Reproduction is an important life activity of fish. At the current stage, due to changes in the environment and the impact of human activities, the reproduction of fish has been greatly affected. If its reproduction performance is severely damaged, it means that it will Unable to reproduce, its number will continue to decrease, or even die. Therefore, the study of fish reproduction is not only conducive to protecting species diversity, maintaining the stability of fish populations, but also maintaining the balance of the aquatic ecosystem. This article focuses on the effects of environmental factors such as light, environmental hormones in water, and hydrological conditions such as flow rate and temperature on fish reproduction.
The availability, population, and distribution of goat at the system level are of great concern to the livestock policymakers. Most often, policy formulation and implementation on goat production had been faulty without meeting the desired objectives. Little information does exist concerning the distribution of goat production at the system level in the Ibadan/Ibarapa zone of Oyo state. Hence, this study on the mapping of goat production and distribution in the selected area was undertaken. A three-stage sampling technique with 270 sampling population was used. Six Local Government Areas (LGAs) with a high prevalence of crop-livestock production system, three villages per LGA and fifteen respondents per village were purposively selected. Distribution pattern of goat population (Tropical Livestock Unit, TLU) was appraised with spatial analytical tools following standard methods. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to locate the population of farmers and appreciate the spatial distribution of goat production among farmers in the study area. A GIS (Geographic Information System) is a computerized database management system for capturing, storing retrieving, manipulating, analyzing and displaying spatial information. Ibarapa East LGA had the highest TLU (37) for Goat when compared with Egbeda, Ido, Ona-ara, Akinyele and Oluyole LGA with TLU of 30, 20, 6, 4 and 2, respectively. The availability of abundant crop residues and feed resources in Ibarapa area coupled with a large expanse of land encouraged goat production activities as observed in Ibarapa East, Egbeda and Ido LGA. The lower TLU observed in Ona-ara, Akinyele and Oluyole LGA can probably be due to the urbanization in those locations which has adversely affected goat production. In conclusion, using the spatial analytical tool of GIS, various activities of the goat production can be monitored, assessed and designed to meet market intervention.
The study was conducted in Diga and Wayu Tuka Districts to determine the constraints and opportunities of beekeeping. Questionnaire surveys was administered to 146 beekeepers (97.1% males). Majority of the respondents started beekeeping after 2010 (28.03%) by catching colonies as honey bee colony source (54.8%). The major dearth period of the area was late march to early may. The trend of beekeeping in the study area was shifting from traditional to modern beekeeping and the trend of honeybee colony and its yield was decreasing due to honeybee health problem of the area (pests, predators, pathogenic disease, high cost of bee equipment and agrochemical application). In the study area the major pests and predators considered as challenges were ants, beetles, wax moth, varroa destructor and some predators like honey badgers, honeybee eater birds, dead head hawks moth, lizards, wasps and birds respectively. For the reason of time restraint in this study area, farther study on the driving force of challenge and opportunity of beekeeping is suggested by monitoring throughout the year.
A Study on Bird Diversity and Abundance in a Lowland of the Centre Region of Cameroon (Ekoko II village) confirm High Diversity in the Congo Basin Forest and a Greater Dominance in the Distribution of Species in the Lowlands
Cameroon is one of the six Congo Basin Forest countries. The Centre region of Cameroon (Central Africa) is a relictual site in which several expeditions by naturalist ornithologists have permitted to describe many new birds’ specimens. Only in recent years, very few bird surveys have been conducted in this area to get an idea about the new or old taxa that make up this region. We conducted a bird survey in a locality of the Centre region of Cameroon, Nsimalen district of Mfou (more precisely in the Ekoko II village) to investigate the avifauna as well as to explore the abundance, diversity and distribution and eventually their reasons. To obtain the abundance of bird species, we used the mist-netting method and captured birds during eleven months. In order to analyse diversity and distribution of this avifauna in their life environment, we performed analyses with SAS/STAT and PAST software. We caught 227 individuals belonging to 24 birds’ families. Compared with previous surveys in this region, we newly recorded one family (Phylloscopidae), one genus (Phylloscopus) and two species: Phylloscopus bonelli and Criniger ndussumensis. In the Ekoko II avifauna, many are sedentary but there is also a great mixture of birds described as seasonal migrants, intra-African migrants, residents, etc. Values of the obtained diversity indexes show that the Nsimalen village exhibits a great avifaunistic diversity. Our results show an absence of the supremacy of one species (H’=3.14) and the value of the Equitability index (J’=0.80) supports an equal distribution of the individuals. Then the pattern of distribution of the species also appears to lean on ecological factors and in this case, the vegetation which would have played a main role in their distribution with a mix of specialists and generalists birds or even migratory birds due to the abundant vegetation. Otherwise, our study…
This review was done on livestock and livestock product trends by 2050 from different scientific papers. Globally, livestock and livestock products are changing rapidly in response to human population growth (9.2 billion), urbanization (70%), and growing incomes (1.1-3.1%) by 2050. More than 60 billion land animals are used worldwide for meat, egg, and dairy production. The global livestock population could exceed 100 billion by 2050, pig meat by 290%; sheep and goat meat by 200%; beef and buffalo meat by 180%; milk by 180%; poultry meat by 700%; and egg by 90%. In 2004, livestock consumes nearly 43% of feed and could rise to 48–55% by 2050. Global feed demand will be almost doubled, and 1.3 billion tonnes of grain is consumed by farm animals each year. The average grazing intensities in the world are expected to increase by about 70%, from 0.19 in 2000 to 0.098 Tropical Livestock Unit (TLU) per ha in 2050 and uses one-third of the world’s fresh water. Climate change may alter the productivity, reproductive efficiency of animals. Contrarily, livestock production is a significant contributor to environmental problems, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions, land degradation, water pollution, and increased health problems. To solve the challenges of livestock and livestock products,, biotechnology and nanotechnology are being harnessed in various aspects of the livestock industry to hasten breed development for improved animal health and welfare, enhanced reproduction, and improved nutritional quality and safety of animal-derived foods.
