An Extensive Review of Patient Behavior

An Extensive Review of Patient Behavior

Abdul Kader Mohiuddin

Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, 151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh

International Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science LOGO

The most frequent causes of death in the United States and globally are chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, lung diseases, and diabetes. Behavioral factors, particularly tobacco use, diet and activity patterns, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, and avoidable injuries are among the most prominent contributors to mortality. Projections of the global burden of disease for the next two decades include increases in noncommunicable diseases, high rates of tobacco-related deaths, and a dramatic rise in deaths from HIV/AIDS. Worldwide, the major causes of death by 2030 are expected to be HIV/AIDS, depressive disorders, and heart disease. At the same time, in many parts of the world, infectious diseases continue to pose grim threats, especially for the very young, the old, and those with compromised immune systems. Malaria, diarrheal diseases, and other infectious diseases, in addition to AIDS, are major health threats to the poorest people around the world. And, like chronic diseases, their trajectory may be influenced by the application of effective health behavior interventions. Substantial suffering, premature mortality, and medical costs can be avoided by positive changes in behavior at multiple levels. Most recently, there has been a renewed focus on public health infrastructure to plan for emergencies, including both human-made and natural disasters. During the past twenty years, there has been a dramatic increase in public, private, and professional interest in preventing disability and death through changes in lifestyle and participation in screening programs. Much of this interest in disease prevention and early detection has been stimulated by the epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases as leading causes of death, the aging of the population, rapidly escalating health care costs, and data linking individual behaviors to increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: Health Beliefs and Perception; Patient Counseling; Patient Comprehension and Recall; Patient Motivation; Patient Feedback; Patient Compliance.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Abdul Kader Mohiuddin.An Extensive Review of Patient Behavior .International Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 2019, 2:6


1. Manmohan T, Sreenivas G, Sastry VV, Sudha ER and others. DRUG COMPLIANCE AND ADHERENCE TO TREATMENT Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences 1(3):142-159 July-Sept 2012 Page 142-159
2. Poortaghi S, Raiesifar A, Bozorgzad P, Golzari SE, Parvizy S, Rafii F. Evolutionary concept analysis of health seeking behavior in nursing: a systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015 Nov 27;15:523. doi: 10.1186/s12913-015-1181-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 26613729; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4662038.
3. Irwin MR. Why People Use Health Services Milbank Q. 2005 Dec; 83(4): 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2005.00425.x. doi: [10.1111/j.1468-0009.2005.00425.x] PMCID: PMC2690262
4. Stanislave VK, Sidney C. Health Behavior, Illness Behavior, and Sick-Role Behavior II. Sick-Role Behavior Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal Volume 12, 1966 – Issue 4 Pages 531-541 | Received 10 Nov 1965, Accepted 17 Nov 1965, Published online: 30 Apr 2013
5. Kim HK, Lee M. Factors associated with health services utilization between the years 2010 and 2012 in Korea: using Andersen’s Behavioral model. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016 Feb;7(1):18-25. doi: 10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.007. Epub 2015 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 26981338; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4776261.
6. Mueller C, Schur C, O’Connell J. Prescription drug spending: the impact of age and chronic disease status. Am J Public Health. 1997 October; 87(10): 1626–1629. PMID: 9357343
7. Payne J, Neutel I, Cho R, DesMeules M. Factors Associated with Women’s Medication Use. BMC Womens Health. 2004 Aug 25;4 Suppl 1:S29. PubMed PMID: 15345092; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2096677.
8. Kessler RC. Epidemiology of women and depression. J Affect Disord. 2003 Mar;74(1):5-13. PubMed PMID: 12646294.
9. Nierenberg AA, Trivedi MH, Fava M, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani GK, Rush AJ. (2007). Family history of mood disorder and characteristics of major depressive disorder: A STAR (*) D (sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression) study. Journal of Psychiatric Research 41, 214–221.
10. Pleck, J. H. (1977). The Forty-Nine Percent Majority: The Male Sex Role. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2(1), 79–80.
11. Hummer RA, Hernandez EM. The Effect of Educational Attainment on Adult Mortality in the United States. Popul Bull. 2013 Jun;68(1):1-16. PubMed PMID: 25995521; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4435622.
12. Kitko L, Hupcey JE. Factors that influence health-seeking behaviors of patients experiencing acute stroke. J Neurosci Nurs. 2008 Dec;40(6):333-40. PubMed PMID: 19170299.
