Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial resistance profile of staphylococcus aureus and occurrence of methicillin resistant S. aureus isolated from mastitic lactating cows

Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial resistance profile of staphylococcus aureus and occurrence of methicillin resistant S. aureus isolated from mastitic lactating cows in and around Assosa town, Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia

Yami Asmamaw Aki1, Kibeb Legesse2, Asmelash Tassew2*

1Assosa Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Assosa, Ethiopia
2Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, P.O.Box: 34; Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

International Journal of Animal ResearchA cross – sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to May 2017 in Dairy cattle in and around Asossa town in order to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, to identify S. aurues from mastitic lactating cows, to evaluate its antimicrobial resistance pattern and to identify risk factors associated with mastitis. A total of 384 Dairy cows milk samples were collected using purposive sampling techniques. The overall prevalence of mastitis at cow level was 39.32 % with 11.45 % and 27.86 % of clinical and subclinical mastitis, respectively. In this study, the subclinical mastitis was significantly higher than clinical mastitis. For all except Age and parity, the multivariable logistic regression analysis for intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors showed significant difference in the prevalence of mastitis in the study area (P˂0.05). From 151 mastitis infected lactating cows, 436 milk samples were cultured and 22.14% S.aureus were isolated. Presumptively identified S. aureus isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test and 63(74.11%) MRSA have been identified from a total of 85 S. aureus using cefoxitin through disk diffusion method. The present result showed a significant association of resistance pattern with S.aureus isolates, particularly to penicillin G (95.55%), Cefoxitin (77.19%), Tetracycline (63.41%), Streptomycin (60.78%), Gentamycin (59.37%), Vancomycin (56.75%), Clindamycine (54.35%) and Bacitracin (53.65%). In this study, 77.19 % S.aureus isolates were found resistant against Cefoxitin. There were also observed multidrug resistance, mainly to Penicillin G, Streptomycin and Tetracycline. The present study revealed higher prevalence of mastitis and occurrence of multidrug resistance S.aureus specifically which belongs to the MRSA which are dependent on multiple associated risk factors. Hence, regular resistance follow-up, using antimicrobials sensitivity tests helps to select effective antimicrobials and to reduce the problems of drug resistance developments towards commonly used antimicrobials.

Keywords: Asossa, Antimicrobial susceptibility, Dairy cattle, milk, mastitis, Methicillin resistance, Staphylococcus aureus

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Asmamaw Aki et al., Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial resistance profile of staphylococcus aureus and occurrence of methicillin resistant S. aureus isolated from mastitic lactating cows in and around Assosa town, Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Animal Research, 2017; 1:5. DOI: 10.28933/ijar-2017-09-2302


