In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder

In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder

Rahma Thuiya Ali1*, Catherine N. Kunyanga1, Kahiu Ngugi2

1Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, College of  Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya. 2Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, College of  Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30917-00100, Nairobi.

International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

Ready to Eat (RTE) sorghum cookies were prepared by incorporating green gram flour at 10%, 20%, 30%, dried mango powder at 10% and evaluated for their physico-chemical and nutritional properties. Protein, fat, fiber and ash increased with increase in green gram flour substitution as carbohydrate content decreased significantly. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content were seen in cookies ranging from 9.52% to 13.60%. Fiber increased significantly from 9.40% to 10.90%. In vitro protein digestibility ranged from 67.75 ± 0.01% to 90.05 ± 0.10 %. Vitamins analysed increased with addition of green gram flour. Thiamine content ranged from 0.22±0.02 to 0.61±0.02 mg/100g, riboflavin from 0.09±0.00 to 1.39±0.04 mg/100g and ascorbic acid from 13.87±0.79 to 19.31±0.94 mg/100g. Value addition of under-utilized crops like sorghum and green grams can play a vital role in development of high nutritional quality RTE products.

Keywords: In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical, nutritional quality, ready-to-eat, sorghum, cookies.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Rahma Thuiya Ali, Catherine N. Kunyanga, Kahiu Ngugi.In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2021; 5:39. DOI:10.28933/ijfnr-2020-12-3005


