International Journal of Animal Research

  • LIVESTOCK AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCT TRENDS BY 2050: REVIEW

    This review was done on livestock and livestock product trends by 2050 from different scientific papers. Globally, livestock and livestock products are changing rapidly in response to human population growth (9.2 billion), urbanization (70%), and growing incomes (1.1-3.1%) by 2050. More than 60 billion land animals are used worldwide for meat, egg, and dairy production. The global livestock population could exceed 100 billion by 2050, pig meat by 290%; sheep and goat meat by 200%; beef and buffalo meat by 180%; milk by 180%; poultry meat by 700%; and egg by 90%. In 2004, livestock consumes nearly 43% of feed and could rise to 48–55% by 2050. Global feed demand will be almost doubled, and 1.3 billion tonnes of grain is consumed by farm animals each year. The average grazing intensities in the world are expected to increase by about 70%, from 0.19 in 2000 to 0.098 Tropical Livestock Unit (TLU) per ha in 2050 and uses one-third of the world’s fresh water. Climate change may alter the productivity, reproductive efficiency of animals. Contrarily, livestock production is a significant contributor to environmental problems, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions, land degradation, water pollution, and increased health problems. To solve the challenges of livestock and livestock products,, biotechnology and nanotechnology are being harnessed in various aspects of the livestock industry to hasten breed development for improved animal health and welfare, enhanced reproduction, and improved nutritional quality and safety of animal-derived foods.

  • A Study of Insects Attracted to Selected Baits in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    Insects attracted to five selected baits which includes; honey, sugar, dry fish, stock fish and cray fish in two environments were studied in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria using funnel trapping technique. T-test was used to analyse the relative abundance of the insects collected between the two environments at 5% significance level. The individual insects collected were identified into four (4) orders, six (6) families and (8) species. A total of 495 insects were collected from the study and the total number of insects attracted to the field (295) was higher than that collected from the store (200). The results further showed that out of the four insect orders captured, Hymenoptera recorded the highest number of insects in both environments (346), while Lepidoptera had the least number of insects (13). Paratrechina sp. was the highest insect species collected throughout the study with the relative abundance of (25.25%) while Galleria mellonella was the least species collected with the relative abundance of (2.63%) and strictly associated with the honey bait. There was no significant difference between the insect orders attracted to baits in the two environments (P=0.16).The present research linked the high number of captured insect species to the foraging activities on the baits.

  • HEAMATOLOGY AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF GROWING RABBITS FED DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH DIFFERENT LEVEL OF INDIGOFERA ZOLLINGERIANA LEAF MEAL

    This study was conducted to determine the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of growing rabbits fed diet supplemented with Indigofera zollingeriana leaf meal (IZM). A total number of Fifty (50) growing rabbits of between seven and eight weeks of age were randomly assigned to five treatment groups in a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated five times with two rabbits per replicate. Five experimental diets were formulated such that T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was supplemented with IZM at 0g, 2.5g, 5.0g, 7.5g and 10g respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The hematological parameters determined included pack cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC) and its differentials while those of serum biochemical indices are: total protein, globulin, albumin, cholesterol, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). Results on hematology revealed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the values of PCV, RBC, MCV, WBC and its differentials. Hb, MCH and MCHC values were significantly (P0.05) differences among the treatments. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of IZM up to 10g/kg had no deleterious effect on the hematology and serum biochemical parameters of rabbits.

  • The Power of Homeopathy in Animal Diseases

    One of Homeopathy a medicine (remedy) is selected which would produce in a healthy body the same symptoms found in the sick animal (“like cures like”). This substance is selected from herbs, minerals, and natural compounds which are then diluted beyond the point of possible toxicity.This review article explains that Homeopathy Treat met is best treatment in animals also.

  • Bovine cryptosporidiosis in calves : A Review

    One of the culprits during this tough spring was a parasite called Cryptosporidium. It is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted primarily through water.Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of diarrhoea in young calves. It is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium,family Crptosporididae,order Eucoccidiorida,class Coccidian and phylum Apicomplexa.The parasite infects epithelial cells in the microvillus border of the gastrointestinal tract of all class of vertebrates7.and causes severe chronic and even fatal diarrhea with malabsorption and dehydration 19 Currently,there are 16 recognized species and nearly triple this number of unnamedNeonatal calves becomes infected within the first few days after birth.Feces containing eggs are a major source of infection, but calves may also spread the parasite through direct contact. Since the egg survive well in the environment, calves can also pick up infections from water,feed and soil.In addition to calves, cryptosporidiosis affects other young animals including piglets,lamb,kid,oats,foals and fawn (farmed deer). Stressors such as inadequate milk consumption,cold weather and wind may also play an important role in determining how severe the infection will be and how long it will last.

