Content Analysis of Television Food Advertisements Aimed at Children: Case Study of Lagos and Ibadan


Content Analysis of Television Food Advertisements Aimed at Children: Case Study of Lagos and Ibadan


Folake O. Samuel1 and Grace O. Ekundayo2

1Department of Human Nutrition, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
2Department of Human Nutrition, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.


International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

Advertisement is one of the major components of the food environment which influences in childhood food choices. This study was conducted to analyze the content of food advertisements aimed at children in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria. Advertisement samples which were aired between March 2016 to April 2016 were collected from six television stations. A total of 58 advertisments aimed at children were coded and analysed thematically.
Beverages, fruit drinks and soft drinks were the most frequently advertised (32.8%). Butter and margarine had the highest mean duration of time spent for advertisement (47.00± 22.91 seconds), while the mean time for all the advertisement was 34.72±14.05 seconds. Although 82.8% of the advertisements had a slogan, about half of them (48.3%) carried no nutrition message.


Keywords: Food advertisement, nutrition claims, children, Nigerian Television.


Free Full-text PDF


How to cite this article:
Folake O. Samuel and Grace O. Ekundayo. Content Analysis of Television Food Advertisements Aimed at Children: Case Study of Lagos and Ibadan. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2018; 2:16. DOI: 10.28933/ijfnr-2018-11-1808


References:

1. Guran T, Bekeret A. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing. Minerva Pediatr, 2011; 63: 483–490.
2. Bandura, A. Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education & Behavior, 2004; 31(2) :143-164.
3. Udochi Ukaegbu. Influence of television food advertising on consumer buying habits of Guiness Stout in Ikeja community of Lagos state: Bachelor of Science dissertation Caritas University, Enugu, 2013.
4. Da Fonseca. South African parents’ perception of television food advertising directed at children. Masters Business Administration Mini-Dissertation North West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2010.
5. Millstone E& Lang T. The atlas of food. London (UK): Earthscan Books, 2002.
6. Investopedia. A look at Coca-Cola’s Advertising Expenses(KO,PEP). http://www.investopedia.com./articles/markets/081315/look-cocacolas-advertising-expenses.asp
7. Andreyeva T, Kelly IR, Harris JL. Exposure to food advertising on television: association with children’s fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity. Economics and human Biology, 2011; (9): 221-233
8. Harris, Jennifer L., Schwartz, Marlene B., Brownell, Kelly D. Marketing foods to children and adolescents: Licensed characters and other promotions on packaged foods in the supermarket. Public Health Nutrition, 2010; 13(3) :409-417.
9. Zimmerman FJ , Bell JF. Association of television content type and obesity in children. Am J Public Health, 2010; 100 :334–340.
10. Culp, Jennifer, Bell, Robert A. & Cassady, Diana. Chracteristics of food industry web sites and “advergames” targeting children. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 2010; 42(3) :197-201.
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basiccs about childhood obesity.http://www.cdc.gov/obesity,childhood/bacics.html. Accessed May 17,1018.
12. Simmonds M, Llewellyn A, Owen CG, Woolacott N. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev, 2016; 17(2): 95-107.
13. Puhl RDL & Janet. Stigma, Obesity, and the Health of the Nation’s Children. Pyschological Bulletin, 2007; 113 (4): 557-80.
14. Freedman DS,Kettel L, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Srinvisan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of childhood BMI to adult adiposity: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics, 2005; 115:22-27.
15. Goris JM, Petersen S, Stamatakis E. Television food advertising and the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity: a multicountry comparison. Public health, 2010;13: 1003–1012.
16. The cable. Only 37 million households in Nigeria have access to television.www.the cable.ng 2015
17. Byrd- Bredbenner C. Saturday Morning Children’s Television Advertising: A Longitudinal Content Analysis. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 2002; 30 (30): 382-403
18. Senbanjo, IO (2010). Overweight and Obesity in Nigerian Preschool Children. Journal of Tropical Paediatrics, 2010; 53 (2): 143-144.
19. Ene-Obong, H, Ibeanu, V, Onuoha, N, Ejekwu . A Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and thinness among urban school-aged children and adolescents in southern Nigeria. . Food Nutr Bull, 2012; 33(4): 242-250.
20. Craigie, Angela M., Lake, Amelia A., Kelly, Sarah A., Adamson, Ashley J., & Mathers, John C. Tracking of obesity-related behaviours from childhood to adulthood: A systematic review.Maturitas, 2011; 70(3) :266-284.
21. Boyland EJ, Kavanagh-Safran M, Halford JC. Exposure to healthy fast food meal bundles in television advertisements promotes liking for fast food but not healthier choices in children. Br J. Nutr, 2015;113(6):1012-8. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515000082.
22. Zandile J, MchizaNorman J Temple, Nelia P Steyn, Zulfa Abrahams and Mario Clayford . Content Analysis of television food advertisement aimed at children and adult in South Africa. Public Health Nutrition, 2013 ;1
23. Harrison K, Marske AL. Nutritional Content of Advertised During the Television Programs Children Watch Most 2005. American Journal of Public Health, 2005; 95(9): 2
24. Ustjanauskas AE, Harris JL, Schwartz MB. Food and beverage advertising on children’s website. International Association for the Study of Obesity. Paediatric Obesity, 2013;(9): 362-367
25. Burgoine T, Forouhi NG, Griffin SJ, Wareham NJ, Monsivais P . Associations between exposure to takeaway food outlets, takeaway food consumption, and body weight in Cambridgeshire, UK: population based, cross sectional study. BMJ, 2014; 348.
26. YH JYK. Factors Influencing Obesity among Adolescent : Analysis of 2011 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Korean Journal Obesity, 2013; 22(1): 39-49.
27. Christopher T, Lucie H, Robert P, Fiona T, Gillian R, Jyotsna V. 10 Years On: New evidence on TV marketing and junk food eating amongst 11-19 year olds 10 years after broadcast regulations. 2018.
28. Mohammad RN, Md Salleh Bin Hj Hassan, Saadat Parhizkar, Musa Bin Abu Hassan. Correlations between children’s television advertising exposure and their food preference. Journal of Media and Communication Studies, 2011; 3(8):263-268.
29. Boyland EJ, Nolan S, Kelly B (2016). Advertising as a cue to consume: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acute exposure to unhealthy food and non-alcoholic beverage advertising on intake in children and adults. Am J Clinical Nutrition, 2016; 103(2):519-33.doi 10.3945
30. Boyland EJ, Whalen R. Food advertising to children and its effects on diet: review of recent prevalence and impact data. Pediatr Diabetes, 2015; 16(5): 331-7.
31. Oyero O, Salawu A . A Thematic Analysis of Children’s Food Commercials on Nigerian TV Stations .J Communication, 2014; 5(2): 85-94
32. Dijkstra M, Heidi EJJM, Buijtels W. Separate andjoint effects of medium type on consumer responses: acomparison of television, print and the internet. J Bus Res, 2005; 58; 377–386.
33. Lear KE, Runyan RC , Whitaker WH. Sports celebrityendorsements in retail products advertising. Int J RetailDistrib Manage, 2009; 37 :308–321.
34. Batada A, Borzekowski DLG. Crackley what? Recognition of cereal advertisements and understandingof commercials’ persuasive intent amonglow-income, minority, urban youth. J Child Media, 2008; 2: 19–36.
35. Aldridge, Victoria, Dovey, Terence M., Halford, Jason C. G. The role of familiarity in dietary development. Developmental Review, 2009; 29(1): 32-44.
36. Borzekowski, D. The 30-second effect an experiment revealing the impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2001; 101(1): 42–46.