A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Pharmacists in Chronic Care Management


A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Pharmacists in Chronic Care Management


Abdul Kader Mohiuddin

Dr. M. Nasirullah Memorial Trust, Tejgaon, Dhaka


 International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy

Pharmacy practice has changed substantially in recent years. The professionals have the opportunity to contribute directly to patient care in order to reduce morbimortality related to medication use, promoting health and preventing diseases. Healthcare organizations worldwide are under substantial pressure from increasing patient demand. Unfortunately, a cure is not always possible particularly in this era of chronic diseases, and the role of physicians has become limited to controlling and palliating symptoms. The increasing population of patients with long-term conditions are associated with high levels of morbidity, healthcare costs and GP workloads. Clinical pharmacy took over an aspect of medical care that had been partially abandoned by physicians. Overburdened by patient loads and the explosion of new drugs, physicians turned to pharmacists more and more for drug information, especially within institutional settings. Once relegated to counting and pouring, pharmacists headed institutional reviews of drug utilization and served as consultants to all types of health-care facilities. In addition, when clinical pharmacists are active members of the care team, they enhance efficiency by: Providing critical input on medication use and dosing. Working with patients to solve problems with their medications and improve adherence.


Keywords: Chronic care; pharmacy intervention; diabetes care; CVD prevention; inflammatory bowel disease


Free Full-text PDF


How to cite this article:
Abdul Kader Mohiuddin, A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Pharmacists in Chronic Care Management. International Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 2020,5:33


References:

1. Miller RR. History of clinical pharmacy and clinical pharmacology. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981 Apr;21(4):195-7.
2. Somogyi A, Loke YK, Ferro A, Lewis LD, Cohen AF, Ritter JM. Clinical pharmacology: a declaration of intent. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Jul;70(1):1-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03706.x.
3. Calvert RT. Clinical pharmacy–a hospital perspective. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Mar;47(3):231-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 10215745; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2014215.
4. Carter BL. Evolution of Clinical Pharmacy in the USA and Future Directions for Patient Care. Drugs Aging. 2016 Mar;33(3):169-77. doi: 10.1007/s40266-016-0349-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 26895454; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4821736.
5. Dhingra S, Kumria R. A case report on the significance of clinical pharmacy services in India. Clin Case Rep. 2014 Jun;2(3):86-7. doi: 10.1002/ccr3.63. Epub 2014 Mar 22. PubMed PMID: 25356256; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4184600.
6. Lebovitz L, Eddington ND. Trends in the Pharmacist Workforce and Pharmacy Education. Am J Pharm Educ. 2019 Feb;83(1):7051. doi: 10.5688/ajpe7051.
7. Veggeland T, Dyb S. The contribution of a clinical pharmacist to the improvement of medication at a geriatric hospital unit in Norway. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2008 Jan;6(1):20-4. Epub 2008 Mar 10. PubMed PMID: 25170361; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4147275.
8. Horn E, Jacobi J. The critical care clinical pharmacist: evolution of an essential team member. Crit Care Med. 2006 Mar;34(3 Suppl):S46-51. Review. PubMed PMID: 16477202.
9. Hazen ACM, de Bont AA, Leendertse AJ, Zwart DLM, de Wit NJ, de Gier JJ, Bouvy ML. How Clinical Integration of Pharmacists in General Practice has Impact on Medication Therapy Management: A Theory-oriented Evaluation. Int J Integr Care. 2019 Jan 2;19(1):1. doi: 10.5334/ijic.3291.
10. Islam MA, Talukder RM, Taheri R, Blanchard N. Integration of Basic and Clinical Science Courses in US PharmD Programs. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016 Dec 25;80(10):166. doi: 10.5688/ajpe8010166.
11. American College of Clinical Pharmacy. The definition of clinical pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy. 2008 Jun;28(6):816-7. doi: 10.1592/phco.28.6.816. PubMed PMID: 18503408.
12. McCarthy MW. Chapter 4. Clinical Pharmacy Skills. In; Michelle McCarthy and Denise Kockler. Oxford American Handbook of Clinical Pharmacy, published by Oxford University Press; 1 edition (December 2, 2009)
13. Institute of Medicine (US) Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine. Leadership Commitments to Improve Value in Healthcare: Finding Common Ground: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2009. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK52851/ doi: 10.17226/11982
14. Knoer SJ, Eck AR, Lucas AJ. A review of American pharmacy: education, training, technology, and practice. J Pharm Health Care Sci. 2016 Nov 9;2:32. eCollection 2016. Review.
15. Ma CS, Holuby RS, Bucci LL. Physician and pharmacist collaboration: the University of Hawaii at Hilo College of Pharmacy–JABSOM experience. Hawaii Med J. 2010 Jun;69(6 Suppl 3):42-4.
16. Svingen CG. Clinical Pharmacist Credentialing and Privileging: A Process for Ensuring High-Quality Patient Care. Fed Pract. 2019 Apr;36(4):155-157.
17. Ismail S, Osman M, Abulezz R, Alhamdan H, Quadri KHM. Pharmacists as Interprofessional Collaborators and Leaders through Clinical Pathways. Pharmacy (Basel). 2018 Mar 16;6(1). pii: E24. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy6010024.
18. Ascione FJ. Preparing Pharmacists for Collaborative/Integrated Health Settings. Pharmacy (Basel). 2019 May 20;7(2). pii: E47. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy7020047.
19. Moreno G, Lonowski S, Fu J, Chon JS, Whitmire N, Vasquez C, Skootsky SA, Bell DS, Maranon R, Mangione CM. Physician experiences with clinical pharmacists in primary care teams. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017 Nov – Dec;57(6):686-691. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2017.06.018.
20. Al-Taani GM, Al-Azzam SI, Alzoubi KH, Aldeyab MA. Which drugs cause treatment-related problems? Analysis of 10,672 problems within the outpatient setting. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2018 Nov 16;14:2273-2281. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S180747. eCollection 2018.
21. Mohiuddin AK. “Pharmacists in Public Health: Scope in Home and Abroad.” SOJ Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, 25 Mar. 2019, pp. 1–23., doi:10.15226/2374-6866
22. Toklu HZ, Hussain A. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education. J Young Pharm. 2013 Jun;5(2):38-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jyp.2012.09.001.
23. Sakeena MHF, Bennett AA, McLachlan AJ. The Need to Strengthen the Role of the Pharmacist in Sri Lanka: Perspectives. Pharmacy (Basel). 2019 Jun 5;7(2). pii: E54. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy7020054.