13. Gary BR. Chapter 6. Ethnocultural Variations in the Experience of Pain. In: Pain : psychological perspectives / edited by Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Kenneth D. Craig, published by Mahwah, N.J. ; London : Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004.
14. Pachter, LM. Cultural issues in pediatric care. In: Nelson’s textbook of pediatrics.: Springer, New York; 1992
15. Ortega AN, Rodriguez HP, Vargas Bustamante A. Policy dilemmas in Latino health care and implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Annu Rev Public Health. 2015 Mar 18;36:525-44. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122421. Epub 2015 Jan 7. Review. PubMed PMID: 25581154; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4890541.
16. Martz DM, Handley KB, Eisler RM. The relationship between feminine gender role stress, body image, and eating disorders. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 1995; 19: 493-508
17. Siddiqui MA, Khan MF, Carline TE. Gender differences in living with diabetes mellitus. Mater Sociomed. 2013;25(2):140-2. doi: 10.5455/msm.2013.25.140-142. PubMed PMID: 24082841; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3769156.
18. Nguyen H, Sorkin DH, Billimek J, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Ngo-Metzger Q. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among non-Hispanic white, Mexican American, and Vietnamese American patients with type 2 diabetes. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2014 Nov;25(4):1941-55. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2014.0178. PubMed PMID: 25418251; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5790420.
19. Turner J, Kelly B. Emotional dimensions of chronic disease. West J Med. 2000 Feb;172(2):124-8. PubMed PMID: 10693376; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1070773.
20. Li H, Ji Y, Chen T. The roles of different sources of social support on emotional well-being among Chinese elderly. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 3;9(3):e90051. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090051. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24594546; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3940715.
21. Jimmy B, Jose J. Patient medication adherence: measures in daily practice. Oman Med J. 2011 May;26(3):155-9. doi: 10.5001/omj.2011.38. PubMed PMID: 22043406; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3191684.
22. Kronish IM, Ye S. Adherence to cardiovascular medications: lessons learned and future directions. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 May-Jun;55(6):590-600. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2013.02.001. Epub 2013 Mar 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 23621969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3639439.
23. Bosworth HB, Granger BB, Mendys P, Brindis R, Burkholder R, Czajkowski SM, Daniel JG, Ekman I, Ho M, Johnson M, Kimmel SE, Liu LZ, Musaus J, Shrank WH, Whalley Buono E, Weiss K, Granger CB. Medication adherence: a call for action. Am Heart J. 2011 Sep;162(3):412-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.06.007. Review. PubMed PMID: 21884856; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3947508.
24. Hattingh HL, Emmerton L, Ng Cheong Tin P, Green C. Utilization of community pharmacy space to enhance privacy: a qualitative study. Health Expect. 2016 Oct;19(5):1098-110. doi: 10.1111/hex.12401. Epub 2015 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 26332335; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5152744.
25. Davis RE, Jacklin R, Sevdalis N, Vincent CA. Patient involvement in patient safety: what factors influence patient participation and engagement? Health Expectations,10, pp.259–267
26. Wancata LM, Hinshaw DB. Rethinking autonomy: decision making between patient and surgeon in advanced illnesses. Ann Transl Med. 2016 Feb;4(4):77. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2016.01.36. Review. PubMed PMID: 27004224; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4779776.
27. Bradley JG, Zia MJ, Hamilton N. Patient preferences for control in medical decision making: a scenario-based approach. Fam Med. 1996 Jul-Aug;28(7):496-501. PubMed PMID: 8818621.
28. Di Blasi Z, Harkness E, Ernst E, Georgiou A, Kleijnen J. Influence of context effects on health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet. 2001 Mar 10;357(9258):757-62. PubMed PMID: 11253970.
29. Ong LM, de Haes JC, Hoos AM, Lammes FB. Doctor-patient communication: a review of the literature. Soc Sci Med. 1995 Apr;40(7):903-18. Review. PubMed PMID: 7792630.
30. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice, and Policy. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001. Available from: doi: 10.17226/9838
31. Zeng-Treitler Q, Kim H, Hunter M. Improving patient comprehension and recall of discharge instructions by supplementing free texts with pictographs. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2008 Nov 6:849-53. PubMed PMID: 18999109; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2656019.
32. McCarthy DM, Waite KR, Curtis LM, Engel KG, Baker DW, Wolf MS. What did the doctor say? Health literacy and recall of medical instructions. Med Care. 2012 Apr;50(4):277-82. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e318241e8e1. PubMed PMID: 22411440; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3305916.