1. Abebe M., Daniel A., Yimtubezinash W. and Genene T. (2013): Identification and Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of Dairy cows and nasal swabs of farm workers in selected dairy farms around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 7 (27):3501-3510.
2. Abera B., Lemma D. and Iticha I. (2013): Study of Bovine Mastitis in Asella Government Dairy farm of Oromia Regional State, South Eastern Ethiopia.Int. J. Curr.Res. Aca. Rev.,1 (2):134-145.
3. Addis M., pal M. and Kyule M.N. (2011): Isolation and Identification of Staphylococcus Species from raw bovine milk in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. 4:(2), 45-49.
4. Almaw G., Zerihun A. and Asfaw Y. (2008): Bovine mastitis and its association with selected risk factors in smallholder dairy farms in and around Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod., 40:427-432.
5. Bedada B. A. and Hiko A. (2011): Mastitis and antimicrobial susceptibility test at Asella, Oromia Regional state, Ethiopia. J. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 3: 228-232.
6. Bhunia, A.K. (2008): Foodborne Microbial Pathogens. Mechanisems and pathogenesis, Spring science and Business Media, LLC, New York., Pp. 125-134.
7. Biffa D., Etana D., and Fekadu, B. (2005): Prevalence and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Lactating Dairy Cows in Southern Ethiopia. Intern. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med., Hawassa College of Agriculture, Debub University, Hawassa, Ethiopia., 3: (3), 189-198
8. Bitew M., Tafere A., and Tolosa T. (2010): Study on Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms of Bahir Dar and its Environs. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 9:2912-2917.
9. Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2015): Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Central Statistical Agency. Agricultural sample survey, Volume 2, report on Livestock and Livestock characteristics.
10. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLISI) (2012): CLSI document M23-A. 3rd ed. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Development of in vitro`susceptibility testing criteria and quality control parameters; approved guideline.
11. Daka, D., Solomon, G/ S., Yihdego, D. (2012): Antibiotic-resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Cow’s milk in the Hawassa area, South Ethiopia. Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob., 11:26-37
12. Duguma A., Tadele T., and Aster Y. (2013): Prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis on cross bred Dairy cows at Holleta Agricultural Research Center, Central Ethiopia. Glob. J. Vet. Med. Res. 027, 1 (1): 026-030.
13. Edward, M., Anna, K., Michal, K., Henryka, L. and Krystyna, K. (2002): Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci isolated from mastitic cows. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy Pp 289-294.
14. Erskine, R. J. (2001): Mastitis control in Dairy herds. In: Radostits, O. M. (ed.): Herd Health: Food and Animal Production. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company. Pp 397 – 435.
15. Fekadu B., Demelash B., and Etana D. (2005): Prevalence and risk factors of mastitis in lactating dairy cows in Southern Ethiopia. Int. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med., 3(3):189-198
16. Genta, M.L. and Heluane, H. (2001): Biochemical Identification of most frequently encountered Bacteria that cause Food spoilage. In: Spencer, J. T. and Ragout de Spencer, A. L. (eds). Food Microbiology Protocols. Humana Press Inc. Totowa, New Jersey., 14: 3-11.
17. Green M., and Bradley A. (2004): Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in Cattle. Clinical Forum, UK. VET. J., 9 (4):1-9.
18. Gruet, P., Maincent P., Berthelot X. and Kaltsatos V. (2001): Bovine mastitis and intramammary drug delivery: review and perspectives. Adv. Drug Del. Rev., 50: 245- 259.
19. Huber H., Giezendanner N., Stephan R. and Zweifel C. (2011): Genotypes, antibiotic resistance profiles and microarray-based characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from livestock and veterinarians in Switzerland. Zoo. Pub. Hlth., 58:343–49.
20. Hundera S., Ademe Z., and Sintayehu A. (2005): Dairy cattle mastitis in and around Sebeta, Ethiopia. Intern. J. Appl. Vet. Med., 3:1525-1530.
21. Juhasz-Kaszanyitzky, E., Janosi, S., Somogyi, P., Dan, A.,Van derGraaf-van Bloois, L., Van Duijkeren , E.and Wagenarr, J.A. (2007): MRSA transmission between Cows and Humans. Emerg. Inf. Dis., 13:630-632.
22. Kerro D. and Tareke F. (2003): Bovine Mstitis in selected areas of Southern Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 35:197-205.
23. Kivaria, F.M., Noordhuizen, J.P. and Kapaga, A.M., (2004): Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in small holder dairy cows in Tanzania. J. Tro. Ani. Hlth and Pro., 36:581-592.
24. Lakew M., Tolesa T. and Tigre W. (2009): Prevalence and Major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Assela, South Eastern Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 41:1525-1530.
25. Lee, J. (2003): Methicillin (Oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from major food animals and their potential transmission to humans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 69: 6489- 6494.
26. Mekibib, B., Furgasa, M., Abunna, F., Megersa, B and Regasa, A. (2010): Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and major pathogens in dairy farm of Holeta town, central Ethiopia. Vet. World, 3 (9):397- 403.
27. Mekuria, A.S., Daniel A., Yimtubezinash W. and Genene T. (2013): Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of dairy cows and nasal swabs of farm workers in selected dairy farms around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. African J. micriobiol. Res., 7(27):3501-3510.
28. Monecke S., Kuhnert P., Hotzel H., Slickers P. and Ehricht R. (2007): Microarray based study on virulence-associated genes and resistance determinants of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cattle. Vet. Microbiol., 125 (1–2):128–140.
29. Moon, J.S., Lee, A.R., Kang, H.M., Lee, E.S., Kim, M.N., Paik, Y.H., Park, Y.H., Joo, Y.s. and Koo, H.C. (2007): Phenotypic and genetic antibiogram of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Korea. J. Dai. Sci., 90: 1176-1185.
30. Mulugeta Y. and Wassie M. (2013): Prevalence, risk factors and major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in and around Wolaita Sodo, Southern Ethiopia. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 7(48):5400-5405.
31. National Mastitis Council (NMC) (2004): Procedures for Collecting Milk Samples. In: Microbiological Procedures for the Diagnosis of Bovine Udder Infection and Determination of Milk Quality, NMC publication.
32. NMSA (National Meteorological Services Agency), (2014): Monthly report on temperature and Rainfall Distribution for Asosa Zone, Regional Metrological Office, Asosa, Ethiopia.
33. Ndegwa E., Mulei C.M and Munyna S.J. (2000): Prevalence of Sub-clinical mastitis in Dairy goats in Kenya. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 71: 25-27.
34. Pesavento, G., Ducci, B., Comodo, N. and L. Nostro, A. (2007): Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw meat: A research for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Food Cont., 18:196-200.
35. Quinn, P. J., Carter, M.E., Donnelly, W.J.C. and Leonard, F.C. (2002): Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease. Blackwell science, London Pp.465-472
36. Radostits, M., Gay, C., Blood, D. and Hinchillif, K. (2000): Mastitis In: Veterinary Medicine, 9th ed., Harcourt Limited, London, Pp 603-700.
37. Schito, G. (2006): The importance of the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 12:3–8.
38. Seedy, E., El-Shabrawy, F., Hakim, M., Dorgham, A., Ata, S., Nagwa, S., Bakry, A. and Osman, N.n (2010): Recent Techniques used for isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from mastitic cows. Am. J. Sci., 6:1-8.
39. Sharma, D., Kumar, P. and Malik, A. (2011): Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk of dairy cattle. Int. Res. J. Microbiol., 2:466-47.
40. Tassew, A., Negash, M., Demeke, A., Feleke, A., Tesfaye, B. Sisay, T. (2016): Isolation, identification and drug resistance patterns of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from mastitic cow’s milk from selected dairy farms in and around Kombolcha, Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 8 (1), pp.1-10.
41. Wang, Y., Wu, C.M., Lu, L.M., Ren, G.W.N., Cao, X.Y. and Shen, J.Z. (2008): Macrolidelincosamide resistant Phenotypes and Genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Bovine Clinical Mastitis. Vet. Microbiol.,130: 118–125.
42. Workeneh, S., Bayleygne, M., Mekonnen, H. and Potgieter, L. (2002): Prevalence and etiology of mastitis in cows from two major Ethiopian dairies. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 34:19-2.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.