Research Article of International Journal of Animal Research
A Study on Bird Diversity and Abundance in a Lowland of the Centre Region of Cameroon (Ekoko II village) confirm High Diversity in the Congo Basin Forest and a Greater Dominance in the Distribution of Species in the Lowlands
Billy. Nguembock1, 2,*, Hervé. Nkingop Djopmou1, Sali. Mahamat1, Esther Diane Olivia. Azang1
1Laboratory of Zoology, Ornithology Unit, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, University of Yaounde I, P. O. Box 812 Yaounde, Cameroon; 2Department of biological sciences, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale of Center of town, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada
Cameroon is one of the six Congo Basin Forest countries. The Centre region of Cameroon (Central Africa) is a relictual site in which several expeditions by naturalist ornithologists have permitted to describe many new birds’ specimens. Only in recent years, very few bird surveys have been conducted in this area to get an idea about the new or old taxa that make up this region. We conducted a bird survey in a locality of the Centre region of Cameroon, Nsimalen district of Mfou (more precisely in the Ekoko II village) to investigate the avifauna as well as to explore the abundance, diversity and distribution and eventually their reasons. To obtain the abundance of bird species, we used the mist-netting method and captured birds during eleven months. In order to analyse diversity and distribution of this avifauna in their life environment, we performed analyses with SAS/STAT and PAST software. We caught 227 individuals belonging to 24 birds’ families. Compared with previous surveys in this region, we newly recorded one family (Phylloscopidae), one genus (Phylloscopus) and two species: Phylloscopus bonelli and Criniger ndussumensis. In the Ekoko II avifauna, many are sedentary but there is also a great mixture of birds described as seasonal migrants, intra-African migrants, residents, etc. Values of the obtained diversity indexes show that the Nsimalen village exhibits a great avifaunistic diversity. Our results show an absence of the supremacy of one species (H’=3.14) and the value of the Equitability index (J’=0.80) supports an equal distribution of the individuals. Then the pattern of distribution of the species also appears to lean on ecological factors and in this case, the vegetation which would have played a main role in their distribution with a mix of specialists and generalists birds or even migratory birds due to the abundant vegetation. Otherwise, our study also reveals that the composition and structure of the vegetation play a main role in the variety of bird species at least at the local scale. Compare to mountainous areas, our study establishes some similarities in the pattern of distribution of the species between mountain areas and lowlands but diversity has clearly been higher in the mountains while dominance is more pronounced in the lowlands.
Keywords: bird survey, Congo Basin Forest, mist-netting method, diversity and distribution analyses, diversity index, vegetation
How to cite this article:
Billy. Nguembock, Hervé. Nkingop Djopmou, Sali. Mahamat, Esther Diane Olivia. Azang, A Study on Bird Diversity and Abundance in a Lowland of the Centre Region of Cameroon (Ekoko II village) confirm High Diversity in the Congo Basin Forest and species variety due to luxuriant vegetation. International Journal of Animal Research, 2019; 4:31. DOI: 10.28933/ijar-2019-10-0905
1. Achoundong, G. (1985). Étude écologique et floristique de la végétation des collines de Yaoundé au-dessus de 1000m. The University of Yaounde, Cameroon (Unpublished Thesis).
2. Azang, E.D.O. (2017). Étude préliminaire de l’avifaune de l’un des versants du mont Eloumden et analyse phylogénétique de la famille des Pycnonotidés (Oiseaux, Passériformes). Master dissertation, The University of Yaounde I, Cameroon.
3. Bates, G.L. (1926). Anthreptes seimundi minor. Sanaga River, North of Yaounde, Cameroon. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. 46, 107.
4. Bobo, K.S., Waltert, M., Fichtler, M. and Muhlenberg, M. (2015). New bird records for the Korup Project Area, southwest Cameroon. Malimbus 27, 13-18.
5. Borrow, N. and Demey, R. (2001). A guide to the birds of western Africa. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.
