International Journal of Case Reports

  • Idiopathic Spontaneous Pneumoperitoneum: When Not to Operate

    Pneumoperitoneum is often a surgical emergency related to gastrointestinal tract perforation. On rare occasions, free intraperitoneal air can be present without any discernible cause and is considered Idiopathic Spontaneous Pneumoperitoneum (ISP). Deciding which patients with ISP can be managed conservatively would help prevent some patients from undergoing unnecessary surgery. We describe here two cases of successful management of ISP and the review of literature of ISP management for the past 29 years. In the first case, a patient with ISP with no significant abdominal symptoms was successfully managed nonoperatively. In the second case, a patient with ISP and symptoms of small bowel obstruction was successfully treated surgically with exploratory laparotomy and small bowel resection. We recommend conservative management for the subset of ISP patients with no sign of peritonitis or sepsis.

  • Crowned dens syndrome: a case report followed by an update on differential diagnosis and treatment

    Introduction Crowned dens syndrome (CDS) is a rare clinical presentation of chondrocalcinosis or calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) disease, characterized by fever, neck pain and stiffness, associated with increased biological markers of inflammation. Diagnosis is made mainly via imaging, and the best modality remains the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neck showing calcification and calcium pyrophosphate crystals deposition around the odontoid process (1). The aim of this report is to increase awareness of this rare and ill-known clinical tableau and to review its complications and the latest modalities of its diagnosis and treatment. Clinical case: An 83-year-old female patient presented to the emergency department (ED) of the Middle East Institute of Health (MEIH) with severe acute onset neck stiffness and pain of 10/10 intensity, radiating to the submandibular area and reaching the occipital part of the head, associated with nausea and 2 episodes of chills one day prior to presentation. Patient denied any recent history of trauma or surgery of the head and neck. Physical exam at that time was only remarkable for marked limitation of neck motion, and positive Kernig and Brudzinski signs. No skin changes, facial sinuses tenderness, cervical lymphadenopathies or neck swellings were noted. Vital signs at ED were within normal range except for a low grade fever. Laboratory work-up upon presentation showed hyperleukocytosis (WBC = 14000/mm3) with left shift and a C-reactive protein (CRP) of 189 mg/L (0-5 mg/L). Chest X-Ray only showed degenerative osteoarthritis of the thoracic spinal vertebrae. CT-scan of the brain without IV contrast done urgently showed no acute changes. As Clinical and biological features were suggestive of acute meningitis, cultures were taken including blood, urine and CSF fluid from lumbar puncture. The patient was admitted to the hospital for IV antibiotic treatment with a large spectrum carbapenem and close observation. On…

  • Ototoxicity and neurotoxicity from exposure to a mixture of organic solvents and noise, a case report

    Background: Neuropsychological alterations and decreased hearing, are related to organic solvents (OS) exposure; and if noise is present it potentiates the hearing damage. Aim: to evaluate neuropsychological performance and hearing of a 50 years old worker, occupationally exposed to OS mixtures for 26 years (toluene, ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol) and noise > 85 dB (A). Design of study: Report of a case assessed by Neuropsychological tests, CT and SPECT studies of hearing and clinic-occupational history. Results: He presented, loss between 35 to > 55 dB HL of his hearing in both ears, both in low frequencies (125 Hz-2 kHz) as well as the treble ones (3-8 kHz), in relation to his age. There was an otoacoustic emissions absence at the same frequencies. He showed cerebellar atrophy, cognitive, motor and emotional disorders. Conclusions: We Integrated diagnosis of: moderate to severe hearing loss, mental and behaviour disorders due to the simultaneous exposure to noise and an OS mixture, mainly toluene. It should fully evaluate workers exposed to noise and OS.