24. Hammad EA, Qudah RA, Akour AA. The impact of clinical pharmacists in improving Jordanian patients’ health outcomes. Saudi Med J. 2017 Nov;38(11):1077-1089. doi: 10.15537/smj.2017.11.21453.
25. Dalton K, Byrne S. Role of the pharmacist in reducing healthcare costs: current insights. Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2017 Jan 25;6:37-46. doi: 10.2147/IPRP.S108047.
26. Li J, Li Z. Differences and similarities in clinical pharmacy practice in China and the United States: a narrative review. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2018 Jan;25(1):2-5. doi: 10.1136/ejhpharm-2016-001195.
27. Tripathi S, Crabtree HM, Fryer KR, Graner KK, Arteaga GM. Impact of Clinical Pharmacist on the Pediatric Intensive Care Practice: An 11-Year Tertiary Center Experience. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Jul-Aug;20(4):290-8. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-20.4.290.
28. Mekonnen AB, Yesuf EA, Odegard PS, Wega SS. Implementing ward based clinical pharmacy services in an Ethiopian University Hospital. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2013 Jan;11(1):51-7.
29. Francis J, Abraham S. Clinical pharmacists: Bridging the gap between patients and physicians. Saudi Pharm J. 2014 Dec;22(6):600-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.02.011.
30. Chalasani SH, Ramesh M, Gurumurthy P. Pharmacist-Initiated Medication Error-Reporting and Monitoring Programme in a Developing Country Scenario. Pharmacy (Basel). 2018 Dec 14;6(4). pii: E133. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy6040133.
31. Ernawati DK, Lee YP, Hughes JD. Nature and frequency of medication errors in a geriatric ward: an Indonesian experience. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014 Jun 3;10:413-21. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S61687.
32. Chamoun NR, Zeenny R, Mansour H. Impact of clinical pharmacy interventions on medication error nodes. Int J Clin Pharm. 2016 Dec;38(6):1436-1444.
33. Gonzalez D, Rao GG, Bailey SC, Brouwer KLR, Cao Y, Crona DJ, Kashuba ADM, Lee CR, Morbitzer K, Patterson JH, Wiltshire T, Easter J, Savage SW, Powell JR. Precision Dosing: Public Health Need, Proposed Framework, and Anticipated Impact. Clin Transl Sci. 2017 Nov;10(6):443-454. doi: 10.1111/cts.12490.
34. Sanii Y, Torkamandi H, Gholami K, Hadavand N, Javadi M. Role of pharmacist counseling in pharmacotherapy quality improvement. J Res Pharm Pract. 2016 Apr-Jun;5(2):132-7. doi: 10.4103/2279-042X.179580.
35. Ip RNS, Tenney JW, Chu ACK, Chu PLM, Young GWM. Pharmacist Clinical Interventions and Discharge Counseling in Medical Rehabilitation Wards in a Local Hospital: A Prospective Trial. Geriatrics (Basel). 2018 Aug 23;3(3). pii: E53. doi: 10.3390/geriatrics3030053.
36. Seidling HM, Lampert A, Lohmann K, Schiele JT, Send AJ, Witticke D, Haefeli WE. Safeguarding the process of drug administration with an emphasis on electronic support tools. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Sep;76 Suppl 1:25-36. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12191.
37. Bauer SR, Kane-Gill SL. Outcome Assessment of Critical Care Pharmacist Services. Hosp Pharm. 2016 Jul;51(7):507-13. doi: 10.1310/hpj5107-507.
38. Viana SSC, Arantes T, Ribeiro SCDC. Interventions of the clinical pharmacist in an Intermediate Care Unit for elderly patients. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2017 Jul-Sep;15(3):283-288. doi: 10.1590/S1679-45082017AO3894.
39. Sjölander M, Gustafsson M, Gallego G. Doctors’ and nurses’ perceptions of a ward-based pharmacist in rural northern Sweden. Int J Clin Pharm. 2017 Aug;39(4):953-959. doi: 10.1007/s11096-017-0488-5.
40. van Oostrom SH, Picavet HS, de Bruin SR, Stirbu I, Korevaar JC, Schellevis FG, Baan CA. Multimorbidity of chronic diseases and health care utilization in general practice. BMC Fam Pract. 2014 Apr 7;15:61. doi: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-61.
41. Yi JY, Kim Y, Cho YM, Kim H. Self-management of Chronic Conditions Using mHealth Interventions in Korea: A Systematic Review. Healthc Inform Res. 2018 Jul;24(3):187-197. doi: 10.4258/hir.2018.24.3.187.
42. Kent K, Johnson JD, Simeon K, Frates EP. Case Series in Lifestyle Medicine: A Team Approach to Behavior Changes. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2016 Jul 8;10(6):388-397. doi: 10.1177/1559827616638288.
43. Middleton KR, Anton SD, Perri MG. Long-Term Adherence to Health Behavior Change. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2013 Nov-Dec;7(6):395-404.
44. Young S. Healthy behavior change in practical settings. Perm J. 2014 Fall;18(4):89-92. doi: 10.7812/TPP/14-018.
45. Newsom JT, Huguet N, McCarthy MJ, Ramage-Morin P, Kaplan MS, Bernier J, McFarland BH, Oderkirk J. Health behavior change following chronic illness in middle and later life. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2012 May;67(3):279-88. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbr103.
46. Zhang C, Zhang L, Huang L, Luo R, Wen J. Clinical pharmacists on medical care of pediatric inpatients: a single-center randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e30856. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030856.
47. Han N, Han SH, Chu H, Kim J, Rhew KY, Yoon JH, Je NK, Rhie SJ, Ji E, Lee E, Kim YS, Oh JM; DrugTEAM Study group. Service design oriented multidisciplinary collaborative team care service model development for resolving drug related problems. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 28;13(9):e0201705. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201705.
48. Tan EC, Stewart K, Elliott RA, George J. Pharmacist services provided in general practice clinics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2014 Jul-Aug;10(4):608-22. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.08.006.
49. Fletcher J, Hogg W, Farrell B, Woodend K, Dahrouge S, Lemelin J, Dalziel W. Effect of nurse practitioner and pharmacist counseling on inappropriate medication use in family practice. Can Fam Physician. 2012 Aug;58(8):862-8.
50. Greer N, Bolduc J, Geurkink E, Rector T, Olson K, Koeller E, MacDonald R, Wilt TJ. Pharmacist-led Chronic Disease Management: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness and Harms Compared With Usual Care. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Apr 26. doi: 10.7326/M15-3058.
