Behavioral and Brain Science

  • An Extensive Review of Patient Behavior

    The most frequent causes of death in the United States and globally are chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, lung diseases, and diabetes. Behavioral factors, particularly tobacco use, diet and activity patterns, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, and avoidable injuries are among the most prominent contributors to mortality. Projections of the global burden of disease for the next two decades include increases in noncommunicable diseases, high rates of tobacco-related deaths, and a dramatic rise in deaths from HIV/AIDS. Worldwide, the major causes of death by 2030 are expected to be HIV/AIDS, depressive disorders, and heart disease. At the same time, in many parts of the world, infectious diseases continue to pose grim threats, especially for the very young, the old, and those with compromised immune systems. Malaria, diarrheal diseases, and other infectious diseases, in addition to AIDS, are major health threats to the poorest people around the world. And, like chronic diseases, their trajectory may be influenced by the application of effective health behavior interventions. Substantial suffering, premature mortality, and medical costs can be avoided by positive changes in behavior at multiple levels. Most recently, there has been a renewed focus on public health infrastructure to plan for emergencies, including both human-made and natural disasters. During the past twenty years, there has been a dramatic increase in public, private, and professional interest in preventing disability and death through changes in lifestyle and participation in screening programs. Much of this interest in disease prevention and early detection has been stimulated by the epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases as leading causes of death, the aging of the population, rapidly escalating health care costs, and data linking individual behaviors to increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

  • The Effects of Virtual Reality in the Rehabilitation of Patients With Parkinsons Disease

    Introduction: Due to the increased aging, growing chronic and degenerative diseases. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, which is caused by the degeneration of substantia nigra cells. The main signs of PD are tremor at rest, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, idle and commitment in postural control and balance. Being frequent the use of technology applied to rehabilitation, one of them is virtual reality (VR), which stimulates the movement of the whole body by means of computer-based games, in order to recreate and enhance the sense of reality to the player with interactive games. The RV not immersive, the player interacts with the game, but it has the feeling of being in the real world by using, for example, joystick or common screen uses more interfaces for Nitendo Wii or Microsoft KinectTM, to assist in the rehabilitation of elderly people with PD. Objectives: To conduct a literature review on the effects of RV in the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: A literature review was performed from items available in Scielo databases, PubMed, Lilacs, Medline in August 2017, selecting articles published from 2012 to 2017. Results and Discussion: Initially found 85 studies with the theme proposal, among them, 77 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Selecting articles 8, 4 case studies and literature reviews 4. Results report that RV helps increase the speed and movement time, gait, balance, postural control and reduction of falls. Conclusion: RV helps enhance the physiotherapeutic treatment both in motor control, functionality, balance, and cognitive ability on account of the treatment be playful and need concentration, but still needs more scientific studies with methodological qualities to confirm the results of the RV in rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease.

  • Not So Rare! Epidemiological Study of Amiotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Sergipe

    Introduction: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by selective degeneration and death of upper and lower motoneurons in the cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. The annual incidence described in the literature is 2 per 100,000 people in the world. The literature on the epidemiology of ALS is large, but there is a geographical limitation. Sergipe State has no epidemiological data on ALS. Objective: The objective of this study was to carry out an epidemiological analysis of the visits at the University Hospital of Sergipe (HU) from January 2003 to January 2016. Methodology: The study was performed through a retrospective analysis of 819 patients’ records attended at the Neurology outpatient clinic. Results and Discussion: Thirteen cases of ALS were detected, representing an incidence of 1.5% and a prevalence of 83.3% in the studied episodes. In these cases, 67% of the patients are male and 33% are female. In addition, 83.4% of the patients reside in the interior and 16.6% of them in the capital. The mean age at onset of symptoms was 50.5 years and the mean time to disease progression was 4.6 years. The ALS was present in 83.4% of the cases in the sporadic form and 16.6% in the familial form. It was possible to observe that the disease affects mainly people over 50 years of age, with a higher incidence and prevalence for males and it was possible to notice that the epidemiological rates of the disease are compatible with studies already exposed in the literature. Conclusion: In this way,, epidemiological characterization turn possible to create alternatives for intervention, treatments and proposals in the health area that aim to meet the demands of this population in order to minimize the limitations, thus improving the quality of life of these individuals.

