Comparison between creatine monohydrate and creatine HCl on body composition and performance of the Brazilian Olympic team

Comparison between creatine monohydrate and creatine HCl on body composition and performance of the Brazilian Olympic team

Caroline Ayme Fernandes Yoshioka1, Diana Madureira2, Paulo Carrara3, Natália Gusmão2, Kamila Santos Ressureição4, Jeferson Oliveira Santana2, Marco Aurélio Lamolha2, Renata Furlan Viebig4, Iris Callado Sanches2, Fabio Santos de Lira5, Erico Chagas Caperuto6

1UNICAMP – Brazil; 2São Judas Tadeu University – Brazil; 3São Paulo University – USP – Brazil; 2São Judas Tadeu University – Brazil; 4Mackenzie Presbiterian University – Brazil; 2São Judas Tadeu University – Brazil; 2São Judas Tadeu University – Brazil; 4Mackenzie Presbiterian University – Brazil; 2São Judas Tadeu University – Brazil; 5UNESP – Brazil; 6São Judas Tadeu University and Mackenzie Presbiterian University – Brazil

International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

Weight-dependent athletes have trouble to balance the energy consumption to the needs of the sport they practice. As performance depends on that balance, it would be ideal to find a supplement that would be ergogenic without promoting weight increase. Monohydrate creatine supplementation is effective to improve strength and power but water retention and weight gain are side effects that avoid its use. An alternative molecule, creatine HCl, proposes the same an ergogenic effects without the undesirable effects. So, this study compared the effects of both creatines on performance and body composition of elite gymnastics athletes. 11 males, 18 to 25 years old took part into the randomized cross-over model: Creatine Monohydrate Supplement (MCG), resistant starch (RS) and HCl Supplement (HClG). Pre and Post all the experimental conditions, body fat percentage, body weight, lean body mass and total water amount were measured, bench press and leg press 1RM test were also carried out. Lean mass increased with both treatments (p <0.05), fat percentage decreased only with HCl (p <0.05) and strength gains were significantly improved for both supplements. We concluded that both creatines improve strength but only HCl allows this effect without retaining water.

Keywords: Creatine monohydrate. Creatine HCl. Artistic Gymnastics. Elite Athletes.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Caroline Ayme Fernandes Yoshioka, Diana Madureira, Paulo Carrara, Natália Gusmão, Kamila Santos Ressureição, Jeferson Oliveira Santana, Marco Aurélio Lamolha, Renata Furlan Viebig, Iris Callado Sanches, Fabio Santos de Lira, Erico Chagas Caperuto. Comparison between creatine monohydrate and creatine HCl on body composition and performance of the Brazilian Olympic team. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2019; 3:28. DOI:10.28933/ijfnr-2019-05-2205