51. Litke J, Spoutz L, Ahlstrom D, Perdew C, Llamas W, Erickson K. Impact of the clinical pharmacy specialist in telehealth primary care. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2018 Jul 1;75(13):982-986. doi: 10.2146/ajhp170633.
52. Meo SA, Sheikh SA, Sattar K, Akram A, Hassan A, Meo AS, Usmani AM, Qalbani E, Ullah A. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Men in the Middle East: A Retrospective Study. Am J Mens Health. 2019 May-Jun;13(3):1557988319848577. doi: 10.1177/1557988319848577.
53. Hughes JD, Wibowo Y, Sunderland B, Hoti K. The role of the pharmacist in the management of type 2 diabetes: current insights and future directions. Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2017 Jan 16;6:15-27. doi: 10.2147/IPRP.S103783.
54. Muc R, Saracen A, Grabska-Liberek I. Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy with Retinal Neurodegeneration on the Background of Diabetes Mellitus. Overview of Recent Medical Studies with an Assessment of the Impact on Healthcare systems. Open Med (Wars). 2018 Apr 18;13:130-136. doi: 10.1515/med-2018-0008.
55. Yang, Jae Jeong et al. “Association of Diabetes With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Asia: A Pooled Analysis of More Than 1 Million Participants.” JAMA network open vol. 2,4 e192696. 5 Apr. 2019, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2696
56. Raghavan S, Vassy JL, Ho YL, Song RJ, Gagnon DR, Cho K, Wilson PWF, Phillips LS. Diabetes Mellitus-Related All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in a National Cohort of Adults. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Feb 19;8(4):e011295. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.118.011295.
57. Einarson TR, Acs A, Ludwig C, Panton UH. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in 2007-2017. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2018 Jun 8;17(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s12933-018-0728-6.
58. Longo M, Bellastella G, Maiorino MI, Meier JJ, Esposito K, Giugliano D. Diabetes and Aging: From Treatment Goals to Pharmacologic Therapy. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Feb 18;10:45. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00045. eCollection 2019.
59. Ares J, Valdés S, Botas P, Sánchez-Ragnarsson C, Rodríguez-Rodero S, Morales-Sánchez P, Menéndez-Torre E, Delgado E. Mortality risk in adults according to categories of impaired glucose metabolism after 18 years of follow-up in the North of Spain: The Asturias Study. PLoS One. 2019 Jan 31;14(1):e0211070. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211070.
60. Mohiuddin AK. Patient Compliance: Fact or Fiction? . INNOVATIONS in pharmacy Vol 10 No 1 (2019) pp 1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24926/iip.v10i1.1621
61. Al-Omar LT, Anderson SL, Cizmic AD, Vlasimsky TB. Implementation of a Pharmacist-Led Diabetes Management Protocol. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2019 Feb;12(1):14-20.
62. Gardea J, Papadatos J, Cadle R. Evaluating glycemic control for patient-aligned care team clinical pharmacy specialists at a large Veterans Affairs medical center. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2018 Apr-Jun;16(2):1164. doi: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.02.1164.
63. Shane-McWhorter L, McAdam-Marx C, Lenert L, Petersen M, Woolsey S, Coursey JM, Whittaker TC, Hyer C, LaMarche D, Carroll P, Chuy L. Pharmacist-provided diabetes management and education via a telemonitoring program. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2015 Sep-Oct;55(5):516-26. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2015.14285.
64. Davis CS, Ross LAR, Bloodworth LS. The Impact of Clinical Pharmacist Integration on a Collaborative Interdisciplinary Diabetes Management Team. J Pharm Pract. 2017 Jun;30(3):286-290. doi: 10.1177/0897190016631894.
65. Wallgren S, Berry-Cabán CS, Bowers L. Impact of clinical pharmacist intervention on diabetes-related outcomes in a military treatment facility. Ann Pharmacother. 2012 Mar;46(3):353-7. doi: 10.1345/aph.1Q564.
66. Ray S, Lokken J, Whyte C, Baumann A, Oldani M. The impact of a pharmacist-driven, collaborative practice on diabetes management in an Urban underserved population: a mixed method assessment. J Interprof Care. 2019 Aug 5:1-9. doi: 10.1080/13561820.2019.1633289.
67. Schmidt K, Caudill JA, Hamilton T. Impact of clinical pharmacy specialists on glycemic control in veterans with type 2 diabetes. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2019 Feb 8;76(Supplement_1):S9-S14. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxy015.
68. Sharp LK, Tilton JJ, Touchette DR, Xia Y, Mihailescu D, Berbaum ML, Gerber BS. Community Health Workers Supporting Clinical Pharmacists in Diabetes Management: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2018 Jan;38(1):58-68. doi: 10.1002/phar.2058.
69. Neves CM, Nascimento MMGD, Silva DÁM, Ramalho-de-Oliveira D. Clinical Results of Comprehensive Medication Management Services in Primary Care in Belo Horizonte. Pharmacy (Basel). 2019 Jun 12;7(2). pii: E58. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy7020058.
70. Jeong S, Lee M, Ji E. Effect of pharmaceutical care interventions on glycemic control in patients with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2018 Sep 28;14:1813-1829. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S169748.
71. Wassell K, Sullivan J, Jett BP, Zuber J. Comparison of clinical pharmacy specialists and primary care physicians in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural Veterans Affairs facilities. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2018 Mar 1;75(5 Supplement 1):S6-S12. doi: 10.2146/ajhp160905.
72. Kharjul M, Braund R, Green J. The influence of pharmacist-led adherence support on glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018 Apr;40(2):354-359. doi: 10.1007/s11096-018-0606-z.
73. Alqudah S, Jarab AS, Alefishat EA, Mayyas F, Khdour M, Pinto S. Factors Associated with Poor Hemoglobin A1c Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2019;15(2):164-170. doi: 10.2174/1573399814666180510144858.
74. Peasah SK, Granitz K, Vu M, Jacob B. Effectiveness of a Student Pharmacist-Led Telephone Follow-Up Intervention to Improve Hemoglobin A(1C) in Diabetic Patients. J Pharm Pract. 2019 Jun 25:897190019857409. doi: 10.1177/0897190019857409.
75. Goruntla N, Mallela V, Nayakanti D. Impact of Pharmacist-directed Counseling and Message Reminder Services on Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):69-76. doi: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_211_18.
