International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

  • Food security in the time of Coronavirus (COVID-19). The Argentine case

    The context of pandemic of the human coronavirus COVID-19, preventive strategies based on mandatory social isolation (quarantine) were imposed by governments to reduce transmission in the community. However, they have had a strong impact on the economies of the countries and on the people as massive layoffs, decreased wages, uncertainty, inability to work formally, increasing precariousness and inequality and food insecurity. Without a doubt, the pandemic surprised Argentina without the necessary tools to amortize the attacks of the disease, and all the collateral consequences that emerge from it. The concept of food insecurity represents a situation or a process experienced by households in which there is a limited and uncertain availability of the quantity and quality of food that allow covering the nutritional requirements of people, thus as an also limited and uncertain availability of the ability to acquire them in an acceptable way from a social and cultural perspective. This work addresses household food insecurity at the micro-social level based on their own surveys and describes the strategies carried out by households in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city, Argentina to withstand the effect. FI status was assessed among 200 adult university students a mean age of 28±6 years (57% female, 43% male) during isolation period in April -May 2020 using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES). The students responded affirmatively and with a higher percentage value to the items related to the lack of money to consume healthy and nutritious food. Food security status of the 200 students survey, 23.5 per cent (n = 47) were food secure. Food insecurity was reported by 76.5% (n = 153). Of these, 50% (n = 100) were mild food insecurity, 25.5% (n = 51) were moderate, while 1% (n = 2) were severe food insecurity. Food insecurity derived from access,…

  • In-Vitro Starch Hydrolysis and Prediction of Glycaemic Indices of Biscuits Produced from Wheat, African Walnut and Moringa Seed Flour Blends

    African walnut and moringa seed were procured and processed into flours. Biscuits were thus produced from different blends of wheat flour (WHF), African walnut flour (AWF) and moringa seed flour (MSF) in the ratios of (WHT:AWF:MSF) 100:0:0, 77.5:20:2.5, 75:20:5, 72.5:20:7.5, 70:20:10, 90:0:10, 80:20:0 and labelled from A to G, respectively. The produced biscuits were evaluated for dietary fibre content, in-vitro starch hydrolysis and predicted glycaemic indices. The results of dietary fibre content of the biscuits revealed that sample E was significantly higher with a value of 0.72g compare to other samples. Dietary fibre content of the biscuits increased as the level of substitution with moringa seed flour increased. Results of the in-vitro starch hydrolysis of the biscuits showed that the percentage starch hydrolysed reached its peak at 120 min of digestion and after which, a reduction steps in as digestion time increases. Equilibrium concentration, hydrolysis index and predicted glycaemic indices of the biscuits reduced as the level of substitution of moringa seed flour increased. It revealed sample E with Equilibrium concentration value of 48.06, hydrolysis index of 51.66% and predicted glycaemic index of 68.07. Thus, the blends of 70:20:10 (WHT:AWF:MSF) which represented sample E could be used as medium glycaemic index food.

  • EATING DISORDERS AND THEIR RISK FACTORS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Introduction: Eating disorders are psychiatric disorders that lead to biopsychosocial impairment with high rates of morbidity and mortality in the population. The prevalence of eating disorders in college students is quite significant, especially in health and female courses, associated with poor diet, and the influence of the media on the perfect body, becoming a social problem and public health that should be addressed in the daily lives of health professionals. Objectives: Analyze in literature the risk factors in college students for eating disorders. Methodology: The research took place in the CAPES Periodicals, PubMed and VHL Regional Portal. Descriptors were the terms: “Eating Disorders and Food Intake”, “Risk Factors” and “Students”. Articles published between 2014 and 2018 were included. Results: Of the 3287 articles found, only eleven were included in the review. Evidence was found that eating disorders may result from personal body perception associated with poor diet and excessive alcohol consumption. It can be expressed through the personal need to satisfy the physical image with the psychological, almost always unreachable. Evidence was also found that eating disorders are associated with higher parental education, living in urban areas, eating outside the home and the first two years after college entry. Conclusion: The literature on the interaction between eating disorders and risk factors is still incipient to the detriment of the complexity and scope of the phenomenon. It is also highlighted the need for further investigations on diagnostic and therapeutic teaching strategies of health professionals in order to reduce the morbidity arising from these events.

