramaic. Prof. Fitzmyer showed that these same words appear in a verse in the Dead Sea Scrolls found in cave 1, the Genesis Apocryphon (21:34–22:01) (QapGen, written in the 1st century BC). The verse mentions “Lot, son of Abram’s brother”, which corresponds to Genesis 14:12. According to Genesis 11:27, Terah had three sons: Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Haran was Lot’s father, and therefore Lot was Abram’s nephew, i.e. the son of Abram’s brother. This means that “achui d” is the word for “brother” in a genitive case that in English should be translated by name conversion as Lot, son of Abram’s brother Haran. It then follows that the inscription should be translated as Jaqob, son of Jeshua’s brother Joseph. This means that Jeshua and Joseph were brothers, and Jaqob was Jeshua’s nephew.
This paper entitled “History and Theory of Anthropology” deals with the historical background of anthropology from the very beginning up to its establishment as academic discipline. For this paper, I have reviewed some literatures related with history and theory of anthropology. Hence, anthropology’s history from ancient Greek historical and philosophical writings to 21st century and anthropological theories are chronologically included in this paper. Generally, the contribution of different scholars, event (like enlightenment) and colonialism in the emergence of anthropology are encompassed in this paper.