In-Vitro Starch Hydrolysis and Prediction of Glycaemic Indices of Biscuits Produced from Wheat, African Walnut and Moringa Seed Flour Blends

In-Vitro Starch Hydrolysis and Prediction of Glycaemic Indices of Biscuits Produced from Wheat, African Walnut and Moringa Seed Flour Blends

Wabali, Victor Chigozie1, Giami, Sunday Yortee2, Kiin-Kabari, David Barine2* and Akusu, Ohwesiri Monday2

1Department of Food, Home Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

African walnut and moringa seed were procured and processed into flours. Biscuits were thus produced from different blends of wheat flour (WHF), African walnut flour (AWF) and moringa seed flour (MSF) in the ratios of (WHT:AWF:MSF) 100:0:0, 77.5:20:2.5, 75:20:5, 72.5:20:7.5, 70:20:10, 90:0:10, 80:20:0 and labelled from A to G, respectively. The produced biscuits were evaluated for dietary fibre content, in-vitro starch hydrolysis and predicted glycaemic indices. The results of dietary fibre content of the biscuits revealed that sample E was significantly higher with a value of 0.72g compare to other samples. Dietary fibre content of the biscuits increased as the level of substitution with moringa seed flour increased. Results of the in-vitro starch hydrolysis of the biscuits showed that the percentage starch hydrolysed reached its peak at 120 min of digestion and after which, a reduction steps in as digestion time increases. Equilibrium concentration, hydrolysis index and predicted glycaemic indices of the biscuits reduced as the level of substitution of moringa seed flour increased. It revealed sample E with Equilibrium concentration value of 48.06, hydrolysis index of 51.66% and predicted glycaemic index of 68.07. Thus, the blends of 70:20:10 (WHT:AWF:MSF) which represented sample E could be used as medium glycaemic index food.

Keywords: Dietary fibre; Starch hydrolysis; Glycaemic index; Biscuits; Moringa seed; African Walnut

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Wabali, Victor Chigozie, Giami, Sunday Yortee, Kiin-Kabari, David Barine and Akusu, Ohwesiri Monday. In-Vitro Starch Hydrolysis and Prediction of Glycaemic Indices of Biscuits Produced from Wheat, African Walnut and Moringa Seed Flour Blends. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2020; 4:37. DOI:10.28933/ijfnr-2020-07-2505