  • Fast Food: “The Real Costs Never Appear on the Menu”

    Menus, as lists of prepared foods, provides origin of the food items (Thai, Chinese, Continental), restaurant’s mission, chef’s philosophy of cooking, brief idea about food processing, special combo offers along with their cost. The colorful menu or flyers attracts fast food lovers to spend more and more in their favorite restaurants for both its decadent yumminess and its ultra-convenience. Calculation of monetary cost gets more priorities than the actual hidden health costs, as usual. Food that is fried such as in a fast food restaurant is usually cooked in oil that has been heated and used multiple times. One serving in a fast food restaurant may has 100 times the level of aldehydes designated as safe by the WHO. Although there are a growing number of healthier fast food options, most fast food can still be classified as junk food. Eating a poor-quality diet high in junk food is linked to a higher risk of obesity, depression, digestive issues, heart disease and stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and early death.

  • Impacts of Climate Change on Fish Production and Its Implications on Food Security in Developing Countries

    Fish plays a great role on nutritional status by providing essential amino acids, vitamin and nutrients that are deficient in staple foods. The review was conducted to review the potential physical and biological impacts of climate change on fisheries and to highlights some mitigation and adaptation measures to promote fish production. The impacts of climatic change on fisheries in developing countries classified as physical and biological changes. Physical changes including water surface temperature rise, ocean acidification, sea level rise, salinity, flooding and change in harvesting sector. Biological changes including changes in primary production change in fish distribution and fish diseases. Elevated water temperatures affect fish physiological processes, there by affecting reproduction and survival of the fish larvae. The impacts of increased flooding of the freshwater bodies will be negative through destruction of fish feeding and breeding habitats, or positive in expansion of aquatic habitats for primary production. Rise in the sea level lead to intrusion of more salty water into the river areas thus affecting distribution of fish and high wind can interfere catching and trade activities. These climatic factors interferes food security directly through limiting the availability of fishes to human diet and indirectly by reducing cash revenue obtaining from fish trade to purchase other food items. Therefore, implementing adaptation and mitigation pathways safeguard this sector and improve food security.

  • Optimization of Local Wort and Fermented Beer from Barley as Substitute Raw Material for Ethanol Production Using Response Surface Methodology

    The research work was aimed to find the exact optimized operating temperature, time, pH and substrate which is important for the production of wort and fermented beer in both mashing and fermentation processes. Here, the barley was used as a basic source of substrate and enzymes. To determine the optimum operating temperature, pH, time and substrate under mashing and fermentation processes, Central Composite Experimental Design (CCD) was used. The results showed that, the maximum % malt extracts (92.36 %), fermentable sugar (10.53 oBx) were observed at 70oC, 120 min., pH value of 4.5 and 30 gm substrate source addition. After optimizing the wort, the fermentation experiment was conducted accordingly the combination which was given by design expert software. The maximum degree of attenuation value (86 %) was observed at 20oC, 96 hr, and pH value of 4.4 and 75 gm substrate source added. Therefore, good barley type and optimum condition for mashing and fermentation process were found to be significant effect for high wort, and distillery beer.

  • Magnitude and associated factors of goiter, and iodized salt utilization among adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorder is a common and preventable global public health problem that causes irreversible mental retardation. IDD is more prevalent in developing countries, especially in mountain areas. Therefore this study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of goiter among adolescent girls. The knowledge and utilization of iodine-rich foods and iodized salt of adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia was also assessed. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 5, 2018, to December 30, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 477 adolescent girls from 12 schools. A pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measure and thyroid gland examination were used for data collection. The collected data were entered into Epi Data 3.1 software and analyzed using Anthro plus and SPSS version 21 software. Results: The overall prevalence of goiter was 50.4% of which 35.4% were palpable and 15.0% were visible goiter. Being post-menarche (AOR=3.241, 95% CI= (1.288-8.152)) and thin (AOR=1.124, 95% CI= (1.068-14.680)) adolescent girl increased the risk goiter. Two hundred seventy (60.8%) adolescent girls had awareness about salt iodization and 54.5% girls said it is important to prevent goiter. Though packed salt was used by 58.2% only 30.6% of households of adolescent girls add salt immediately before the end of cooking or after cooking. Conclusions: Goiter is a serious health problem that affects about half of adolescent girls in the study area. The risk of developing goiter was higher among girls who initiated menstruation and suffered from thinness. There is low awareness about iodized salt and packed salt utilization. In addition to universal salt iodization as a strategy to eliminate IDD, emphasis to awareness creation on salt iodization and its proper utilization is required.