33. Sudore RL, Schillinger D. Interventions to Improve Care for Patients with Limited Health Literacy. J Clin Outcomes Manag. 2009 Jan 1;16(1):20-29. PubMed PMID: 20046798; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2799039.
34. Badarudeen S, Sabharwal S. Assessing readability of patient education materials: current role in orthopaedics. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Oct;468(10):2572-80. doi: 10.1007/s11999-010-1380-y. Review. PubMed PMID: 20496023; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3049622.
35. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Health Literacy; Nielsen-Bohlman L, Panzer AM, Kindig DA, editors. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004. PubMed PMID: 25009856.
36. Stewart DC, George J, Bond CM, Diack HL, McCaig DJ, Cunningham S. Views of pharmacist prescribers, doctors and patients on pharmacist prescribing implementation. Int J Pharm Pract. 2009 Apr;17(2):89-94. PubMed PMID: 20214256.
37. Akazawa M, Mikami A, Tamura Y, Yanagi N, Yamamura S, Ogata H. Establishing a Pharmacy-Based Patient Registry System: A Pilot Study for Evaluating Pharmacist Intervention for Patients with Long-Term Medication Use. Pharmacy (Basel). 2018 Jan 25;6(1). pii: E12. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy6010012. PubMed PMID: 29370145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5874551.
38. Elizabeth JU. Development of Models to Predict Medication Noe-adherence BasedOn a New Typology. Thesis and dissertations University of Iowa. Iowa Research Online.
39. Kelly DV, Young S, Phillips L, Clark D. Patient attitudes regarding the role of the pharmacist and interest in expanded pharmacist services. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2014 Jul;147(4):239-47. doi: 10.1177/1715163514535731. PubMed PMID: 25360150; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4212442.
40. Al-Arifi MN. Patients’ perception, views and satisfaction with pharmacists’ role as health care provider in community pharmacy setting at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm J. 2012 Oct;20(4):323-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2012.05.007. Epub 2012 May 26. PubMed PMID: 23960807; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3745196.
41. Anghel LA, Farcaş AM, Oprean RN. Medication adherence and persistence in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a narrative review. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2018 Jul 3;12:1151-1166. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S165101. eCollection 2018. Review. PubMed PMID: 30013327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6037147.
42. Nepal G, Bhatta S. Self-medication with Antibiotics in WHO Southeast Asian Region: A Systematic Review. Cureus. 2018 Apr 5;10(4):e2428. doi: 10.7759/cureus.2428. Review. PubMed PMID: 29876150; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5988199.
43. Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol. 2014 Jan 10;4:177. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00177. eCollection 2014 Jan 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 24454289; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3887317.
44. Zullig LL, Blalock DV, Dougherty S, Henderson R, Ha CC, Oakes MM, Bosworth HB. The new landscape of medication adherence improvement: where population health science meets precision medicine. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2018 Jul 13;12:1225-1230. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S165404. eCollection 2018. Review. PubMed PMID: 30034226; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6049050.
45. Cutler RL, Fernandez-Llimos F, Frommer M, Benrimoj C, Garcia-Cardenas V. Economic impact of medication non-adherence by disease groups: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2018 Jan 21;8(1):e016982. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016982. Review. PubMed PMID: 29358417; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5780689.
46. Naheed A, Haldane V, Jafar TH, Chakma N, Legido-Quigley H. Patient pathways and perceptions of hypertension treatment, management, and control in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative study. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2018 Aug 14;12:1437-1449. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S163385. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 30147302; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6097513.
47. Jafar TH, Gandhi M, Jehan I, Naheed A, de Silva HA, Shahab H, Alam D, Luke N, Wee Lim C; COBRA-BPS Study Group. Determinants of Uncontrolled Hypertension in Rural Communities in South Asia-Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Am J Hypertens. 2018 Oct 15;31(11):1205-1214. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpy071. PubMed PMID: 29701801; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6188532.
48. Al Mansari A, Obeid Y, Islam N, Fariduddin M, Hassoun A, Djaballah K, Malek M, Dicker D, Chaudhury T. GOAL study: clinical and non-clinical predictive factors for achieving glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes in real clinical practice. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2018 Jul 10;6(1):e000519. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2018-000519. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 30023075; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6045741.
49. Hu J, Amirehsani KA, Wallace DC, Letvak S. The meaning of insulin to Hispanic immigrants with type 2 diabetes and their families. Diabetes Educ. 2012 Mar-Apr;38(2):263-70. doi: 10.1177/0145721712437559. Epub 2012 Feb 21. PubMed PMID: 22357711; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4054945.