76. Al Haqan AA, Al-Taweel DM, Awad A, Wake DJ. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Role in Diabetes Management in Kuwait. Med Princ Pract. 2017;26(3):273-279. doi: 10.1159/000456088.
77. Berta E, Lengyel I, Halmi S, Zrínyi M, Erdei A, Harangi M, Páll D, Nagy EV, Bodor M. Hypertension in Thyroid Disorders. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Jul 17;10:482. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00482.
78. Okubadejo NU, Ozoh OB, Ojo OO, Akinkugbe AO, Odeniyi IA, Adegoke O, Bello BT, Agabi OP. Prevalence of hypertension and blood pressure profile amongst urban-dwelling adults in Nigeria: a comparative analysis based on recent guideline recommendations. Clin Hypertens. 2019 Apr 15;25:7. doi: 10.1186/s40885-019-0112-1.
79. Web WHO. Cardiovascular disease. World Heart Day. Scale up prevention of heart attack and stroke. Available From: https://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/world-heart-day/en/
80. Web WHO. News/ Fact sheets/Detail/Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). 17 May 2017. Available From: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)
81. Ofori SN, Obosi J. Prevalence of hypertension among office workers in a multi-national company in the Niger-Delta with the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Pressure Guidelines. Prev Med Rep. 2019 May 18;15:100899. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100899.
82. Lanza GA. Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Stable Angina and No Obstructive Coronary Arteries. Eur Cardiol. 2019 Jul 11;14(2):97-102. doi: 10.15420/ecr.2019.22.2.
83. Yasue H, Mizuno Y, Harada E. Coronary artery spasm – Clinical features, pathogenesis and treatment. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2019;95(2):53-66. doi: 10.2183/pjab.95.005.
84. Ferdinand KC, Senatore FF, Clayton-Jeter H, Cryer DR, Lewin JC, Nasser SA, Fiuzat M, Califf RM. Improving Medication Adherence in Cardiometabolic Disease: Practical and Regulatory Implications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Jan 31;69(4):437-451. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.11.034.
85. Hinton W, McGovern A, Coyle R, Han TS, Sharma P, Correa A, Ferreira F, de Lusignan S. Incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in English primary care: a cross-sectional and follow-up study of the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC). BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 20;8(8):e020282. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020282.
86. Mohiuddin, Ak. “Natural Foods and Indian Herbs of Cardiovascular Interest.” Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, 2019, doi:10.15406/ppij.2019.07.00235.
87. Gums TH, Uribe L, Vander Weg MW, James P, Coffey C, Carter BL. Pharmacist intervention for blood pressure control: medication intensification and adherence. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2015 Jul;9(7):569-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2015.05.005.
88. Mohiuddin AK. “Risks and Reasons Associated with Medication Non-Adherence.” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, vol. 1, no. 1, 16 July 2019, pp. 50–53., https://innovationinfo.org/articles/JCP/JCP-105.pdf.
89. Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Agabiti Rosei E, Azizi M, Burnier M, Clement DL, Coca A, de Simone G, Dominiczak A, Kahan T, Mahfoud F, Redon J, Ruilope L, Zanchetti A, Kerins M, Kjeldsen SE, Kreutz R, Laurent S, Lip GYH, McManus R, Narkiewicz K, Ruschitzka F, Schmieder RE, Shlyakhto E, Tsioufis C, Aboyans V, Desormais I; ESC Scientific Document Group . 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2018 Sep 1;39(33):3021-3104. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehy339.
90. Niriayo YL, Ibrahim S, Kassa TD, Asgedom SW, Atey TM, Gidey K, Demoz GT, Kahsay D. Practice and predictors of self-care behaviors among ambulatory patients with hypertension in Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2019 Jun 26;14(6):e0218947. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218947.
91. National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2004 Aug. Treatment. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9626/
92. Mohiuddin AK. A Brief Review of Traditional Plants as Sources of Pharmacological Interests. Open Journal of Plant Science, 2019, pp. 001–008., doi:10.17352/ojps.000015.
93. Mohiuddin AK. Traditional System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation: Use Vs Regulation. Journal of Clinical Trials, Pathology and Case Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, 11 May 2019, pp. 5–30.
94. Mohiuddin AK. Patient History and Medical Record: Proper Solution from Accurate Problem Identification. Medicine and Medical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 7, 17 July 2019, pp. 82–86., doi:10.15413/mms.2019.0112.
95. Omboni S, Caserini M. Effectiveness of pharmacist’s intervention in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Open Heart. 2018 Jan 3;5(1):e000687. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2017-000687.
96. Morgado M, Rolo S, Castelo-Branco M. Pharmacist intervention program to enhance hypertension control: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Clin Pharm. 2011 Feb;33(1):132-40. doi: 10.1007/s11096-010-9474-x.
97. Bex SD, Boldt AS, Needham SB, Bolf SM, Walston CM, Ramsey DC, Schmelz AN, Zillich AJ. Effectiveness of a hypertension care management program provided by clinical pharmacists for veterans. Pharmacotherapy. 2011 Jan;31(1):31-8. doi: 10.1592/phco.31.1.31.
98. Von Muenster SJ, Carter BL, Weber CA, Ernst ME, Milchak JL, Steffensmeier JJ, Xu Y. Description of pharmacist interventions during physician-pharmacist co-management of hypertension. Pharm World Sci. 2008 Jan;30(1):128-35.
99. Ramanath K, Balaji D, Nagakishore Ch, Kumar SM, Bhanuprakash M. A study on impact of clinical pharmacist interventions on medication adherence and quality of life in rural hypertensive patients. J Young Pharm. 2012 Apr;4(2):95-100. doi: 10.4103/0975-1483.96623.
100. Bhat S, Kroehl M, Yi WM, Jaeger J, Thompson AM, Lam HM, Loeb D, Trinkley KE. Factors influencing the acceptance of referrals for clinical pharmacist managed disease states in primary care. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019 May – Jun;59(3):336-342. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2019.02.008.
101. Kane JA, Mehmood T, Munir I, Kamran H, Kariyanna PT, Zhyvotovska A, Yusupov D, Suleman UJ, Gustafson DR, McFarlane SI. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Associated with Pharmacological Weight Loss: A Meta-Analysis. Int J Clin Res Trials. 2019;4(1). pii: 131. doi: 10.15344/2456-8007/2019/131.
102. Hasegawa K, Komiyama M, Takahashi Y. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk After Quitting Smoking: The Latest Evidence. Eur Cardiol. 2019 Apr;14(1):60-61. doi: 10.15420/ecr.2019.4.2.