  • Compositional analysis of genetically modified soybeans placed on Taiwan market

    Soybean is an important protein source for consumers in Taiwan. Soybean production in Taiwan is not self-sufficient. Taiwan imports 2.5 million tons of soybeans annually. More than 90% of the imported soybeans are genetically modified (GM). To provide an objective assessment on safety of GM soybean and for post-market monitoring, we conducted a comparative assessment on key component compositions between imported GM soybean and local non-GM soybean from Taiwan. All the soybean samples were purchased from the local market to simulate the status of Taiwanese consumers in purchasing soybeans. The GM soybean samples were herbicide-tolerant soybeans. The content of the proximate, the amino acid composition, the fatty acid composition, vitamins, minerals, antinutritional factors, and isoflavones of soybean samples were analyzed. Most contents of the key components of the GM soybean had no significant difference with those of the non-GM soybean. However, the contents of ash, crude protein, amino acids, myristic acid, behenic acid, phosphorus, iron and phytic acid were significantly lower in the GM soybean samples, and the contents of crude fat, margaric acid, and stearic acid were significantly higher in the GM soybean samples. But they were all within the range of reference values. A total of 314 pesticide residues in each of the samples were analyzed. Glyphosate residue was detected only in GM soybean samples, but it is well below the threshold prescribed by the government. In summary, the GM soybean samples purchased from Taiwan market were shown to be substantially equivalent to non-GM soybeans.

  • HPLC profiling, in vitro antisickling and antioxidant activities of phenolic compound extracts from black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgarus L.) used in the management of sickle cell disease in the West Region of Cameroon

    Natural molecules from food have been used to manage sickle cell crises. As a genetic blood disorder, treatment is complex and expensive. This study was carried out to establish the phenolic compounds profile of black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgarus. L) commonly used by some families in the Western Region of Cameroon to manage sickle cell disease and to evaluate their in vitro antisickling, membrane stability and antioxidant properties. Free, bound and total phenolic contents were estimated to be 0.1±0; 0.108±0 and 0.212±0 mg EAG/g of sample respectively. Free phenolic compounds contain ferulic acid (0.013 μg/g), while bound phenolic compounds contain gallic acid (2.13 μg/g) and ferulic acid (0.037 μg/g). Free phenolic compounds had the higher rates of inhibition (82.26±2%), reversibility (69.86±3%) of sickling and the best effect on membrane stability of erythrocytes. Phenolic extracts from black bean seeds also showed a high global antioxidant activity with free phenolic compounds (28.42± 0 mgFeII/100g). Total phenolic compounds showed a better activity on DPPH radical with a IC50 of 2.42±1µg/µL while free phenolic compounds showed a better activity on scavenging hydroxyl radical with a IC50 of 1.5±0.5µg/µL. These results may justify the use of black bean seeds by sickle cell patients from Cameroon.

  • Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders

    The yield and physicochemical properties of single grain and multigrain akamu powders were evaluated. Akamu, ogi or pap, powders were produced by soaking (fermenting) cereal grains (48-72 h), wet-milling, sieving, dewatering, drying (50oC) and pulverizing maize (MBA), pearl millet (PMBA) and sorghum (SBA). Multigrain akamu was produced by co-fermenting equal proportions of maize, pearl millet and sorghum (Blend1); and singly fermenting these cereals and blending the end products (Blend2). Yield, proximate and mineral compositions, functional and sensory properties of akamu were analyzed following established methods. The yield of MBA, PMBA, SBA, Blend1 and Blend2 were respectively 60%, 70%, 80%, 53.33% and 68.67%. Chemically, SBA had significantly (p