6. Bowden, G.R. (2001). The birds of Mount Kupe, southwest Cameroon. Malimbus 23, 13-44.
7. Brown, J.H. and Lomolino, M.V. (1998). Biogeography. 2nd Edition. Sinauer,Sunderland.
8. Collar, N.J. and Stuart, S.N. (1988). Key forests for threatened birds in Africa. Report of the International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP), Cambridge, UK.
9. Dajoz, R. (1982). Précis d’écologie. Edition. Dunod, Paris.
10. Decoux, J.P. and Fotso, R.C. (1988). Composition et organisation spatiale d’une communauté d’oiseaux dans la région de Yaoundé. Conséquences biogéographiques de la dégradation forestière et de l’aridité croissante. Alauda 56, 126-152.
11. DeLancey, M.D. and Mbuh, R.N. (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon. 4th Edition, Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press.
12. del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. (2016). Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
13. Dowsett, R.J. (1989). A preliminary natural history survey of Mambilla Plateau and some lowland forests of eastern Nigeria. Tauraco Research Report. Liège, Belgium, Tauraco Press 1, 56p.
14. Dowsett, R.J. and Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1989). Zoological surveys of small mammals, birds and frogs in the Bakossi and Kupe Mts, Cameroon. Unpublished report for WWF-Cameroon.
15. Dowsett, R.J. and Forbes-Watson, A.D. (1993). Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Liège, Belgium, Tauraco Press 1, 74-78.
16. Dowsett-Lemaire, F. and Dowsett, R.J. (2001). First records of Scarce Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus and Grass Owl Tyto capensis from Mt Cameroon. Malimbus 23, 110-111.
17. Fotso, R., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Dowsett, R.J., Scholte, P., Languy, M. and Bowden, C. (2001). Cameroon in important bird areas of Africa and associated islands: priority sites for conservation. (eds) Fishpool, L.D.C. and Evans, M. I., 133-159. BirdLife Conservation Series N° 11. Pisces Publications and BirdLife International, Newbury and Cambridge, UK.
18. Franqueville, A. (1968). Le paysage urbain de Yaoundé. Cahiers O.M. 82, 113-154.
19. Fry, C.H., Keith, S. and Urban, E.K. (2000). The Birds of Africa. Volume 6, Academic Press, London.
20. Germain, M., Dragesco, J., Roux, F. and Garcin, H. (1973). Contribution à l’Ornithologie du Sud-Cameroun II. Passeriformes. L’Oiseau 43, 59-212.
21. Gill, F. and Donsker, D. (2017). IOC World Bird List. Version 7.3. http://www.worldbirdnames.org/. Gill, F and Donsker, D (Eds).
22. Girma, Z., Mamo, Y., Mengesha, G., Verma, A. and Asfaw, T. (2017). Seasonal abundance and habitat use of bird species in and around Wondo Genet Forest, south-central Ethiopia. Ecol. Evol. 7, 3397-3405.
23. Good, A.I. (1952-1953). The birds of French Cameroon. Mem. Inst. Fr. Afr. Noire. Sér. Sci. 2, 1-203; 3, 1-269.
24. Helbig, A. J., Seibold, I., Martens, J. and Wink, M. (1995). Genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships of Bonelli’s Warbler Phylloscopus bonelli and Green Warbler P. nitidus. J. Avian Biol. 26, 139-153.
25. Jetz, W. and Rahbek, C. (2002). Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness. Science 297, 1548-1551.
26. Kiros, S., Afework, B. and Legese, K. (2018). A preliminary study on bird diversity and abundance from Wabe fragmented forests around Gubre subcity and Wolkite town, Southwestern Ethiopia. Int. J. Av. Wild. Biol. 3, 333-340.
27. Languy, M., Bobo, S., Njie, F.M., Njabo, K.Y., Lapios, J.M. and Demey, R. (2005). New bird records from Cameroon. Malimbus 27, 1-12.