1. Ayo-Ola G.A, Amaeze, O.U, Sofidiya M.O, Adegoke A and Coker A.B (2011). Evaluation of Antioxidant activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaves. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Vol. 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/976701
2. Nwaoguikpe R.N, Ujowundu C.O and Wesley B (2012). Phytochemical and biochemical composition of African walnut. Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Sciences, 20(9): 1–5.
3. Osuoha J.O and Nwaichi E.O (2018). Chemical composition of Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut ) seeds grown in Nigeria. Academic Journal of Scientific Research, 7(2): 147–154.
4. Oriakhi K, Orumwensodia K and Uadia P (2018). Phytochemical investigation and In vitro antioxidant activities of Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut) seeds. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry, 6(2): 56–61.
5. Barber L.I. and Obinna-Echem P. (2016). Nutrient composition, physical and sensory properties of wheat African walnut cookies. Sky Journal of Food Science, 6(3): 27–32.
6. Anwar F., Latif S., Ashraft M., and Gilani H., (2007). Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Research, 21: 17–25.
7. Oparinde P, Atiba S and Adeniran S (2014). Moringa leaf prevents stress in Wistar rats. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4(9): 1150–1152.
8. Al-Malki A, and EL-Rabey H. (2015). Anti diabetic effect of low doses of moringa oleifera seeds on streptozotocin induced male rats. Biomedical Research International, 1-13.
9. Emelike N.J.T, Uwa F.O, Ebere C.O and Ki-in-Kabari D.B (2015). Effect of drying methods on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies fortified with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(4): 361–367.
10. Kiin-Kabari D.B, Emelike N.J.T and Ebere C.O (2017). Influence of drying techniques on the quality characteristics of wheat flour cookies enriched with moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf powder. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2( 3): 94–99.
11. Adejoh, I.P., Chiadikaobi, O., Barnabas, A., Ifeloluwa, A. and Muhammed, H. (2016). In-vivo and in-vitro comparative evaluation of antidiabetic potentials of moringa oleifera. European Journal of Biotech Biosciences, 4(1): 14–22.
12. Wang J, Rosell C.C and Benedito de Barber C. (2002). Effect of the addition of different fibres on wheat dough performance and bread quality. Food Chemistry, 79: 22–226.
13. Ferguson L.R, Zhu S.T and Harris P.J (2005). Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of plant cell wall hydroxycinnamic acids in cultured HT-29 cells. Molecular Nutr Food Research, 49: 585–93.
14. Englyst K, Englyst H, Hudson J, Cole T and Cummings H (1999). Rapidly available glucose in foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69: 448–454.
15. Shin S.I., Kim J.H, Ha H., Lee, S.N and Moon T.W (2005). Effect of hydrothermal treatment on formation and structural characteristics of slowly digestible non-paste granular sweet potato starch. Starch – Starke, 57: 421–430.
16. Tormo M.A, Gil-Exojo I, De-Tejada A.R and Cap-illo J.E (2004). Hypoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of alpha amylase inhibitor from White Kidney beans I Wistar rats. British Journal of Nutrition, 92: 785–790.
17. FAO/WHO (1998). Carbohydrate in Human Nutrition. Report of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. FAO Food Report Paper, 66: 1–40.
18. Goni I., Garcia-Alonso A and Fulgenico S (1997). A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Nutrition Research, 17(3): 427–437.
19. Ogunsina B.S., Radha C and Indirani D (2011). Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered moringa seed flour. Inter-national Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 62(2): 185–194.
20. Agu O. H., and Okolo A.N. (2014). Physico chemical, Sensory and microbiological assessment of wheat based biscuit improved with beniseed and unripe plantain. Food Science and Nutrition, 2(5): 464–469
21. A.O.A.C. 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Method of Analysis, 15th edition. Washington. D.C.
22. Frei M., Siddhuraju P. and Becker K (2003). Studies in in vitro starch digestibility and the glycaemic index six different indigenous rice cultivar from Philippines. Food chemistry, 83: 395–402.
23. Anudeep S., Prasanna V, Adya S, and Radha C (2016). Characterization of soluble dietary fibre from Moringa oleifera seeds and its immunomodulatory effect. International. Journal of biological macromolecules, 91: 656–662.
24. Carclona F, Andres-Lacueva C, Tulipani S and Tinahones F.J. (2013). Benefits of polyphenol on gut microbiota and implications in human health. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 45: 1370–1374.
25. Englyst K. and Englyst H. (2005). Carbohydrate bioavailability. British Journal of Nutrition, 94: 1–11.
26. Williamson G (2013). Possible effects of dietary polyphenols on sugar absorption and digestion. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 57(1): 48–57.
27. Jaisut, D, Prachaywarkon, S., Varanyanond, W., Tungtyrakul P and Soponronnarit, S. (2009). Accelerated aging of Jasmine brown rice by high temperature fluidization technique. Food Research International, 42(5-6): 674–681.
28. Oboh H.A and Erema V.G (2010). Glycemic indices of processed unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) meals. African Journal of Food Science, 4(8): 514–521.
29. Gupta R, Mathur M, Bajaj K, Katariya P, Yadav S and Kamal R. (2012). Evaluation of anti diabetic and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera on experimental diabetes. Journal of Diabetes, 4: 164–167.
30. Kai E, Wang S, Copeland L and Brand-Miller C (2014). Discovering a low glycaemic index potato and relationship with starch digestion. British Journal of Nutrition, 111: 699–705.