Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders

Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders

Obiegbuna, J.E*., Nwankwo, J.A., Ozue, J.O. and Okolo A.C.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

The yield and physicochemical properties of single grain and multigrain akamu powders were evaluated. Akamu, ogi or pap, powders were produced by soaking (fermenting) cereal grains (48-72 h), wet-milling, sieving, dewatering, drying (50oC) and pulverizing maize (MBA), pearl millet (PMBA) and sorghum (SBA). Multigrain akamu was produced by co-fermenting equal proportions of maize, pearl millet and sorghum (Blend1); and singly fermenting these cereals and blending the end products (Blend2). Yield, proximate and mineral compositions, functional and sensory properties of akamu were analyzed following established methods. The yield of MBA, PMBA, SBA, Blend1 and Blend2 were respectively 60%, 70%, 80%, 53.33% and 68.67%. Chemically, SBA had significantly (p<0.05) higher protein (10.17%), fiber (8.00%), iron, zinc, potassium and sodium contents than MBA and PMBA. The carbohydrate content of PMBA (69.27%) was higher (p < 0.05) than that of MBA (66.20%) and SBA (66.30%). PMBA had the lowest protein (7.55%) and MBA the lowest fiber (3.97%) content. The fat (6.27%) and ash (4.67%) of PMBA were significantly higher than that of SBA with 5.47% and 2.00%, respectively. Only the ash, carbohydrate, iron and sodium contents of multigrain akamu differed significantly (p<0.05) with Blend1 having higher carbohydrate and iron values but lower ash and sodium values. The water absorption capacity (WAC) of PMBA (1.87 g/g) was lower (p<0.05) than other single and multi grain samples. MBA had lowest emulsion activity (EA) (44.33%) but highest emulsion stability (ES) of 77.43% while SDA had the highest EA (50.00%). The ES of PMBA (55.17%) was significantly lower than that of MBA and SBA and the multigrain akamu samples. MBA and PMBA had significantly higher swelling capacity (SC) than SBA and the multigrain akamu. PBMA had lower least gelation concentration (LGC) (6%) than other single and multigrain samples which had 8%. The sensory properties of MBA were most preferred to other single and multi grain akamu samples.

Keywords: Akamu, single grain, multi grain, yield, physicochemical properties

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How to cite this article:
Obiegbuna, J.E*., Nwankwo, J.A., Ozue, J.O. and Okolo A.C.Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2019; 3:29. DOI:10.28933/ijfnr-2019-05-2206


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