Menus, as lists of prepared foods, provides origin of the food items (Thai, Chinese, Continental), restaurant’s mission, chef’s philosophy of cooking, brief idea about food processing, special combo offers along with their cost. The colorful menu or flyers attracts fast food lovers to spend more and more in their favorite restaurants for both its decadent yumminess and its ultra-convenience. Calculation of monetary cost gets more priorities than the actual hidden health costs, as usual. Food that is fried such as in a fast food restaurant is usually cooked in oil that has been heated and used multiple times. One serving in a fast food restaurant may has 100 times the level of aldehydes designated as safe by the WHO. Although there are a growing number of healthier fast food options, most fast food can still be classified as junk food. Eating a poor-quality diet high in junk food is linked to a higher risk of obesity, depression, digestive issues, heart disease and stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and early death.
Impacts of Climate Change on Fish Production and Its Implications on Food Security in Developing Countries
Fish plays a great role on nutritional status by providing essential amino acids, vitamin and nutrients that are deficient in staple foods. The review was conducted to review the potential physical and biological impacts of climate change on fisheries and to highlights some mitigation and adaptation measures to promote fish production. The impacts of climatic change on fisheries in developing countries classified as physical and biological changes. Physical changes including water surface temperature rise, ocean acidification, sea level rise, salinity, flooding and change in harvesting sector. Biological changes including changes in primary production change in fish distribution and fish diseases. Elevated water temperatures affect fish physiological processes, there by affecting reproduction and survival of the fish larvae. The impacts of increased flooding of the freshwater bodies will be negative through destruction of fish feeding and breeding habitats, or positive in expansion of aquatic habitats for primary production. Rise in the sea level lead to intrusion of more salty water into the river areas thus affecting distribution of fish and high wind can interfere catching and trade activities. These climatic factors interferes food security directly through limiting the availability of fishes to human diet and indirectly by reducing cash revenue obtaining from fish trade to purchase other food items. Therefore, implementing adaptation and mitigation pathways safeguard this sector and improve food security.
Optimization of Local Wort and Fermented Beer from Barley as Substitute Raw Material for Ethanol Production Using Response Surface Methodology
The research work was aimed to find the exact optimized operating temperature, time, pH and substrate which is important for the production of wort and fermented beer in both mashing and fermentation processes. Here, the barley was used as a basic source of substrate and enzymes. To determine the optimum operating temperature, pH, time and substrate under mashing and fermentation processes, Central Composite Experimental Design (CCD) was used. The results showed that, the maximum % malt extracts (92.36 %), fermentable sugar (10.53 oBx) were observed at 70oC, 120 min., pH value of 4.5 and 30 gm substrate source addition. After optimizing the wort, the fermentation experiment was conducted accordingly the combination which was given by design expert software. The maximum degree of attenuation value (86 %) was observed at 20oC, 96 hr, and pH value of 4.4 and 75 gm substrate source added. Therefore, good barley type and optimum condition for mashing and fermentation process were found to be significant effect for high wort, and distillery beer.
Magnitude and associated factors of goiter, and iodized salt utilization among adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia
Background: Iodine deficiency disorder is a common and preventable global public health problem that causes irreversible mental retardation. IDD is more prevalent in developing countries, especially in mountain areas. Therefore this study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of goiter among adolescent girls. The knowledge and utilization of iodine-rich foods and iodized salt of adolescent girls in the highland area of North Shewa zone, Central Ethiopia was also assessed. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 5, 2018, to December 30, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 477 adolescent girls from 12 schools. A pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measure and thyroid gland examination were used for data collection. The collected data were entered into Epi Data 3.1 software and analyzed using Anthro plus and SPSS version 21 software. Results: The overall prevalence of goiter was 50.4% of which 35.4% were palpable and 15.0% were visible goiter. Being post-menarche (AOR=3.241, 95% CI= (1.288-8.152)) and thin (AOR=1.124, 95% CI= (1.068-14.680)) adolescent girl increased the risk goiter. Two hundred seventy (60.8%) adolescent girls had awareness about salt iodization and 54.5% girls said it is important to prevent goiter. Though packed salt was used by 58.2% only 30.6% of households of adolescent girls add salt immediately before the end of cooking or after cooking. Conclusions: Goiter is a serious health problem that affects about half of adolescent girls in the study area. The risk of developing goiter was higher among girls who initiated menstruation and suffered from thinness. There is low awareness about iodized salt and packed salt utilization. In addition to universal salt iodization as a strategy to eliminate IDD, emphasis to awareness creation on salt iodization and its proper utilization is required.