28. Letouzey, R. (1985). Carte phytogéographique du Cameroun. Institut de la recherche agronomique (Herbier national) – Yaoundé – Cameroun : Institut de la carte internationale de la végétation – Toulouse – France.
29. Louette, M. (1981). The birds of Cameroon. An annoted check-list. Verhandeling Wetenschappen. Jaargang 43, 1-163.
30. MacArthur, R.H. (1964). Environmental factor affecting bird species diversity. Am. Nat. 98, 387-397.
31. Microsoft Excel (2016). Microsoft ® Office Excel.
32. Monard, A. (1951). Oiseaux. In : Résultats de la Mission Zoologique Suisse au Cameroun. Mém. Inst. Fr. Afr. Noire. Sér. Sci. Nat. 1, 59-122.
33. Mougoué, B. (1989). Mfou : ville satellite de Yaoundé. Revue de Géographie du Cameroun 8, 139-152.
34. Nguembock, B., Mahamat, S., Kemtchouan, W., Azang, E.D.O., Guehoada, Y. Factheu, C. and Nkingop Djopmou, H. (2017). Bird survey of Abobo-Etetak Hill (Yaounde, Cameroon) and a glance of the avifaunistic diversity of this hill (Abobo- Etetak). Open Ornithol. J. 10, 31-41.
35. Olivry, J.C. (1986). Fleuves et rivières du Cameroun. Monogr. Hydro. Mesres/Orstom 9, 1-733.
36. Centre ORSTOM de Yaoundé (1966). Dictionnaire des villages de la Mefou. Répertoire géographique du Cameroun. IRCAM, Yaoundé.
37. Parsons, H., Major, R.E. and French, K. (2006). Species interactions and habitat associations of birds inhabiting urban areas of Sydney, Australia. Austral. Ecol. 31, 217-227.
38. Pearce-Higgins, J.W. and Murray, G. (2006). Relationships between bird abundance and the composition and structure of moorland vegetation. Bird Study 53, 112-125.
39. Pearson, T.H. and Rosenberg, R. (1978). Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of marine environment. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 16, 229-311.
40. Rajpar, M.N. and Zakaria, M. (2011). Bird species abundance and their correlationship with microclimate and habitat variables at natural wetland reserve, peninsular Malaysia. Int. J. Zool. 1-17.
41. Santoir, C. and Bopda, A. (2005). Atlas régional Sud-Cameroun. IRD Éditions, Bondy, France.
42. SAS Institute (1985). SAS/STAT guide for personal computers. Cary, NC; 6th Edition.
43. Sedlacek, O., Reif, J., Horak, D., Riegert, J., Pesata, M. and Klvana, P. (2007). The birds of a montane forest mosaic in Big Babanki area, Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon. Malimbus 29, 89-100.
44. Sharpe, R.B. (1904). ‘’On further Collections of Birds from the Efulen District of Cameroon, West Africa, Part II’’. Ibis 46, 591-638.
45. Sharpe, R.B. (1908). ‘’On further Collections of Birds from the Efulen District of Cameroon, West Africa, Part V & VI’’. Ibis 46, 119.
46. Stuart, S.N. (1986). Conservation of Cameroon montane forests. Report of the International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP), Cambridge, UK.
47. Suchel, J.B. (1987). Les climats du Cameroun. State Doctorate Thesis. University of Bordeaux III, France.
48. Svensson, L., Zetterstöm, D. and Mullarney, K. (2016). Le Guide Ornithologique: le guide le plus complet des oiseaux d’Europe, d’Afrique du Nord et du Moyen-Orient N. Édition Delachaux et Niestle, Paris, France.
49. Telleria, J.L. and Santos, T. (1994). Factors involved in the distribution of forest birds in the Iberian Peninsula. Bird Study 41, 161-169.
50. Thebault, E. and Loreau, M. (2006). The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in food webs. Ecol. Res. 21, 17-25.
51. WWF (2010). Certification and Roudtables: Do they work? WWF review of multi-stakeholder sustainability initiatives. WWF review, September 2010. Gland,Switzerland.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.