  • A Review on the Genetic Basis of Growth and Prolificacy Traits in Sheep

    The performance of an animal for a particular trait is the result of its genetic merit and the effects of the environment where it exists. To set up genetic improvement in sheep, the genetic component attributed to the trait of interest need to be defined. The aim of this review was to describe major candidate genes influencing growth traits and prolificacy in sheep. Although growth and prolificacy are quantitative traits and are expected to be influenced by many genes with individual genes contributing small effects, there are major genes that have been identified with significant influence on growth and prolificacy. The CLPG, GDF8 and CAST genes are some of the major genes that have strong influence on sheep growth and carcass quality. The CLPG mutation can cause pronounced effect in the muscle found in the hindquarter and is responsible for the muscular hypertrophy phenotype in sheep. The GDF8 gene also play important role in increasing muscle depth due to mutation in the regulatory region and coding sequences. The CAST gene is an endogenous and specific inhibitor of calpain enzyme and thereby regulates the rate and extent of muscle tenderization following slaughtering. For prolificacy, BMP15, GDF9 and BMPR1B have been shown to exert significant influence on ovulation rate and litter size in various sheep breeds in the world. Both of the three genes are member of the TGF-beta family protein that encode protein product responsible for growth, differentiation and proliferation of ovarian follicles. The mechanism of action for such major genes are associated with the existence of mutation in the coding sequence resulting amino acid change as well as in the regulatory region that vary the expression level and inheritance of the genes. Up to now, better attempts have been made to describe the genetic basis of growth and prolificacy in…

  • Biochemical Changes Caused by Eimeria spp in Broiler Chickens

    This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of coccidia infestation on biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. The experimental animals (n=100) were randomly allocated into four equal groups, group one (G-I), group two (G-II), group three (G-III) and group four (G-IV) with 25 chickens in each group. The G-I, G-II, and G-III were treatments groups challenged by different Eimeria sporulated oocysts, while G-IV served as the control group. In this study, the infective dose of E. tenella (G-I), E. acervulina(G-II) and mixed Eimeria spp (G-III)was 2×104 sporulated Eimeria oocyst inoculated orally at three weeks of age in broiler chicken and subsequent alterations in different plasma biochemical constituents were evaluated at interval of 5 , 7 and 9 day of post inoculation. Serum total protein values after challenge showed statistically significant decrease in group one, group two and group three in comparison with group four. Further, significant decrease total protien value was noticed on 7 day of post infection in group one and group two.The mean values of serum glucose between the infected and control group at 5, 7 and 9 day of post infection which revealed non-statistically significant difference. Coccidiosis due to E. tenella, E. acervulina and mixed identified Eimeria spp. infectionin chicken showed highly statistically significant increase in serum ALT and AST level as compared with control group. This was also significant increase in infected group on 7 day of post infection. But, no significant variation among the infected groups were on 5 and 9 day of post infection.

  • Effects of Dried Centella Asiatica Leaf Meal as a Herbal Feed Additive on the Growth Performance, Heamatology And Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken

    A 42 days experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of dried Centella asiatica leaf meal (CSP) as an herbal feed additive on the growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. A total of 200 Ross 308 day old broiler chicks of mixed sex was divided into four (4) treatment groups of fifty (50) birds, each group was further divided into five replicates each of ten (10) birds. Group A was fed basal diet + 0% CPS (control), group B,C and D were fed basal diet + 2%, 4% and 6% CPS respectively. The basal diet was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of birds according to NRC (1994). Feed and water was provided unrestricted and a completely randomized design and birds were vaccinated according to the prevailing disease in the environment. The results obtained showed that there were significant (p0.05) the daily feed intake and mortality rate. All the hematological (PCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBC and its differentials) and serum biochemical parameters (Albumin, globulin, total protein, SGPT and SGOT) were not significantly (p>0.05) different among the treatments.

  • Gonadal, extra gonadal sperm reserve and daily sperm production of breeder cocks fed graded levels of dietary fumonisin B1

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a secondary metabolite of the fungus fusarium verticillioides is known to be consumed by farm animals and has been reported to be associated with various farm animal diseases. To account for potential reproductive effects \of fumonisin in cocks meant for breeding purpose, sixty pre-pubertal breeder cocks of about 16 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four diets containing 0.2, 5.2, 10.2 and 15.2mg FB1/kg constituting diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. After 16 weeks of feeding trial all the pubertal cocks were sacrificed. Their testes and epididimydes were carefully dissected, removed, weighed and recorded. The left and right organs were homogenized separately. Dietary FB1 did not significantly (p> 0.05) influence both the gonadal and extra gonadal weights of the cock. The gonadal sperm reserves (GSR) of cocks fed the control diet (5.54x 107/testis) was significantly superior (p

  • Evaluation of clinical anesthetic effect after tramadol hydrochloride addition to xylazine-ketamine total injectable general anesthesia in cats undergoing scrotal castration

    Twenty adult male Egyptian local breed cats were divided into two equal groups and anesthetized using two different Ketamine based protocols. The first group received a mixture of Xylazine and Ketamine (XK) in a single syringe administered intramuscular. The other group received Xylazine-Ketamine-Tramadol mixture (XKT) in the same syringe. Non-significant variations in physiological parameters, induction, anesthesia or recovery periods were detected. Post-operative sedation and analgesia significantly increased in the XKT group. Seizures like convulsions were noticed during induction and recovery in XKT group. Anesthesia and recovery periods were slightly prolonged in the same group than in XK group. In conclusion, addition of tramadol in a dose of 2mg/kg to Xylazine-Ketamine combination didn’t depress the cardiopulmonary functions hence didn’t require further addition of anticholinergic premedication, produced better sedation and post-operative analgesia and slightly prolong the anesthesia duration.