Ototoxicity and neurotoxicity from exposure to a mixture of organic solvents and noise, a case report

Ototoxicity and neurotoxicity from exposure to a mixture of organic solvents and noise, a case report

Rebeca Velasco-Reyna1, Ana Luisa Nayeli Torres-Flores2, Rubén Rojo-Ramírez2, Guadalupe Aguilar-Madrid3, Arturo Torres-Valenzuela4, Cuauhtémoc Arturo Juárez-Pérez4
1Área de Enfermedades de Trabajo, Coordinación de Salud en el Trabajo, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI; 2Coordinación de Evaluación de Salud en el Trabajo, Hospital General de Zona 30 Iztacalco. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social; 3Claustro Universitario, Chihuahua Chih. México; 4Unidad de Investigación de Salud en el Trabajo, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI

International-Journal-of-Case-Reports-2d code

Background: Neuropsychological alterations and decreased hearing, are related to organic solvents (OS) exposure; and if noise is present it potentiates the hearing damage.

Aim: to evaluate neuropsychological performance and hearing of a 50 years old worker, occupationally exposed to OS mixtures for 26 years (toluene, ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol) and noise > 85 dB (A).

Design of study: Report of a case assessed by Neuropsychological tests, CT and SPECT studies of hearing and clinic-occupational history. Results: He presented, loss between 35 to > 55 dB HL of his hearing in both ears, both in low frequencies (125 Hz-2 kHz) as well as the treble ones (3-8 kHz), in relation to his age. There was an otoacoustic emissions absence at the same frequencies. He showed cerebellar atrophy, cognitive, motor and emotional disorders.

Conclusions: We Integrated diagnosis of: moderate to severe hearing loss, mental and behaviour disorders due to the simultaneous exposure to noise and an OS mixture, mainly toluene. It should fully evaluate workers exposed to noise and OS.

Keywords: Ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, toluene, noise, emissions otoacoustic audiometry.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:

Rebeca Velasco-Reyna, Ana Luisa Nayeli Torres-Flores, Rubén Rojo-Ramírez, Guadalupe Aguilar-Madrid, Arturo Torres-Valenzuela, Cuauhtémoc Arturo Juárez-Pérez . Ototoxicity and neurotoxicity from exposure to a mixture of organic solvents and noise, a case report . International Journal of Case Reports, 2019 4:89. DOI: 10.28933/ijcr-2019-07-2606


1. CAMPO P, Loquet G, Blachère V, Roure M. Toluene and styrene intoxication route in the rat cochlea. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 1999; 21(4): 427- 434.
2. CHANG SJ, Chen CJ, Lien CH, Sung FC. Hearing loss in workers exposed to toluene and noise. Environ Health Perspect. 2006; 114:1283-1286.
3. Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades. Versión 10-CIE-10. Organización Mundial de la Salud. Organización Panamericana de la Salud. 1994. Disponible en internet, consultado el 01 agosto del 2016.Portal: http://ais.paho.org/classifications/Chapters/pdf/Volume3.pdf
4. DRAPER THJ, Bamiou D-E. Auditory neuropathy in a patient exposed to xylene: case report. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 2009;123:462-465.
5. Fuente C.A. Exposición a solventes y disfunción auditiva central: Revisión de la evidencia científica. Rev. Otorrinolaringol. Cir. Cabeza Cuello 2010; 70: 273-282.
6. Fuente A, McPherson B, Hood LJ. Case report. Hearing loss associated with xylene exposure in a laboratory Yorker. J Am Acad Audio. 2012; 23:824-830.
7. Fuente A, McPherson B. Occupational Chemicals-induced hearing loss. C 9. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224829213_Occupational_Chemical-Induced_Hearing_Loss. Consultado el 04 de abril del 2017.
8. GILIOLI R EURONEST: A concerted action of the European Community for the study of organic solvents neurotoxicity. Environmental Research,1993. 62:89-98.
9. ISO 7029:2000(E). Acoustics-Statistical distribution of hearing thresholds as a function of age. 2000.
10. JUNTUNEN J. Neurotoxic syndromes and occupational exposure to solvents. Environmental Research. 1993; 60: 98-111.
11. LATAYE R and Campo P. Combined effects of simultaneous exposure to noise and toluene on hearing function. Neurotoxicology and Teratology,. 1997; 19(5):373-382.
12. MORATA TC, Dunn DE, Kretschmer LW, Lemasters GK, Keith RW. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1993;19:245-54.
13. MORATA Thais C. Chemical Exposure as a Risk Factor for Hearing Loss. J Occup Environ Med. 2003;45:676–682.
14. NOM-011-STPS-2001. Norma Oficial Mexicana. Condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se genere ruido. DOF-17 de abril de 2002.
15. OSHI (Occupational Safety and Health Service), Department of Labour Wellington, New Zealand. 1998.
16. SCHAPER M, Seeber A, Van Thriel C. The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing threholds: An evaluation based on repeated measurements in the german printing industry. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 2008;21(3):191-200.
17. SLIWINSKA-KOWALSKA M, Zamyslowska-Szmymczak E, Kotylo P, Fiszer M, Dudarewicz A, Wesolowski W, Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska M, Stolarek R. Hearing loss among workers exposed to moderate concentrations of solvents. Scand J Work Environ Health 2001;27(5):335-342.
18. SLIWINSKA-KOWALSKA M, Zamyslowska-Szmymczak E, Szymczak W, Kotylo P, Fiszer M, Wesolowski W, Pawlaczyk-Luscznska M, Bak M, Gajda-Szadkowska A. Effects of coexposure to noise and mixture of organic solvents on hearing in dockyard workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:30-38.
19. SLIWINSKA-KOWALSKA M, Zamyslowska-Szmytke E, Szymczak W, Kotylo P, Fiszer M, Wesolowski W, Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska M. Exacerbation of noise-induced hearing loss by co-exposure to workplace chemicals. Environmental Toxicology and Phamarcology 19(2005)547-553.
20. SUŁKOWSKI WIESŁAW J, et al. Effects of occupational exposure to a mixture of solvents on the inner ear: a field study. IJOMEH. 2002;15 (3):247-256.
21. SHU-JU C, Chiou-Jong C, Chih-Hui L, Fung-Chang S. Hearing Loss in Workers Exposed to Toluene and Noise (2006) Environ Health Perspect 114:1283–1286.
22. VAN WENDEL B, Mergler D, Wesseling C, Henao S, Amador R, Castillo L. Manual de pruebas neuroconductuales. 2000. OPS/OMS.
23. VIAENE MK. Overview of the neurotoxic effects in solvent-exposed workers. Arch Public Health 2002; 60: 217-232.
24. VYSKOCIL A, Truchon G, Leroux T, Lemay F, Gendrom M, Gagnon F, Majidi N, Boudjerida A, Lim S, Emond C, Viau C. A weight of evidence approach for the assessment of the ototoxic potencial of industrial Chemicals. 2012. Toxicology and Industrial Health;28(9):796-819.
25. WHO-Europe. Chronic effects of organic solvents on the central nervous system. 1989.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.