Transfer Factor Revisited: Treatment of Candida Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis


Transfer Factor Revisited: Treatment of Candida Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis


J. Kelly Smith, MD, FACP1,2*

1Department of Academic Affairs, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, USA; 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, USA


International-Journal-of-Case-Reports-2d code

Candida prosthetic valve endocarditis (CPVE) is most commonly seen in persons who inject drugs intravenously or have indwelling catheters, pacemakers, or prosthetic joints that can serve as a nidus for candida suprainfection and seed the valve. Current treatment guidelines for CPVE include valve replacement and long-term antifungal therapy with intravenously administered Amphotericin B and parenteral or oral therapy with 5-fluorocytosine. Despite treatment, CPVE is characterized by a high recurrence rate (up to 36%) and a 5-year survival of less than 50%.
I review my past experience in treating recalcitrant CPVE with transfer factor (TF) immunotherapy and conclude that TF can be a valuable adjuvant in the treatment of CPVE that does not respond to conventional interventions.


Keywords: Transfer factor, dialyzable leukocyte extract, DLE, candida, prosthetic valve endocarditis, migration inhibition factor, MIF, monocytes, immunotherapy, immune exhaustion

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How to cite this article:

J. Kelly Smith. Transfer Factor Revisited: Treatment of Candida Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis. International Journal of Case Reports, 2019 4:100. DOI: 10.28933/ijcr-2019-10-2305


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