Soybean is an important protein source for consumers in Taiwan. Soybean production in Taiwan is not self-sufficient. Taiwan imports 2.5 million tons of soybeans annually. More than 90% of the imported soybeans are genetically modified (GM). To provide an objective assessment on safety of GM soybean and for post-market monitoring, we conducted a comparative assessment on key component compositions between imported GM soybean and local non-GM soybean from Taiwan. All the soybean samples were purchased from the local market to simulate the status of Taiwanese consumers in purchasing soybeans. The GM soybean samples were herbicide-tolerant soybeans. The content of the proximate, the amino acid composition, the fatty acid composition, vitamins, minerals, antinutritional factors, and isoflavones of soybean samples were analyzed. Most contents of the key components of the GM soybean had no significant difference with those of the non-GM soybean. However, the contents of ash, crude protein, amino acids, myristic acid, behenic acid, phosphorus, iron and phytic acid were significantly lower in the GM soybean samples, and the contents of crude fat, margaric acid, and stearic acid were significantly higher in the GM soybean samples. But they were all within the range of reference values. A total of 314 pesticide residues in each of the samples were analyzed. Glyphosate residue was detected only in GM soybean samples, but it is well below the threshold prescribed by the government. In summary, the GM soybean samples purchased from Taiwan market were shown to be substantially equivalent to non-GM soybeans.
HPLC profiling, in vitro antisickling and antioxidant activities of phenolic compound extracts from black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgarus L.) used in the management of sickle cell disease in the West Region of Cameroon
Natural molecules from food have been used to manage sickle cell crises. As a genetic blood disorder, treatment is complex and expensive. This study was carried out to establish the phenolic compounds profile of black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgarus. L) commonly used by some families in the Western Region of Cameroon to manage sickle cell disease and to evaluate their in vitro antisickling, membrane stability and antioxidant properties. Free, bound and total phenolic contents were estimated to be 0.1±0; 0.108±0 and 0.212±0 mg EAG/g of sample respectively. Free phenolic compounds contain ferulic acid (0.013 μg/g), while bound phenolic compounds contain gallic acid (2.13 μg/g) and ferulic acid (0.037 μg/g). Free phenolic compounds had the higher rates of inhibition (82.26±2%), reversibility (69.86±3%) of sickling and the best effect on membrane stability of erythrocytes. Phenolic extracts from black bean seeds also showed a high global antioxidant activity with free phenolic compounds (28.42± 0 mgFeII/100g). Total phenolic compounds showed a better activity on DPPH radical with a IC50 of 2.42±1µg/µL while free phenolic compounds showed a better activity on scavenging hydroxyl radical with a IC50 of 1.5±0.5µg/µL. These results may justify the use of black bean seeds by sickle cell patients from Cameroon.
Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders
The yield and physicochemical properties of single grain and multigrain akamu powders were evaluated. Akamu, ogi or pap, powders were produced by soaking (fermenting) cereal grains (48-72 h), wet-milling, sieving, dewatering, drying (50oC) and pulverizing maize (MBA), pearl millet (PMBA) and sorghum (SBA). Multigrain akamu was produced by co-fermenting equal proportions of maize, pearl millet and sorghum (Blend1); and singly fermenting these cereals and blending the end products (Blend2). Yield, proximate and mineral compositions, functional and sensory properties of akamu were analyzed following established methods. The yield of MBA, PMBA, SBA, Blend1 and Blend2 were respectively 60%, 70%, 80%, 53.33% and 68.67%. Chemically, SBA had significantly (p
Comparison between creatine monohydrate and creatine HCl on body composition and performance of the Brazilian Olympic team
Weight-dependent athletes have trouble to balance the energy consumption to the needs of the sport they practice. As performance depends on that balance, it would be ideal to find a supplement that would be ergogenic without promoting weight increase. Monohydrate creatine supplementation is effective to improve strength and power but water retention and weight gain are side effects that avoid its use. An alternative molecule, creatine HCl, proposes the same an ergogenic effects without the undesirable effects. So, this study compared the effects of both creatines on performance and body composition of elite gymnastics athletes. 11 males, 18 to 25 years old took part into the randomized cross-over model: Creatine Monohydrate Supplement (MCG), resistant starch (RS) and HCl Supplement (HClG). Pre and Post all the experimental conditions, body fat percentage, body weight, lean body mass and total water amount were measured, bench press and leg press 1RM test were also carried out. Lean mass increased with both treatments (p
Drivers of Food Choice among Lactating Women: The Case of Debrebirhan Town, North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
While access to foods and more information on healthy eating are important, decisions to adopt health-enhancing behavior of lactating women (nutritional vulnerable group) are often constrained by socio-economic barriers, personal and food related drivers that influence food choice. Therefore, this study aimed to assess drivers of food choice, & socio-economic variables associated with drivers of food choice among lactating women in Debrebirhan Town. A survey study was conducted on 423 randomly selected lactating women. Data was collected by face to face interview and analyzed via SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to find association b/n socio-economic variables and drivers of food choice. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Influences of religion, price, preparation convenience, health value and taste during food choice were responded by above half of women (92%, 84%, 83%, 66% & 56%). From multivariate analysis of binary logistic regression, influence of mood in food choice was associated to age (15-25 and 26-35 years) and estimated monthly income (≤3500 vs.>3500 ETB) with AOR (95%CI) of 3.24(1.3-8.08), 3.95(1.85-8.4) and 1.83(1.03-3.24). Age (15-25 & 26-35 years) was associated to choosing of foods for weight management with AOR (95%CI) of 2.64(1.12-6.22) and 3.52(1.66-7.43). 15-25 years’ age and self-employee were linked to religion influence in food choice with AOR (95%CI) of 0.09(0.01-0.48) and 4.13(1.4-12.24). Age (15-25 & 26-35 years), education (no, primary & secondary) and being housewife were associated to choosing of foods for their health value with AOR (95%CI) of 0.26(0.12-0.6), 0.37(0.18-0.76), 0.14(0.04-0.42), 0.25(0.13-0.54), 0.33(0.17-0.66) and 2.5(1.23-5). Avoidance of foods for nutrient content was related to age (15-25 &26-35 years) with AOR (95%CI) of 6.75(2.77-16.5) and 5.77(2.7-12.32). Primary education and being housewife were associated to ingredient contents of foods during selection with AOR (95%CI) of 0.29(0.14-0.6) and 2.24(1.15-4.35). Only family size (2-4 vs.>4 persons) was associated with price…
Evaluation of the Physico-chemical, Functional and sensory attributes of instant fufu developed from bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum)
In this study, the eating qualities and physicochemical properties of three fufu samples were produced and evaluated, while the functional properties of the fufu flours were also determined. The results obtained for the functional properties of swelling power were 12.26, 12.13, and 12.35; solubility 8.73, 6.79 and 5.27; water binding capacity 276.15, 261.02 and 280.05; bulk density 0.53, 0.56 and 0.76; pH 6.4, 6.3 and 6.8; and dispersibility 59.2, 59.8 and 8.68 for samples A, B and R, respectively. Sample R (control) had the highest mean values for water binding capacity, pH, swelling power and bulk density while sample A had the highest mean value for solubility. Sample B had the lowest mean values for all the functional properties measured while Sample R (commercial yam fufu) was liked most in terms of aroma, taste, colour, mouldability and texture. From the results, sample A (80% bitter yam flour and 20% cassava starch) had relatively better sensory attributes than sample B (70% bitter yam flour and 30% cassava starch), as well as better functional properties.