COVID-19 infection In Beta Thalassemia Major: Case series


COVID-19 infection In Beta Thalassemia Major: Case series


Lina Okar1*, Maya Aldeeb1, Rita Ahmad1, Mohamed A. Yassin2

1Department of Medical Education, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
2Department of Medical Oncology, Hematology Section, National Center for Cancer Care & Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.


International-Journal-of-Case-Reports-2d code

COVID-19 infection was first described in Wuhan, China after an increasing spread of atypical pneumonia of unknown pathogen. Unfortunately, this novel virus continues spreading causing a pandemic. Thalassemia considered one of the most common hemoglobinopathies. Beta thalassemia is the commonest type with a variety in clinical picture due to the deference in homozygous. A lot of vulnerable categories were at high risk of getting infected with the coronavirus and more even its complication. Despite the conflicting data and ongoing research on this topic, thalassemia patients were categorized among the high-risk population.
Here we present a case series describing the clinical progression of two splenectomised patients who has transfusion dependent beta thalassemia major.


Keywords: COVID-19; Beta Thalassemia Major; Haemoglobinopathies; Splenectomy; blood transfusion


Free Full-text PDF


How to cite this article:

Lina Okar, Maya Aldeeb, Rita Ahmad, Mohamed A. Yassin. COVID-19 infection In Thalassemia beta major: Case series. International Journal of Case Reports, 2020; 4:161. DOI: 10.28933/ijcr-2020-08-3106


References:

1. Wang Y, Wang Y, Chen Y, Qin Q. Unique epi-demiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures. J Med Virol 2020;92:568–76. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25748.
2. Pascarella G, Strumia A, Piliego C, Bruno F, Del Buono R, Costa F, et al. COVID-19 diagnosis and management: a comprehensive review. J Intern Med 2020;288:192–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.13091.
3. Ata F, Almasri H, Sajid J, Yousaf Z. COVID-19 presenting with diarrhoea and hyponatraemia. BMJ Case Rep 2020;13:235456. https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-235456.
4. De Sanctis V, Kattamis C, Canatan D, Soliman AT, Elsedfy H, Karimi M, Daar S, Wali Y, Yassin M, Soliman N, Sobti P. β-thalassemia distribution in the old world: an ancient disease seen from a historical standpoint. Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases. 2017;9(1).
5. Kanbour I, Chandra P, Soliman A, De Sanctis V, Nashwan A, Abusamaan S, et al. Severe liver iron concentrations (LIC) in 24 patients with β-thalassemia major: Correlations with serum fer-ritin, liver enzymes and endocrine complications. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2018;10:20 18062. https://doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2018.062.
6. Okar, L, Ali, M, Parengal, J, Yassin, MA. COVID‐19 and thalassemia beta major in sple-nectomized patient: Clinical case progression and literature review. Clin Case Rep. 2020; 00: 1– 5. https://doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3345
7. Soliman AT, Prabhakaran Nair A, Al Masalamani MS, et al. Prevalence, clinical manifestations, and biochemical data of type 2 diabetes mellitus versus nondiabetic symptomatic patients with COVID-19: A comparative study. Acta Biomed. 2020;91(3):e2020010. Published 2020 Sep 7. doi:10.23750/abm.v91i3.10214
8. Mullol J, Alobid I, Mariño-Sánchez F, Izquierdo-Domínguez A, Marin C, Klimek L, et al. The Loss of Smell and Taste in the COVID-19 Outbreak: a Tale of Many Countries. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2020;20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11882-020-00961-1.
9. Nashwan AJ, Yassin MA, Babu GDJ, Nair SLK, Libo-On IL, Hijazi HA, et al. Quality of life among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years with be-ta-thalassemia major (TM) in Qatar. Acta Biomed 2018;89:16–26. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v89i2-S.7083.
10. Yassin MA, Soliman AT, de Sanctis V, Abdula MAJ, Riaz LM, Ghori FF, et al. Statural growth and prevalence of endocrinopathies in relation to liver iron content (LIC) in adult patients with beta tha-lassemia major (BTM) and sickle cell disease (SCD). Acta Biomed 2018;89:33–40. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v89i2-S.7085.
11. Yassin M, Soliman A, De Sanctis V, Nashwan A, Abusamaan S, Moustafa A, Kohla S, Soliman D. Liver iron content (LIC) in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD): correlation with serum ferritin and liver enzymes concentrations in trasfusion de-pendent (TD-SCD) and non-transfusion depend-ent (NT-SCD) patients. Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases. 2017;9(1).
12. Soliman AT, Yassin M, Yafei F Al, Al-Naimi L, Almarri N, Sabt A, et al. Longitudinal study on liver functions in patients with thalassemia major be-fore and after deferasirox (DFX) therapy. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2014;6:2014025. https://doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2014.025.
13. Soliman A, Al Yafei F, Al-Naimi L, Almarri N, Sabt A, Yassin M, et al. Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013;17: 1090. https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.122635.
14. De VS, Soliman A, Candini G, Campisi S, Ana-stasi S, Iassin M. High prevalence of central hy-pothyroidism in adult patients with β-thalassemia major. Georgian medical news. 2013 Sep(222):88-94
15. Soliman A, Yasin M, El-Awwa A, De Sanctis V. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adoles-cents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013;17:490.
https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.111647.
16. Yassin MA, Soliman AT, De Sanctis V, Ab-delrahman MO, Aziz Bedair EM, Abdelgawad M. Effects of the anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand denusomab on beta tha-lassemia major-induced osteoporosis. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014;18:546–51. https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.137516.
17. Soliman A, Yasin M, El-Awwa A, Osman M, De Sanctis V. Acute effects of blood transfusion on pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in adolescents and young men with thalassemia major: A pilot study. Fertil Steril 2012;98:638–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.05.047.
18. Soliman AT, Yassin MA, De Sanctis V. Final adult height and endocrine complications in young adults with β-thalassemia major (TM) who re-ceived oral iron chelation (OIC) in comparison with those who did not use OIC. Acta Biomed 2018;89:27–32. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v89i2-S.7084.
19. Soliman A, Yassin M, Majuid NMSA, Sabt A, Abdulrahman M, De Sanctis V. Cortisol response to low dose versus standard dose (back-to-back) adrenocorticotrophic stimulation tests in children and young adults with thalassemia major. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013;17: 1046. https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.122620.
20. Yassin MA, Soliman AT, De Sanctis V, Hussein RM, Al-Okka R, Kassem N, Ghasoub R, Basha A, Nashwan AJ, Adel AM. Jadenu® substituting Exjade® in iron overloaded β-thalassemia major (BTM) patients: a preliminary report of the effects on the tolerability, serum ferritin level, liver iron concentration and biochemical profiles. Mediter-ranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases. 2018;10(1).
21. De Sanctis V, Canatan D, Lluis J, Corrons V, Karimi M, Daar S, et al. A Comprehensive Update of ICET-A Network on COVID-19 in Thalassemias: What We Know and Where We Stand. Maria Concetta Galati 2020;10:0–000. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i3.10063.
22. Patpan N, Banjerdpongchai R, Tantiworawit A, Poofery J, Komonrit P, Fanhchaksai K, et al. The Effect of Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia Patient’s Serum on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Viability. J Cell Death 2019;12:11 7906601882353. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179066018823534.
23. Lansiaux E, Pébaÿ PP, Picard JL, Son-Forget J. COVID-19: beta-thalassemia subjects immun-ised? Med Hypotheses 2020;142:109827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109827.
24. Torti L, Maffei L, Sorrentino F, De Fabritiis P, Miceli R, Abruzzese E. Impact of SARS CoV-2 in hemoglobinopathies: a protective mechanism being from Beta chain Hemoglobin defects? Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2020;12:e2020 052. https://doi.org/10.4084/mjhid.2020.052.
25. Pinto VM, Derchi GE, Bacigalupo L, Pontali E, Forni GL. COVID-19 in a Patient with β-Thalassemia Major and Severe Pulmonary Ar-terial Hypertension. Hemoglobin 2020:1–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630269.2020.1779082.
26. Karimi M, Haghpanah S, Azarkeivan A, Zahedi Z, Zarei T, Akhavan Tavakoli M, et al. Prevalence and Mortality due to Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID‐19) in β‐Thalassemias: The Na-tionwide Iranian Experience. Br J Haematol 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16911.
27. Motta I, De Amicis MM, Pinto VM, Balocco M, Longo F, Bonetti F, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection in beta thalassemia: preliminary data from the Italian experience. Am J Hematol 2020:198–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25840.
28. Pinto VM, Derchi GE, Bacigalupo L, Pontali E, Forni GL. COVID-19 in a Patient with β-Thalassemia Major and Severe Pulmonary Ar-terial Hypertension. Hemoglobin 2020;0:1–4.https://doi.org/10.1080/03630269.2020.1779082.
29. De Sanctis V, Canatan D, Corrons JL, Karimi M, Daar S, Kattamis C, Soliman AT, Wali Y, Alkindi S, Huseynov V, Nasibova A. Preliminary data on COVID-19 in patients with hemoglobinopathies: a multicentre icet-a study. Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases. 2020;12(1).