1. Miller, D. W. (2009). Oral bioavailability of creatine supplements: Is there room for improvement. . . Annual Meeting of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from
2. Brown, M. A., Howatson, G., Quin, E., Redding, E., & Stevenson, E. J. (2017). Energy intake and energy expenditure of preprofessional female contemporary dancers. PLoS ONE, 12(2), 1–13.
3. Kiningham, R. B., & Gorenflo, D. W. (2001). Weight loss methods of high school wrestlers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), 810–813.
4. Cohen, P. A., Avula, B., Venhuis, B., Travis, J. C., Wang, Y. H., & Khan, I. A. (2017). Pharmaceutical doses of the banned stimulant oxilofrine found in dietary supplements sold in the USA. Drug Testing and Analysis, 9(1), 135–142.
5. Bemben, M. G., & Lamont, H. S. (2005). Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: recent findings. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 35(2), 107–125.
6. Terjung, R. L., Clarkson, P., Eichner, E. R., Greenhaff, P. L., Hespel, P. J., Israel, R. G., … Williams, M. H. (2000). American College of Sports Medicine roundtable. The physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(3), 706–717.
7. Benzi, G. (2000). Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport? Pharmacological Research, 41(3), 255–264.
8. Groeneveld, G. J., Beijer, C., Veldink, J. H., Kalmijn, S., Wokke, J. H. J., & van den Berg, L. H. (2005). Few adverse effects of long-term creatine supplementation in a placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(4), 307–313.
9. Graham, A. S., & Hatton, R. C. (1999). Creatine: a review of efficacy and safety. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Washington,D.C. : 1996), 39(6), 803–807.
10. Ostojic, S. M., & Ahmetovic, Z. (2008). Gastrointestinal distress after creatine supplementation in athletes: are side effects dose dependent? Research in Sports Medicine (Print), 16(1), 15–22.
11. Dash, A. K., Miller, D. W., Huai-Yan, H., Carnazzo, J., & Stout, J. R. (2001). Evaluation of creatine transport using Caco-2 monolayers as an in vitro model for intestinal absorption. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 90(10), 1593–1598.
12. Tuckfield, C. (2015). First use of creatine hydrochloride in premanifest huntington disease. Medical Journal of Australia, 202(7), 378–381.
13. Nunomura, M., & Oliveira, M. S. (2011). PARENTS ’ SUPPORT IN THE SPORTS CAREER OF YOUNG GYMNASTS. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 5(1), 5–17.
14. Brown, L., & Weir, J. P. (2001). Procedures Recommendation I: Accurate Assessment Of Muscular Strength And Power. Journal of Exercise Physiology, 4(3), 1–21.
15. Jackson, A.S; Pollock, M. . (1978). Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. British Journal of Nutrition, 40(3), 497–504.
16. R. Malina, A. Baxter-Jones, N. Armstrong, Beunen, G. P., Caine, D., Daly, R. M., Lewis, R. D., Rogol, A. D., & Russell, K. (2013). Role of Intensive Training in the Growth and Maturation of Artistic Gymnasts. Sports Medicine, 43(9), 783–802.
17. Achten, J., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2004). Optimizing Fat Oxidation Through Exercise and Diet. Nutrition, 20(7–8), 716–727.
18. Gufford, B. T., Miller, N. J., Miller, D. W., Vennerstrom, J. L., & Robinson, D. H. (2010). Physicochemical Characterization of Creatine N -Methylguanidinium Salts. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 7(3), 240–252.
19. Knapik, J. J., Steelman, R. A., Hoedebecke, S. S., Austin, K. G., Farina, E. K., & Lieberman, H. R. (2015). Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use by Athletes : Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(1), 103–123.
20. Santana, J.O; França, E; Madureira, D; Rodrigues, B; Caperuto, E. C. (2018). Combined Effect of Creatine Monohydrate or Creatine Hydrochloride and Caffeine Supplementation in Runners’Performance and Body Composition. Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia Do Exercício, 11(70), 844–854.
21. Jatoi, A., Steen, P. D., Atherton, P. J., Moore, D. F., Rowland, K. M., Adonizio, C. S., … Loprinzi, C. (2017). A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of creatine for the cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome (N02C4): an Alliance trial. Annals of Oncology, 28(8), 1957–1963.
22. França, E. De, Avelar, B., Yoshioka, C., Santana, J. O., Madureira, D., Rocha, L. Y., … Caperuto, É. C. (2015). Creatine HCl and Creatine Monohydrate Improve Strength but Only Creatine HCl Induced Changes on Body Composition in Recreational Weightlifters. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6(December), 1624–1630.
23. Buford, T. W., Kreider, R. B., Stout, J. R., Greenwood, M., Campbell, B., Spano, M., … Antonio, J. (2007). Journal of the International Society International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand : creatine supplementation and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 8, 1–8.
24. Cooper, R., Naclerio, F., Allgrove, J., & Jimenez, A. (2012). Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise / sports performance : an update. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 1.
25. Brilla, L. R., Giroux, M. S., Taylor, A., & Knutzen, K. M. (2003). Magnesium-Creatine Supplementation Effects on Body Water. Metabolism, 52(9), 1136–1140.
26. Easton, C., Turner, S., & Pitsiladis, Y. P. (2007). Creatine and Glycerol Hyperhydration in Trained Subjects Before Exercise in the Heat. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17(1), 70–91.
27. Powers, M. E., Arnold, B. L., Weltman, A. L., Perrin, D. H., Mistry, D., Kahler, D. M., … Volek, J. (2003). Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution. Journal of Athletic Training, 38(1), 44–50.
28. Volek, J. S., Mazzetti, S. A., Farquhar, W. B., Barnes, B. R., Omez, A. N. A. L. G., & Kraemer, W. J. (2001). Physiological responses to short-term exercise in the heat after creatine loading. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(7), 1101–1108
29. Gann, J. J., Mckinley-barnard, S. K., Andre, T. L., Schoch, R. D., & Willoughby, D. S. (2015). Effects of a traditionally-dosed creatine supplementation protocol and resistance training on the skeletal muscle uptake and whole-body metabolism and retention of creatine in males. Journal of International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(Suppl 1), 1–2.
30. Schoeller, D. A., van Santen, E., Peterson, D. W., Dietz, W., Jaspan, J., & Klein, P. D. (1980). Total body water measurement in humans with 180 and 2H labeled water. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33(12), 2686–2693.
31. Deminice, R., Rosa, F. T., Franco, G. S., Jordao, A. A., & de Freitas, E. C. (2013). Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress and in fl ammatory markers after repeated-sprint exercise in humans. Nutrition, 29(9), 1127–1132.
32. Francaux, M., & Poortmans, J. R. (2006). Side Effects of Creatine Supplementation in Athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(4), 311–323.
33. Jäger, R., Harris, R. C., Purpura, M., & Francaux, M. (2007). Comparison of new forms of creatine in raising plasma creatine levels. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4(1), 1–5.
34. European Pharmacopea. (2011), acessed to 06/01/2017. Retrieved from

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.