103. El Hajj MS, Kheir N, Al Mulla AM, Shami R, Fanous N, Mahfoud ZR. Effectiveness of a pharmacist-delivered smoking cessation program in the State of Qatar: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2017 Feb 20;17(1):215. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4103-4.
104. Dobrinas M, Blanc AL, Rouiller F, Christen G, Coronado M, Tagan D, Schäli C. Clinical pharmacist’s role in implementing a smoking cessation intervention in a Swiss regional hospital: an exploratory study. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014 Jun;36(3):526-34. doi: 10.1007/s11096-014-9927-8.
105. El Hajj MS, Awaisu A, Kheir N, Mohamed MHN, Haddad RS, Saleh RA, Alhamad NM, Almulla AM, Mahfoud ZR. Evaluation of an intensive education program on the treatment of tobacco-use disorder for pharmacists: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2019 Jan 8;20(1):25. doi: 10.1186/s13063-018-3068-7.
106. Li VW, Lam J, Heise P, Reid RD, Mullen KA. Implementation of a Pharmacist-Led Inpatient Tobacco Cessation Intervention in a Rehabilitation Hospital: A Before-and-After Pilot Study. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2018 May-Jun;71(3):180-186.
107. Klop B, Elte JW, Cabezas MC. Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients. 2013 Apr 12;5(4):1218-40. doi: 10.3390/nu5041218.
108. Cercato C, Fonseca FA. Cardiovascular risk and obesity. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2019 Aug 28;11:74. doi: 10.1186/s13098-019-0468-0. eCollection 2019.
109. Jordan MA, Harmon J. Pharmacist interventions for obesity: improving treatment adherence and patient outcomes. Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2015 Jul 8;4:79-89. doi: 10.2147/IPRP.S72206.
110. Carbone S, Canada JM, Billingsley HE, Siddiqui MS, Elagizi A, Lavie CJ. Obesity paradox in cardiovascular disease: where do we stand? Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2019 May 1;15:89-100. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S168946.
111. Koliaki C, Liatis S, Kokkinos A. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: revisiting an old relationship. Metabolism. 2019 Mar;92:98-107. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.10.011.
112. De Lorenzo A, Gratteri S, Gualtieri P, Cammarano A, Bertucci P, Di Renzo L. Why primary obesity is a disease? J Transl Med. 2019 May 22;17(1):169. doi: 10.1186/s12967-019-1919-y.
113. Nuffer, Monika. “Integrative Health and Medicine: Dietary Supplements and Modalities for the Treatment of Obesity.” Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity, 2019, pp. 393–408., doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-816093-0.00027-6.
114. Butryn ML, Webb V, Wadden TA. Behavioral treatment of obesity. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2011 Dec;34(4):841-59. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2011.08.006.
115. Sanyal D, Raychaudhuri M. Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jul-Aug;20(4):554-7. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.183454.
116. Fruh SM. Obesity: Risk factors, complications, and strategies for sustainable long-term weight management. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2017 Oct;29(S1):S3-S14. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12510.
117. Tsai, Adam Gilden, and Daniel H. Bessesen. “Obesity.” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 170, no. 5, May 2019, doi:10.7326/aitc201903050.
118. Tsai AG. Why I Treat Obesity. Perm J. 2019;23. doi: 10.7812/TPP/18-240. Epub 2019 May 15.
119. Garber, Alan, et al. “AACE Comprehensive Diabetes Management Algorithm 2013.” Endocrine Practice, vol. 19, no. 2, 2013, pp. 327–336., doi:10.4158/endp.19.2.a38267720403k242.
120. DeGeeter, Michelle et al. “Results of a Pharmacist Intervention on Weight Parameters and A1c Compared to Standard Patient Care.” The Journal of Pharmacy Technology : jPT : Official Publication of the Association of Pharmacy Technicians vol. 34,5 (2018): 194–198. doi:10.1177/8755122518779338
121. Zanni GR. Hyperlipidemia: Updated Guidelines Impact Counseling. Pharmacy Times®, 10 December, 2014.
122. Hetro A, Rossetto J, Bahlawan N, Ryan M. Clinical pharmacists supporting patients with diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia in a military medical home. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2015 Jan-Feb;55(1):73-6. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2015.14103.
123. Tsuyuki RT, Rosenthal M, Pearson GJ. A randomized trial of a community-based approach to dyslipidemia management: Pharmacist prescribing to achieve cholesterol targets (RxACT Study). Can Pharm J (Ott). 2016 Sep;149(5):283-292.
124. O’Riordan M. Pharmacist Management of High Cholesterol Gets More Patients to Goal, Lowers LDL Levels: RxACT. TCTMD News, September 29, 2016.
125. Joel C Mars. Pharmacy Perspectives in Dyslipidemia Management. US Pharmacist, December 2010. Available from: https://www.uspharmacist.com/courses/107084/phs1005.pdf
126. Cassagnol, Manouchkathe, et al. “New Therapeutic Alternatives for the Management of Dyslipidemia.” Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 26, no. 6, 2013, pp. 528–540., doi:10.1177/0897190013507582.
127. Lewis A, Torvinen S, Dekhuijzen PN, Chrystyn H, Watson AT, Blackney M, Plich A. The economic burden of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the impact of poor inhalation technique with commonly prescribed dry powder inhalers in three European countries. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 Jul 12;16:251. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1482-7.
128. Xin C, Xia Z, Jiang C, Lin M, Li G. The impact of pharmacist-managed clinic on medication adherence and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD: a randomized controlled study. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2016 Jul 11;10:1197-203. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S110167.
129. Usmani OS. Choosing the right inhaler for your asthma or COPD patient. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2019 Mar 14;15:461-472. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S160365. eCollection 2019.
130. Mubarak N, Hatah E, Khan TM, Zin CS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of collaborative practice between community pharmacist and general practitioner on asthma management. J Asthma Allergy. 2019 May 24;12:109-153. doi: 10.2147/JAA.S202183.
131. Duong TN, Zeki AA, Louie S. Medical Management of Hospitalized Patients with Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Hosp Med Clin. 2017 Oct;6(4):437-455. doi: 10.1016/j.ehmc.2017.05.002.
132. Krishnan JA, Nibber A, Chisholm A, Price D, Bateman ED, Bjermer L, van Boven JFM, Brusselle G, Costello RW, Dandurand RJ, Diamant Z, Van Ganse E, Gouder C, van Kampen SC, Kaplan A, Kocks J, Miravitlles M, Niimi A, Pizzichini E, Rhee CK, Soriano JB, Vogelmeier C, Román-Rodriguez M, Carter V, D’Urzo AD, Roche N. Prevalence and Characteristics of Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap in Routine Primary Care Practices. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2019 Sep;16(9):1143-1150. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201809-607OC.