50. Clewley D, Rhon D, Flynn T, Koppenhaver S, Cook C. Health seeking behavior as a predictor of healthcare utilization in a population of patients with spinal pain. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 1;13(8):e0201348. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201348. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 30067844; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6070259.
51. Brownlee S, Chalkidou K, Doust J, Elshaug AG, Glasziou P, Heath I, Nagpal S, Saini V, Srivastava D, Chalmers K, Korenstein D. Evidence for overuse of medical services around the world. Lancet. 2017 Jul 8;390(10090):156-168. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32585-5. Epub 2017 Jan 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 28077234; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5708862.
52. Dixit SK, Sambasivan M. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective. SAGE Open Med. 2018 Apr 12;6:2050312118769211. doi: 10.1177/2050312118769211. eCollection 2018. Review. PubMed PMID: 29686869; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5900819.
53. Bukhari A, Pardhan A and others. Superstitions regarding Health Problems in different EthnicGroups in Karachi. Available From:
54. Garg S, Anand T. Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015 Apr-Jun;4(2):184-6. doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.154627. PubMed PMID: 25949964; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4408698.
55. Vanderlee L, Ahmed S, Ferdous F and others. Self-care practices and barriers to compliance among patients with diabetes in a community in rural Bangladesh Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries DOI 10.1007/s13410-015-0460-7
56. Sutradhar KB, Saha A, Huda NH, Uddin R. Irrational U se of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Southern Rural Bangladesh: Perspectives from Both the Physicians and Patients. Annual Research & Review in Biology 4 ( 9 ): 1421 – 1430 , 2014
57. Paul R. Role of community pharmacists in patients’ self-care and self-medication. Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2015; 4: 57–65. doi: [10.2147/IPRP.S70403] PMID: 29354520
58. Jolly F, Suja A. Clinical pharmacists: Bridging the gap between patients and physicians. Saudi Pharm J. 2014 Dec; 22(6): 600–602. doi: [10.1016/j.jsps.2014.02.011] PMID: 25561874
59. Sanii Y, Torkamandi H, Gholami K, Hadavand N, Javadi M. Role of pharmacist counseling in pharmacotherapy quality improvement. J Res Pharm Pract. 2016 Apr-Jun;5(2):132-7. doi: 10.4103/2279-042X.179580. PubMed PMID: 27162808; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4843583.
60. Mohiuddin AK. Patient Compliance: An Untold Story or a Fairy Tale? Pharmaceut Reg Affairs 2018, 7:2 DOI: 10.4172/2167-7689.1000207 ISSN: 2167-7689
61. Christensen-Szalanski JJ, Northcraft GB. Patient compliance behavior: the effects of time on patients’ values of treatment regimens. Soc Sci Med. 1985;21(3):263-73. PubMed PMID: 3929392.
62. Ramsay MA. Conflict in the health care workplace. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 Apr;14(2):138-9. PubMed PMID: 16369603; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1291328.
63. Van Keer RL, Deschepper R, Francke AL, Huyghens L, Bilsen J. Conflicts between healthcare professionals and families of a multi-ethnic patient population during critical care: an ethnographic study. Crit Care. 2015 Dec 22;19:441. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-1158-4. PubMed PMID: 26694072; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4699338.
64. Mays GP, Halverson PK, Kaluzny AD. Collaboration to improve community health: trends and alternative models. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 1998 Oct;24(10):518-40. PubMed PMID: 9801951.
65. Committee on the Learning Health Care System in America; Institute of Medicine; Smith M, Saunders R, Stuckhardt L, et al., editors. Best Care at Lower Cost: The Path to Continuously Learning Health Care in America. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2013 May 10. 5, A Continuously Learning Health Care System. Available from:
66. Pharmaceutical Press Website. The Health Collaboration Model: A Tool for Analyzing and Improving Patient Care.
67. Saulnier L. Are You Realizing the Full Potential of Pharmacy Practice in the Healthcare System? Can J Hosp Pharm. 2018 Jul-Aug;71(4):288. Epub 2018 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 30186005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6118823.
68. Philip B, Weber RJ. Enhancing pharmacy practice models through pharmacists’ privileging. Hosp Pharm. 2013 Feb;48(2):160-5. doi: 10.1310/hpj4802-160.test. PubMed PMID: 24421454; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3839474.