1. AOAC 2012. Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 19th Edition. Washington. D.C., USA.
2. AACC International. Methods. Methods 10-50D and 10-52. A pproved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th ed. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, USA., 2000.
3. Adepoju LA, Osunde ZD. 2017. Effects of pretreatments and drying methods on some qualities of dried mango (Mangifera indica) fruit. AgricEngInt: CIGR Journal. 19(1): 187- 194.
4. Adeyeye SAO, Adebayo-Oyetoror AO, Fayemi OE, Tiamiyu HK, Oke, E.K, Soretire A. 2017. Effect of Co-Fermentation on Nutritional Composition, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Acceptability of Cookies from Fermented Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Soybeans (Glycine max) Flour Blends. Journal of Culinary Science Technology.
5. Afify AE-MMR, El-Beltagi HS, Abd El-Salam S, Omran AA. 2012. Protein Solubility, Digestibility and Fractionation after Germination of Sorghum Varieties. PLoS ONE. 7(2): e31154. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031154
6. Baldermann S, Blagojevic L, Frede K, Klopsch R, Neugart S, Neumann A, Ngwene B, Norkeweit J, Schroter D, Schroter A, Schreiner M. 2016. Are Neglected Plants the Food for the Future? Crit Rev Plant Sci. 35(2): 106-119.
7. Barakat MZ, El-Wahab MFA, El-Sadr MM. 1955. Action of N-Bromosuccinimide on Ascorbic Acid. Anal. Chem. 24(4): 536-540.
8. Caparino OA, Nindo CI, Tang J, Sablani SS, Chew BP, Mathison BD, Fellman JK, Powers JR. 2017. Physical and chemical stability of Refractance Window-dried mango (Philippine ‘Carabao’ var.) powder during storage. Dry Technol. 35(1): 25-37.
9. Bazaz R, Baba WN, Masoodi FA. 2016. Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour. Coagent Food Agric. 2: 1154714.
10. Bhise S, Kaur A. 2013. Development of functional chapatti from texturized deoiled cake of sunflower, soybean and flaxseed. Int J Eng Res Appl. 3: 1581-1587.
11. Chavan UD, Yewale KV, Dayakar RB. 2016. Preparation of Bread and Cookies from Sorghum Flour. Int. J. Recent Sci. Res. 7(5): 11145-11153.
12. Chavan SO, Patil YR. 2013. Ancient and Modern Review of Nutritional Value and Therapeutical Benefits of Mudga (Green-Gram). JBSO. 1(2): 101-104.
13. Chinma CE, Gernah DI. 2007. Physicochemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from cassava/soybean/mango composite flours. J. Food Technol. 5: 256-260.
14. Correira I, Nunes A, Barros AS, Delgadillo I. 2010. Comparison of effects induced by different processing methods on sorghum proteins. J. Cereal Sci. 51: 146-151.
15. Dabels N, Igbabul B, Shar F, Iorliam B, Abu J. 2016. Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Bread from Wheat, Acha and Mung Bean Composite Flours. Food Sci Qual Manag. 56 ISSN 2224-6088
16. Dahiya PK, Linnemann AR, Van Boekel MAJS, Khetarpaul N, Grewal RB, Nout MJR.2015. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 55: 670-688.
17. De Petre N, Rozycki V, De la Torre M, Erben M, Bernardi C, Osella C. 2016. Optimization of Gluten Free Cookies from Red and White Sorghum Flours. J. Food Nutr. Res. 4(10): 671-676.
18. Elkhalifa AEO, Bernhardt R, Cardone G, Marti A, Iametti S, Marengo M. 2017. Physicochemical properties of sorghum flour are selectively modified by combined germination-fermentation. J Food Sci Tech. 54(10): 3307-3313.
19. FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. 2020. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020. Transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets. Rome, FAO. (Accessed: 21 July 2020)
20. Fenech M, Amaya I, Valpuesta V, Botella M. 2019. Vitamin C Content in Fruits: Biosynthesis and Regulation. Front. Plant Sci. 9:2006. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.02006
21. Kiin-Kabari D, Giami SY. 2015. Physico Chemical Properties and in-vitro Protein Digestibility of Non-Wheat Cookies Prepared from Plantain Flour and Bambara Groundnut Protein Concentrate. JFR. 4(2): 78 – 86.
22. Mohammed NA, Ahmed IAM, Babiker EE. 2011. Nutritional Evaluation of Sorghum Flour (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) During Processing of Injera. Int J Food Eng. 5(3): 99-103.
23. Nanyen D, Dooshima IB, Julius A, Benbella I. 2016. Nutritional Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Cookies from Wheat, Acha and Mung Bean Composite Flours. IJNFS. 5(6): 401-406.
24. Ndung’u SW, Otieno CA, Onyango C, Musieba F. 2015. Nutritional Compostion, Physical Qualities and Sensory Evaluation of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Oyester Mushroom. Am. J. Food Technol. 10(6): 279-288.
25. Nilugin SE, Mahendran T, Inthujaa Y. 2015. Studies on the formulation and quality characteristics of value-added cassava-mango composite flour biscuits. Trop Agric Res Ext. 18(2): 58-67.
26. Obadina AO, Akinola OJ, Shittu TA, Bakare HA. 2013. Effect of natural fermentation on the chemical and nutritional composition of fermented Soymilk Nono. Niger. Food J. 31(2): 91-97.
27. Okpala L, Okoli, E, Udensi E. 2013. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies made from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. Food Sci. Nutr. 1(1): 8-14.
28. Onwurafor ER, Uzodinma EO, Chikwendu JN, Nwankwor OF. 2019. Effect of incorporation of unripe plantain and mung bean malt flours on wheat flour on the chemical, physical and sensory properties of cookies. Int Food Res J. 26(3): 956-967.
29. Ostermann-Porcel MV, Quiroga-Panelo N, Rinaldoni AN, Campderros ME. 2017. Incorportaion of Okara into Gluten-Free Cookies with High Quality and Nutritional Value. J. Food Qual.
30. Ouazib M, Garzon R, Zaidi F, Rosell CM. 2016. Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking. J Food Sci Tech. 53(6): 2664-2672.
31. Rahayu E, Hidaya N, Adiandri RS. 2019. Profile of Modified Sorghum Flour Fermented by Lactobacillus Brevis. IOP Conf. Ser: Earth Environ. Sci. 309: 012026 doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/309/1/012026
32. Rajiv J, Soumya C. 2015. Chemical, rheological and nutritional qualities of sugar snap cookies as influenced by addition of multigrain. J. Food Meas. 9: 135-142.
33. Rajiv J, Lobo S, Lakshmi AJ, Rao GV. 2013. Influence of green gram flour (Phaseolus aureus) on the rheology, microstructure and quality of cookies. J. Texture Stud. ISSN 0022-4901.
34. Ratnawati L, Desnilasari D, Surahman DN, Kumalasari R. 2019. Evaluation of Physichochemical, Functional and Pasting Properties of Soybean, Mung Bean and Red Kidney Bean Flour as Ingredient in Biscuit. Earth Environ. Sci. 251 doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/251/1/012026
35. Ratnavathi CV, Patil JV. 2013. Sorghum Utilization as Food. JNFS. 4(1): 1-8.
36. Rao DB, Anis M, Kalpana K, Sunooj KV, Patil VJ, Ganesh T. 2016. Influence of milling methods and particle size on hydration properties of sorghum flour and quality of sorghum biscuits. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 67:8-13.
37. Sengev IA, Gernah DI, Bunde-Tsegba MC. 2015. Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Cookies Produced from Sweet Potato and Mango Mesocarp Flours. Afri. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 15(5): 10429-10442
38. Siddiqua A, Ali MS, Ahmed S. 2019. Functional properties of germinated and non-germinated cereals: A comparative study. Bangladeshi J Sci Ind Res. 54(4): 383-390.
39. Slavin JL. 2005. Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutr. 21: 411-418. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2004.08.018
40. Shukla RN, Mishra AA, Gautam AK. 2016. Development of protein enriched biscuit fortified with green gram flour. Food Sci. Res. J. 7(1): 112-118.
41. Thongram S, Tanwar B, Chauhan A, Kumar V. 2016. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours. Cogent Food Agric. 2: 1172389
42. Tsen CC, Eyestone W, Weber J. 2006. Evaluation of quality of cookies supplemented with distillers’ dried grain flours. J. Food Sci. 47: 684-685.
43. Yousaf AA, Ahmed A, Ahmad A, Hameed T, Randhawa MA, Hayat I, Khalid N. 2013. Nutritional and functional evaluation of wheat flour cookies supplemented with gram flour. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 64(1): 63-68.
44. Yusufu PA, Netala J, Opega JL. 2016. Chemical, Sensory and Microbiological Properties of Cookies Produced From Maize, African Yam Bean and Plantain Composite Flour. Indian J Nutr. 3(1): 122.
45. Wu G, Shen Y, Qi Y, Zhang H, Wang L., Qian H., Qi X., Li Y, Johnson SK. 2018. Improvement of in-vitro and cellular antioxidant properties of Chinese steamed bread through sorghum addition. LWT- Food Sci Technol. 01: 77-83.