133. López-Campos JL, Quintana Gallego E, Carrasco Hernández L. Status of and strategies for improving adherence to COPD treatment. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2019 Jul 10;14:1503-1515. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S170848.
134. Jardim JR, Nascimento OA. The Importance of Inhaler Adherence to Prevent COPD Exacerbations. Med Sci (Basel). 2019 Apr 1;7(4). pii: E54. doi: 10.3390/medsci7040054.
135. Abdulsalim S, Unnikrishnan MK, Manu MK, Alsahali S, Alrasheedy AA, Martin AP, Godman B, Alfadl AA. Impact of a Clinical Pharmacist Intervention on Medicine Costs in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in India. Pharmacoecon Open. 2019 Jul 31. doi: 10.1007/s41669-019-0172-x.
136. McGurran MA, Richter LM, Leedahl ND, Leedahl DD. Impact of a Comprehensive COPD Therapeutic Interchange Program on 30-Day Readmission Rates in Hospitalized Patients. P T. 2019 Apr;44(4):185-191.
137. Cawley MJ, Warning WJ 2nd. Impact of a Pharmacist-driven Spirometry Clinic Service within a Community Family Health Center: A 5-year Retrospective Review. J Res Pharm Pract. 2018 Apr-Jun;7(2):88-94. doi: 10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_101.
138. Ottenbros S, Teichert M, de Groot R, Griens F, Sodihardjo F, Wensing M, de Gier JJ. Pharmacist-led intervention study to improve drug therapy in asthma and COPD patients. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014 Apr;36(2):336-44. doi: 10.1007/s11096-013-9887-4.
139. Usmani OS, Lavorini F, Marshall J, Dunlop WCN, Heron L, Farrington E, Dekhuijzen R. Critical inhaler errors in asthma and COPD: a systematic review of impact on health outcomes. Respir Res. 2018 Jan 16;19(1):10. doi: 10.1186/s12931-017-0710-y.
140. Kuipers E, Wensing M, Wong-Go E, Daemen BJG, De Smet PAGM, Teichert M. Adherence to guideline recommendations for asthma care in community pharmacies: actual and needed performance. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2019 Jul 11;29(1):26. doi: 10.1038/s41533-019-0139-5.
141. Deeks LS, Kosari S, Boom K, Peterson GM, Maina A, Sharma R, Naunton M. The Role of Pharmacists in General Practice in Asthma Management: A Pilot Study. Pharmacy (Basel). 2018 Oct 15;6(4). pii: E114. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy6040114.
142. Hunt V, Anderson D, Lowrie R, Montgomery Sardar C, Ballantyne S, Bryson G, Kyle J, Hanlon P. A non-randomised controlled pilot study of clinical pharmacist collaborative intervention for community dwelling patients with COPD. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2018 Oct 10;28(1):38. doi: 10.1038/s41533-018-0105-7.
143. Twigg MJ, Wright DJ. Community pharmacy COPD services: what do researchers and policy makers need to know? Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2017 Feb 7;6:53-59. doi: 10.2147/IPRP.S105279
144. Greenhalgh T, Macfarlane F, Steed L, Walton R. What works for whom in pharmacist-led smoking cessation support: realist review. BMC Med. 2016 Dec 16;14(1):209.
145. Kadam NS, Chiplonkar SA, Khadilkar AV, Khadilkar VV. Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Apparently Healthy Adults above 40 Years of Age in Pune City, India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Jan-Feb;22(1):67-73. doi: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_438_17.
146. Patel D, Worley JR, Volgas DA, Crist BD. The Effectiveness of Osteoporosis Screening and Treatment in the Midwest. Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil. 2018 Mar 29;9:2151459318765844. doi: 10.1177/2151459318765844.
147. Tu KN, Lie JD, Wan CKV, Cameron M, Austel AG, Nguyen JK, Van K, Hyun D. Osteoporosis: A Review of Treatment Options. P T. 2018 Feb;43(2):92-104.
148. Elias MN, Burden AM, Cadarette SM. The impact of pharmacist interventions on osteoporosis management: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2011 Oct;22(10):2587-96. doi: 10.1007/s00198-011-1661-7.
149. Jaleel A, Saag KG, Danila MI. Improving drug adherence in osteoporosis: an update on more recent studies. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2018 Jul;10(7):141-149. doi: 10.1177/1759720X18785539.
150. Balkhi B, Seoane-Vazquez E, Rodriguez-Monguio R. Changes in the utilization of osteoporosis drugs after the 2010 FDA bisphosphonate drug safety communication. Saudi Pharm J. 2018 Feb;26(2):238-243. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.005.
151. Lau E, Papaioannou A, Dolovich L, Adachi J, Sawka AM, Burns S, Nair K, Pathak A. Patients’ adherence to osteoporosis therapy: exploring the perceptions of postmenopausal women. Can Fam Physician. 2008 Mar;54(3):394-402.
152. McGreevy JL, Kane MP, Busch RS, Bakst G, ElDeiry S. A pharmacist-run anabolic osteoporosis clinic: An abaloparatide descriptive report. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019 Jul – Aug;59(4):593-597. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2019.03.017.
153. Cho H, Byun JH, Song I, Kim HY, Ha YC, Kim TY, Lee YK, Jang S. Effect of improved medication adherence on health care costs in osteoporosis patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Jul;97(30):e11470. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011470.
154. Ivanova S, Vasileva L. Current and Emerging Strategies in Osteoporosis Management. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(41):6279-6287. doi: 10.2174/1381612823666170714122714.
155. Leslie WD, Morin SN, Martineau P, Bryanton M, Lix LM. Association of Bone Density Monitoring in Routine Clinical Practice With Anti-Osteoporosis Medication Use and Incident Fractures: A Matched Cohort Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2019 Jun 18. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3813.
156. Tit DM, Bungau S, Iovan C, Nistor Cseppento DC, Endres L, Sava C, Sabau AM, Furau G, Furau C. Effects of the Hormone Replacement Therapy and of Soy Isoflavones on Bone Resorption in Postmenopause. J Clin Med. 2018 Sep 21;7(10). pii: E297. doi: 10.3390/jcm7100297.
157. Fait T. Menopause hormone therapy: latest developments and clinical practice. Drugs Context. 2019 Jan 2;8:212551. doi: 10.7573/dic.212551.