69. Fraser S. Concordance, compliance, preference or adherence. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2010;4:95-6. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S17167. Epub 2010 Dec 30. PubMed PMID: 22090796; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3217341.
70. Bell JS, Airaksinen MS, Lyles A, Chen TF, Aslani P. Concordance is not synonymous with compliance or adherence. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;64(5):710-1; author reply 711-3. Epub 2007 Sep 13. PubMed PMID: 17875196; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2203263.
71. Gate L, Warren-Gash C, Clarke A, Bartley A, Fowler E, Semple G, Strelitz J, Dutey P, Tookman A, Rodger A. Promoting lifestyle behaviour change and well-being in hospital patients: a pilot study of an evidence-based psychological intervention. J Public Health (Oxf). 2016 Sep;38(3):e292-e300. Epub 2015 Oct 16. PubMed PMID: 26476440.
72. Shaikh RA, Siahpush M, Singh GK, Tibbits M. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey. Int J MCH AIDS. 2015;4(1):22-34. PubMed PMID: 27622000; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4948154.
73. Lasebikan VO, Ayinde O, Odunleye M, Adeyefa B, Adepoju S, Fakunle S. Prevalence of alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders among outdoor drinkers in public open places in Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2018 Mar 27;18(1):400. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5344-6. PubMed PMID: 29580226; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5870070.
74. Thakur JS, Paika R. Determinants of smokeless tobacco use in India. Indian J Med Res. 2018 Jul;148(1):41-45. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_27_18. Review. PubMed PMID: 30264753; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6172920.
75. Rai RK, Jaacks LM, Bromage S, Barik A, Fawzi WW, Chowdhury A. Prospective cohort study of overweight and obesity among rural Indian adults: sociodemographic predictors of prevalence, incidence and remission. BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 30;8(8):e021363. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021363. PubMed PMID: 30166296; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6119421.
76. Chellew S. Managing Disruptive Patient Behavior. Web, November 2016.
77. Sammer CE, Lykens K, Singh KP, Mains DA, Lackan NA. What is patient safety culture? A review of the literature. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2010 Jun;42(2):156-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01330.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 20618600.
78. Youngberg B. Managing the Disruptive Patient: A Challenge to Patient and Provider Safety. Examinations, May 2012.
79. Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Patient aggression: is the clinical practice setting safe? Innov Clin Neurosci. 2014 Nov-Dec;11(11-12):36-40. PubMed PMID: 25621187; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4301031.
80. Chipidza F, Wallwork RS, Adams TN, Stern TA. Evaluation and Treatment of the Angry Patient. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2016 Jun 23;18(3). doi: 10.4088/PCC.16f01951. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27733956; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5035812.
81. Grissinger M. Disrespectful Behavior in Health Care: Its Impact, Why It Arises and Persists, And How to Address It-Part 2. P T. 2017 Feb;42(2):74-77. PubMed PMID: 28163550; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5265230.
82. Steinman HK. A method for working with displeased patients-blast. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2013 Mar;6(3):25-8. PubMed PMID: 23556033; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3613270.
83. Adane M, Mengistie B, Mulat W, Kloos H, Medhin G. Utilization of health facilities and predictors of health-seeking behavior for under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study. J Health Popul Nutr. 2017 Apr 4;36(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s41043-017-0085-1. Erratum in: J Health Popul Nutr. 2017 May 4;36(1):14. PubMed PMID: 28376916; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5381138.
84. Krick JP, Sobal J. Relationships between health protective behaviors. J Community Health. 1990 Feb;15(1):19-34. PubMed PMID: 2341603.
85. Khoso PA, Yew VWC, Mutalib MHA. Comparing And Contrast Ing Health Behaviour With Illness Behaviour. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 11, No. 2 (2016) 578 – 589 , ISSN: 1823 – 884x
86. Langlie JK. Interrelationships among preventive health behaviors: a test of competing hypotheses. Public Health Rep. 1979 Jun;94(3):216-25. PubMed PMID: 451130; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1431839.
87. Kim ES, Strecher VJ, Ryff CD. Purpose in life and use of preventive health care services. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 18;111(46):16331-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1414826111. Epub 2014 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 25368165; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4246300.
88. Harooni J, Hassanzadeh A, Mostafavi F. Influencing factors on health promoting behavior among the elderly living in the community. J Educ Health Promot. 2014 May 5;3:40. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.131921. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25013833; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4089138.
89. Ping W, Cao W, Tan H, Guo C, Dou Z, Yang J. Health protective behavior scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. PLoS One. 2018 Jan 8;13(1):e0190390. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190390. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29309423; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5757924.