Insects attracted to five selected baits which includes; honey, sugar, dry fish, stock fish and cray fish in two environments were studied in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria using funnel trapping technique. T-test was used to analyse the relative abundance of the insects collected between the two environments at 5% significance level. The individual insects collected were identified into four (4) orders, six (6) families and (8) species. A total of 495 insects were collected from the study and the total number of insects attracted to the field (295) was higher than that collected from the store (200). The results further showed that out of the four insect orders captured, Hymenoptera recorded the highest number of insects in both environments (346), while Lepidoptera had the least number of insects (13). Paratrechina sp. was the highest insect species collected throughout the study with the relative abundance of (25.25%) while Galleria mellonella was the least species collected with the relative abundance of (2.63%) and strictly associated with the honey bait. There was no significant difference between the insect orders attracted to baits in the two environments (P=0.16).The present research linked the high number of captured insect species to the foraging activities on the baits.
HEAMATOLOGY AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF GROWING RABBITS FED DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH DIFFERENT LEVEL OF INDIGOFERA ZOLLINGERIANA LEAF MEAL
This study was conducted to determine the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of growing rabbits fed diet supplemented with Indigofera zollingeriana leaf meal (IZM). A total number of Fifty (50) growing rabbits of between seven and eight weeks of age were randomly assigned to five treatment groups in a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated five times with two rabbits per replicate. Five experimental diets were formulated such that T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was supplemented with IZM at 0g, 2.5g, 5.0g, 7.5g and 10g respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The hematological parameters determined included pack cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC) and its differentials while those of serum biochemical indices are: total protein, globulin, albumin, cholesterol, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). Results on hematology revealed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the values of PCV, RBC, MCV, WBC and its differentials. Hb, MCH and MCHC values were significantly (P0.05) differences among the treatments. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of IZM up to 10g/kg had no deleterious effect on the hematology and serum biochemical parameters of rabbits.
One of Homeopathy a medicine (remedy) is selected which would produce in a healthy body the same symptoms found in the sick animal (“like cures like”). This substance is selected from herbs, minerals, and natural compounds which are then diluted beyond the point of possible toxicity.This review article explains that Homeopathy Treat met is best treatment in animals also.
One of the culprits during this tough spring was a parasite called Cryptosporidium. It is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted primarily through water.Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of diarrhoea in young calves. It is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium,family Crptosporididae,order Eucoccidiorida,class Coccidian and phylum Apicomplexa.The parasite infects epithelial cells in the microvillus border of the gastrointestinal tract of all class of vertebrates7.and causes severe chronic and even fatal diarrhea with malabsorption and dehydration 19 Currently,there are 16 recognized species and nearly triple this number of unnamedNeonatal calves becomes infected within the first few days after birth.Feces containing eggs are a major source of infection, but calves may also spread the parasite through direct contact. Since the egg survive well in the environment, calves can also pick up infections from water,feed and soil.In addition to calves, cryptosporidiosis affects other young animals including piglets,lamb,kid,oats,foals and fawn (farmed deer). Stressors such as inadequate milk consumption,cold weather and wind may also play an important role in determining how severe the infection will be and how long it will last.
Introduction: Dirofilaria immitis is a filarid nematode that impacts dogs and other mammals worldwide, being transmitted by mosquito bites, causing heart failure without the dog that is the definitive host. The intermediate host may belong to several genera of mosquitoes such as Aedes, Anopholes and Culex. Objectives: this study aims to evaluate three techniques for the diagnosis of canine heartworm disease. Methods: it is an experimental analytical study. The tests were carried out on all wandering dogs adopted by a shelter in the city of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil. Sample collection was performed in a dog with gag, antisected with iodinated alcohol for venous puncture in cephalic vein with a 5 ml disposable syringe and transferred to tube containing anticoagulant. He samples were processed at the Pet Life laboratory in Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil. Three techniques were employed, such as: Alere Dirofilariose Ag test kit; direct examination – thick smear drop and modified Knott’s method (1939). Of the total of 30 shelter dogs, 9 were males and 21 females. Results: Thirteen dogs presented positivity in the Alere Dirofilariose Ag Test Kit (43.33%), being 9 females and 4 males. Of the thirteen positive animals in the immunological method, ten were positive by the Knott Method (33.33%) and five were positive in the Thick Smear Drop test (16.66%). Conclusion: the presence of canine heartworm disease caused by D. immitis in a given region suggests that there may be human contamination causing pulmonary heartworm disease. This infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lung neoplasms and fungal infections. It was verified that the Alere Dirofilariose Ag Test Kit presented a high sensitivity in relation to the thick drop test and the Modified Knott Method, being able to evidence asymptomatic canine heartworm and nondetectable animals by the other techniques used.