158. Zuo H, Sun A, Gao L, Xue W, Deng Y, Wang Y, Zhu S, Ma X, Xin H. Effect of Menopausal Hormone Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Women: A 2-Year, Prospective, Open-Label, Randomized-Controlled Trial. Med Sci Monit. 2019 Jan 28;25:819-826. doi: 10.12659/MSM.912166.
159. Bowers BL, Drew AM, Verry C. Impact of Pharmacist-Physician Collaboration on Osteoporosis Treatment Rates. Ann Pharmacother. 2018 Sep;52(9):876-883. doi: 10.1177/1060028018770622.
160. Duquet N. [Osteoporosis: treatment and pharmaceutical care]. J Pharm Belg. 2014 Jun;(2):14-24.
161. Uhlig HH. Monogenic diseases associated with intestinal inflammation: implications for the understanding of inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 2013 Dec;62(12):1795-805. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303956.
162. Cury DB, Oliveira R, Cury MS. Inflammatory bowel diseases: time of diagnosis, environmental factors, clinical course, and management – a follow-up study in a private inflammatory bowel disease center (2003-2017). J Inflamm Res. 2019 May 28;12:127-135. doi: 10.2147/JIR.S190929.
163. Bon L, Scharl S, Vavricka S, Rogler G, Fournier N, Pittet V, Scharl M, Greuter T, Schreiner P, Frei P, Misselwitz B, Biedermann L, Zeitz J; Swiss IBD Cohort Study Group. Association of IBD specific treatment and prevalence of pain in the Swiss IBD cohort study. PLoS One. 2019 Apr 25;14(4):e0215738. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215738.
164. Aniwan S, Harmsen WS, Tremaine WJ, Loftus EV Jr. Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease by race and ethnicity in a population-based inception cohort from 1970 through 2010. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2019 Feb 6;12:1756284819827692. doi: 10.1177/1756284819827692.
165. Ye BD, Travis S. Improving the quality of care for inflammatory bowel disease. Intest Res. 2019 Jan;17(1):45-53. doi: 10.5217/ir.2018.00113.
166. Lichtenstein GR, Shahabi A, Seabury SA, Lakdawalla DN, Espinosa OD, Green S, Brauer M, Baldassano RN. Lifetime Economic Burden of Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis by Age at Diagnosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Jul 18. pii: S1542-3565(19)30765-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.07.022.
167. Barrett K, Glatter J. New standards for IBD aim to improve patient experience and outcomes. Guidelines in Practice (Gastrointestinal) UK, 27 July 2019.
168. Sood A, Ahuja V, Kedia S, Midha V, Mahajan R, Mehta V, Sudhakar R, Singh A, Kumar A, Puri AS, Tantry BV, Thapa BR, Goswami B, Behera BN, Ye BD, Bansal D, Desai D, Pai G, Yattoo GN, Makharia G, Wijewantha HS, Venkataraman J, Shenoy KT, Dwivedi M, Sahu MK, Bajaj M, Abdullah M, Singh N, Singh N, Abraham P, Khosla R, Tandon R, Misra SP, Nijhawan S, Sinha SK, Bopana S, Krishnaswamy S, Joshi S, Singh SP, Bhatia S, Gupta S, Bhatia S, Ghoshal UC. Diet and inflammatory bowel disease: The Asian Working Group guidelines. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun;38(3):220-246. doi: 10.1007/s12664-019-00976-1.
169. Rizzello F, Spisni E, Giovanardi E, Imbesi V, Salice M, Alvisi P, Valerii MC, Gionchetti P. Implications of the Westernized Diet in the Onset and Progression of IBD. Nutrients. 2019 May 8;11(5). pii: E1033. doi: 10.3390/nu11051033.
170. Malekzadeh MM, Sima A, Alatab S, Sadeghi A, Daryani NE, Adibi P, Maleki I, Vossoughinia H, Fakheri H, Yazdanbod A, Taghavi SA, Aghazadeh R, Somi MH, Zendedel K, Vahedi H, Malekzadeh R. Iranian Registry of Crohn’s and Colitis: study profile of first nation-wide inflammatory bowel disease registry in Middle East. Intest Res. 2019 Jul;17(3):330-339. doi: 10.5217/ir.2018.00157.
171. Choi K, Chun J, Han K, Park S, Soh H, Kim J, Lee J, Lee HJ, Im JP, Kim JS. Risk of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study. J Clin Med. 2019 May 10;8(5). pii: E654. doi: 10.3390/jcm8050654.
172. Panhwar MS, Mansoor E, Al-Kindi SG, Sinh P, Katz J, Oliveira GH, Cooper GS, Ginwalla M. Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-based National Study. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 May 4;25(6):1080-1087. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izy354.
173. Kuenzig ME, Bishay K, Leigh R, Kaplan GG, Benchimol EI; Crowdscreen SR Review Team. Co-occurrence of Asthma and the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2018 Sep 24;9(9):188. doi: 10.1038/s41424-018-0054-z.
174. Vutcovici M, Brassard P, Bitton A. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Sep 14;22(34):7735-41. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i34.7735.
175. Kelly OB, Li N, Smith M, Chan J, Inman RD, Silverberg MS. The Prevalence and Clinical Associations of Subclinical Sacroiliitis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 May 4;25(6):1066-1071. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izy339.
176. Scharl S, Barthel C, Rossel JB, Biedermann L, Misselwitz B, Schoepfer AM, Straumann A, Vavricka SR, Rogler G, Scharl M, Greuter T. Malignancies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Frequency, Incidence and Risk Factors-Results from the Swiss IBD Cohort Study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jan;114(1):116-126. doi: 10.1038/s41395-018-0360-9.
177. Waters BM, Jensen L, Fedorak RN. Effects of formal education for patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a randomized controlled trial. Can J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr;19(4):235-44.
178. Ashok K, Mathew AA, Thomas A, Mohan D, Gopalakrishna R, Reghu R. Clinical Pharmacist’s Interventions on Medication Adherence and Knowledge of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients. J Young Pharm. 2017;9(3):381-5. doi:10.5530/jyp.2017.9.76
179. Tiao DK, Chan W, Jeganathan J, Chan JT, Perry J, Selinger CP, Leong RW. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Pharmacist Adherence Counseling Improves Medication Adherence in Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017 Aug;23(8):1257-1261. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000001194.