90. Sirri L, Grandi S. Illness behavior. Adv Psychosom Med. 2012;32:160-81. doi: 10.1159/000330015. Epub 2011 Oct 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 22056904.
91. Lasselin J, Petrovic P, Olsson MJ, Paues Göranson S, Lekander M, Jensen KB, Axelsson J. Sickness behavior is not all about the immune response: Possible roles of expectations and prediction errors in the worry of being sick. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 Nov;74:213-221. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2018.09.008. Epub 2018 Sep 11. PubMed PMID: 30217536.
92. Becker MH, Drachman RH, Kirscht JP. A new approach to explaining sick-role behavior in low-income populations. Am J Public Health. 1974 Mar;64(3):205-16. PubMed PMID: 4811762; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1775416.
93. Kasl SV, Cobb S. Health behavior, illness behavior, and sick-role behavior. II. Sick-role behavior. Arch Environ Health. 1966 Apr;12(4):531-41. Review. PubMed PMID: 5324641.
94. Verbrugge LM. Gender and health: an update on hypotheses and evidence. J Health Soc Behav. 1985 Sep;26(3):156-82. Review. PubMed PMID: 3905939.
95. Viera AJ, Thorpe JM, Garrett JM. Effects of sex, age, and visits on receipt of preventive healthcare services: a secondary analysis of national data. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006 Feb 23;6:15. PubMed PMID: 16504097; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1402283.
96. Grzywacz JG, Stoller EP, Brewer-Lowry AN, Bell RA, Quandt SA, Arcury TA. Gender and health lifestyle: an in-depth exploration of self-care activities in later life. Health Educ Behav. 2012 Jun;39(3):332-40. doi: 10.1177/1090198111405195. Epub 2011 Jun 1. PubMed PMID: 21632439; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3693089.
97. Metin S, Demirci H, Metin AT. Effect of health literacy of caregivers on survival rates of patients under palliative care. Scand J Caring Sci. 2019 Feb 8. doi: 10.1111/scs.12662. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30735265.
98. Spencer J, Hadden K, Brown H, Oliphant SS. Considering Low Health Literacy: How Do the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-Short Form 20 and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form 7 Measure Up? Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2019 Mar/Apr;25(2):145-148. doi: 10.1097/SPV.0000000000000672. PubMed PMID: 30807417.
99. Polite BN, Cipriano-Steffens TM, Liao C, Miller EL, Arndt NL, Hahn EA. Investigation of a multimedia, computer-based approach to improve knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and receptivity to cancer clinical trials among newly diagnosed patients with diverse health literacy skills. Cancer. 2019 Feb 27. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31991. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30811591.
100. Reynolds R, Smoller S, Allen A, Nicholas PK. Health Literacy and Health Outcomes in Persons Living with HIV Disease: A Systematic Review. AIDS Behav. 2019 Feb 19. doi: 10.1007/s10461-019-02432-9. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30783871.
101. Vernon J, Trujillo A, Rosenbaum S, DeBuono B. Low health literacy: implications for national health policy. University of Connecticut. Storrs, CT: National Bureau of Economic Research; 2007.
102. DeWalt DA, Broucksou KA, Hawk V, Brach C, Hink A, Rudd R, Callahan L. Developing and testing the health literacy universal precautions toolkit. Nurs Outlook. 2011 Mar-Apr;59(2):85-94. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2010.12.002. PubMed PMID: 21402204; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5091930.
103. Michie S, Richardson M, Johnston M, Abraham C, Francis J, Hardeman W, Eccles MP, Cane J, Wood CE. The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2013 Aug;46(1):81-95. doi: 10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6. PubMed PMID: 23512568.
104. Carey RN, Connell LE, Johnston M, Rothman AJ, de Bruin M, Kelly MP, Michie S. Behavior Change Techniques and Their Mechanisms of Action: A Synthesis of Links Described in Published Intervention Literature. Ann Behav Med. 2018 Oct 10. doi: 10.1093/abm/kay078. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30304386.
105. Web MEDPRO GROUP. Risk Management Tools & Resources. Available From:
106. Torres-Robles A, Wiecek E, Cutler R, Drake B, Benrimoj SI, Fernandez-Llimos F, Garcia-Cardenas V. Using Dispensing Data to Evaluate Adherence Implementation Rates in Community Pharmacy. Front Pharmacol. 2019 Feb 26;10:130. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00130. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 30863308; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6399119.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.