  • A rare branching pattern of the celiac trunk associated with an accessory aberrant cystic duct

    During routine educational dissection of the upper part of the abdominal cavity in a female cadaver (67 years old, Netherlands) a unique association of two rare biliary and vascular patterns was discovered. The gastroduodenal artery originated from the celiac trunk along with the right hepatic, gastric and splenic arteries, and gave origin to the accessory right and left hepatic vessels. The right hepatic artery took the course typical for the common hepatic artery; however, as a component of the portal triad, the artery was located behind the bile duct and portal vein. Next to the hilum of the liver, it branched off the cystic artery to the gallbladder and bifurcated into two segmental hepatic branches. The described hepatic vascular pattern was associated with the presence of an accessory aberrant cystic duct connecting the body of the gallbladder with the right anterior inferior segmental bile duct. The case is reported to emphasize the importance of a detailed preoperative investigation of the patients considered for open and laparoscopic procedures on the liver and gallbladder documenting the variability of both the biliary and vascular patterns.

  • Penile Fracture – Case Series

    Fracture of the penis is a misnomer, the cause being rupture of one or both of the tunica albuginea that covers the corpora cavernosa. It usually occurs following sexual intercourse or masturbation. Here we report 2 cases of penile fracture in our institution. Ultrasonography was done which confirmed the diagnosis. In both the cases, the urethra was intact. Exploration with evacuation of the hematoma and repair of the tunica albuginea was done.

  • Aberrant inferior suprarenal vessels crossing posterior pararenal space: a case report

    During routine educational dissection of a cadaver (63-year-old, male, USA), an atypical course of the left inferior suprarenal vessels via the posterior pararenal space was discovered. Detailed analysis of the abdominal vascular pattern showed that the atypical inferior suprarenal artery represented a terminal branch of the left inferior phrenic artery. The last one branched off from the very beginning of the left renal artery, ascended between the fibers of the left crus of the diaphragm, then ran laterally giving off muscular branches and, finally, descended along the costal part of the diaphragm to the left posterior pararenal space. The terminal branch of the inferior phrenic artery pierced the retrorenal fascia and entered the perirenal space as an atypical left inferior suprarenal artery. It ran upward and medially crossing the anterior surface of the kidney to reach and supply the lower pole of the left suprarenal gland. The left inferior phrenic vein accompanied the artery taking a similar course. It received numerous tributaries passing via the posterior pararenal space, drained the inferior suprarenal vein, and opened into the left renal vein. Such anomalous pararenal vascular pattern is a challenge for surgeons performing open procedures on retroperitoneal organs, not to mention specialists employing minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques. The anatomical variation reported in this paper requires urgent attention of the related specialists.

  • Safety of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in patients ventilated with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and high FiO2

    Case report of bronchoscopically guided percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in-patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome ventilated with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and high FiO2.

  • From Colonoscope to Microscope: The Diagnosis of Trichuris Trichiura

    Soil Transmitted Helmenthiasis (STH) is a major public health problem in the developing countries. Trichuriasis is one of the common prevalent parasitic infestations in the tropical and sub-tropical countries across the globe incuding India. However, there has been a steady decline of STH in the last five years where there has been success of albendazole with Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in National Filariasis Control Program and Kerala state has been one of them. We report a case of whipworm infection that was incidentally diagnosed by colonoscopy where repeated stool microscopy was uncontributory. The worm can be overlooked, particularly if colon preparation is not good.

  • Acute Coronary syndrome in a patient newly diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy: a review of cardiovascular disease in this inherited neuropathy

    Whilst we suspect that there is no clear association between the two major diagnoses we made in this patient during this hospitalisation (i.e. coronary artery disease and CMT neuropathy), the literature from a series of published case reports does perhaps show an association between CMT and abnormalities of cardiac conduction. Brief Summary: This case reports follows the occurrence of an antero-lateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a 34-year-old male newly diagnosed with an inherited neuropathy in the form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A.

  • The torsed intraabdominal testis presenting with a mechanical large intestinal obstruction – A maiden case report

    Torsion of an intraabdominal testis is a well-known complication and is usually associated with a testicular malignancy. Torsed intraabdominal testis compressing the large bowel leading to a mechanical gut obstruction is still an unreported entity. A 27 years old young patient presenting with nonspecific abdominal pain after 48 hours of delay. Due to features of gut obstruction, an emergency laparotomy was done. A large torsed intraabdominal testis was found with an empty right scrotum which was compressing the sigmoid colon leading to a complete gut obstruction. Interestingly, two of his siblings also were also suffering from undescended testicles.