  • Brain Diseases: Epidemiological Survey of the Neurological Care in Sergipe

    Introduction: Epidemiology deals with any event related to the health or disease of the population. Diseases of the Nervous System are a group of inherited or acquired diseases, including diseases such as Headache, Depression, Parkinson’s Disease, among others. In the State of Sergipe, the University Hospital (UH) is a reference in the Unified Health System (SUS) for medium and high complexity care in the different specialties, among them, Neurology. Objective: Analyze the epidemiological profile of patients treated at the UH Neurology outpatient clinic during the period from January 2003 to January 2017. Methods: This epidemiological study was an analytical, retrospective and cross-sectional design and the sample was constituted by the medical records of patients attended at the outpatient clinic and the percentage of the different neurological diseases was estimated. Results and Discussion: A total of 1,382 medical records were randomly collected, where 279 of these were excluded because they did not have data to enable the survey, and information was collected from 1,103 medical records. It was observed that the most prevalent diseases were headache (38%), chronic degenerative diseases (18.3%), epilepsy (8.0%), traumatic brain injury (2.2%) and other disorders (28.9%). According to the specific diagnosis, headache was the most frequent cause of the visits. Epidemiological data point to the relevance of the problem in view of the impacts that this disease causes in the life of the affected population. Chronic Degenerative Diseases were the second most prevalent cause, probably due to the process of demographic transition that the country is experiencing and the increase in the number of chronic diseases in the population. Conclusion: The research allowed characterizing the population served in the reference service in the State. In this way, it was possible to list the main demands and it is possible to elaborate public policies, specific and effective…

  • Herpes Zoster: Increased Risk for Parkinson Disease Development?

    Introduction: Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by the onset of tremor, stiffness, bradykinesia and postural instability. In addition to motor symptoms, some non-motor signals may be observed, such as olfactory dysfunction, sleep disturbance, constipation, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, hearing loss, cataract, and others. Some non-motor symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms that characterize Parkinson’s disease. Herpes zoster infection, as a potential predecessor for the disease, was recently reported. Objective: In this study, we report the case of a patient, attended at the University Hospital of Sergipe (HU), with initial symptoms of herpes zoster infection who developed Parkinson’s disease in a subsequent year. Methodology: A chart analysis was performed, where information such as age, sex, occupation, residence, previous pathological history and clinical evolution were collected. Results and Discussion: A 70-year-old male patient was admitted to the Neurology outpatient clinic, HU, in 2007. He reported being a former smoker and having cancer of the axillary region in 2003. Physical examination showed bilateral tremor, accentuated in upper left and left cog wheel. The patient was attended until 2015 in the hospital, followed with use of Prolopa, symptomatic treatment and motor physiotherapy. He did not evolve with psychiatric alterations. The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease began approximately one year after herpes zoster infection in the chest region, where the patient started a tremor in the fingers of one hand, which evolved throughout the arm, leading the patient to his first care in the HU in 2007. Conclusion: Herpes zoster infection may possibly confer a slightly increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease when compared to patients without shingles.

  • The Calgary Model in the Domiciliary Approach of Patient with Parkinsons Disease

    Introduction: Parkinson’s disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative pathology characterized by motor disorders. The patient with this condition and their families face important changes in lifestyle. Nursing should ensure support to these patients and the faily through the home visit. In this context, the Calgary Model is useful for the recognition of strengths and weaknesses in the family nucleus. Objective: to evaluate the family of a patient with Parkinson’s Disease from the Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM). Methodology: This is a case study with one patient with Parkinson’s and four relatives. The collection took place from March to April 2015, during the activities of Educational Practices in the Community, through the analysis of medical records, interview, direct observation and physical examination. Four home visits were performed and the CFAM was applied. Results and Discussion: The genogram and eco-map, used in this study, allowed the identification of internal and external conflicts relations to the family. In addition to perceiving the distancing of the family in relation to health service. In the evaluation of development. problems were observed in the Lifeline of Medalie of the index case. Regarding the functional category evaluated, through family APGAR, it was shown that the family of the study is moderately functional Conclusion: The family assessment process by the Calgary Model is useful for evaluating the Nurse in the Family Health Strategy, since it allows the family of patients with Parkinson’s Disease to be assisted and to propose improvements in the family nucleus.