180. McDowell C, Haseeb M. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) [Updated 2019 Jan 2]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470312/
181. Jones ASC. Optimising therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical Pharmacist, 20 November, 2014.
182. Steel A, Morgan H, Tan W, et al PTU-140 Does a dedicated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmacist clinic improve patient safety? Gut 2018;67:A265-A266.
183. Bhat S. The Pharmacist’s Role in Biologic Management for IBD in a Health System—Integrated Practice Model. Pharmacy Times®, 23 October, 2015.
184. Leung AM. Thyroid Emergencies. J Infus Nurs. 2016 Sep-Oct;39(5):281-6. doi: 10.1097/NAN.0000000000000186.
185. De Leo S, Lee SY, Braverman LE. Hyperthyroidism. Lancet. 2016 Aug 27;388(10047):906-918. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00278-6.
186. Taylor PN, Albrecht D, Scholz A, Gutierrez-Buey G, Lazarus JH, Dayan CM, Okosieme OE. Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018 May;14(5):301-316. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2018.18.
187. Calsolaro V, Niccolai F, Pasqualetti G, Calabrese AM, Polini A, Okoye C, Magno S, Caraccio N, Monzani F. Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the Elderly: When to Treat? Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Mar 22;10:177. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00177.
188. Leng O, Razvi S. Hypothyroidism in the older population. Thyroid Res. 2019 Feb 8;12:2. doi: 10.1186/s13044-019-0063-3.
189. Talwalkar P, Deshmukh V, Bhole M. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in India: a cross-sectional observational study. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2019 Mar 20;12:369-376. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S181470.
190. Thavaraputta S, Dennis JA, Laoveeravat P, Nugent K, Rivas AM. Hypothyroidism and Its Association With Sleep Apnea Among Adults in the United States: NHANES 2007-2008. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Nov 1;104(11):4990-4997. doi: 10.1210/jc.2019-01132.
191. Sriphrapradang C, Pinyopodjanard S, Suntornlohanakul O, Nimitphong H, Chirakalwasan N, Saetang S, Anothaisintawee T, Siwasaranond N, Manodpitipong A, Chailurkit LO, Reutrakul S. Lack of associations between thyroid function and obstructive sleep apnea severity in adults with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus. Sleep Breath. 2019 Sep;23(3):963-967. doi: 10.1007/s11325-018-1756-x.
192. Bruyneel M, Veltri F, Poppe K. Prevalence of newly established thyroid disorders in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Breath. 2019 Jun;23(2):567-573. doi: 10.1007/s11325-018-1746-z.
193. Sweed RA, Hassan S, ElWahab NHA, Aref SR, Mahmoud MI. Comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea: a retrospective Egyptian study on 244 patients. Sleep Breath. 2019 Jan 26. doi: 10.1007/s11325-019-01783-w.
194. Gabrielson AT, Sartor RA, Hellstrom WJG. The Impact of Thyroid Disease on Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women. Sex Med Rev. 2019 Jan;7(1):57-70. doi: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2018.05.002.
195. Yuan J, Sun C, Jiang S, Lu Y, Zhang Y, Gao XH, Wu Y, Chen HD. The Prevalence of Thyroid Disorders in Patients With Vitiligo: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Jan 15;9:803. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00803.
196. Biondi B, Cappola AR, Cooper DS. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Review. JAMA. 2019 Jul 9;322(2):153-160. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.9052.
197. Fayyaz B, Upreti S. Autoimmune inner ear disease secondary to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a case report. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2018 Aug 23;8(4):227-229. doi: 10.1080/20009666.2018.1503917.
198. Chaudhary SC, Ahmad T, Usman K, Sawlani KK, Gupta KK, Verma AK, Reddy DH. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in a tertiary care center in North India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2018 May-Jun;7(3):584-588. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_84_17.
199. Akpınar EE. An underestimated comorbidity of COPD: Thyroid dysfunction. Tuberk Toraks. 2019 Jun;67(2):131-135. doi: 10.5578/tt.68257.
200. Rugge B, Balshem H, Sehgal R, et al. Screening and Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2011 Oct. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 24.) Introduction. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83492/
201. Bensenor IM, Olmos RD, Lotufo PA. Hypothyroidism in the elderly: diagnosis and management. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:97-111. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S23966.
202. DeGroot LJ. Diagnosis and Treatment of Graves’ Disease. [Updated 2016 Nov 2]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285548/
203. Maharjan, Sushma, and Himal Paudel Chhetri. “Assessment of Interventions by Pharmacist in Improving Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Hypothyroidism among the Patients Attending at an Endocrine Clinic in Nepal.” Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 8, no. 2, Apr. 2015, pp. 67–71., doi:10.5530/ijopp.8.2.4.
204. Lloyd J, Yerbury P, Ruszala V. Thyroid disorders management. Available From: https://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/download?ac=1065114&firstPass=false
205. Mueller L. Changing the Conversation About Mental Health. Chicago Health, September 4, 2018.
206. Harms M, Haas M, Larew J, DeJongh B. Impact of a mental health clinical pharmacist on a primary care mental health integration team. Ment Health Clin. 2018 Mar 23;7(3):101-105. doi: 10.9740/mhc.2017.05.101.
207. Rehm J, Shield KD. Global Burden of Disease and the Impact of Mental and Addictive Disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2019 Feb 7;21(2):10. doi: 10.1007/
208. Faquih AE, Memon RI, Hafeez H, Zeshan M, Naveed S. A Review of Novel Antidepressants: A Guide for Clinicians. Cureus. 2019 Mar 6;11(3):e4185. doi: 10.7759/cureus.4185.
209. Horackova K, Kopecek M, Machů V, Kagstrom A, Aarsland D, Motlova LB, Cermakova P. Prevalence of late-life depression and gap in mental health service use across European regions. Eur Psychiatry. 2019 Apr;57:19-25. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.12.002.
210. Singh OP. Closing treatment gap of mental disorders in India: Opportunity in new competency-based Medical Council of India curriculum. Indian J Psychiatry. 2018 Oct-Dec;60(4):375-376. doi: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_458_18.
211. Swaminath G, Enara A, Rao R, Kumar KVK, Kumar CN. Mental Healthcare Act, 2017 and homeless persons with mental illness in India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2019 Apr;61(Suppl 4):S768-S772. doi: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_117_19. Review
212. Hayes K, Berry P, Ebi KL. Factors Influencing the Mental Health Consequences of Climate Change in Canada. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 May 6;16(9). pii: E1583. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16091583.
213. Cook L. Mental health in Australia: a quick guide. Parliament of Australia, 14 February 2019.
214. Shpigelman CN, HaGani N. The impact of disability type and visibility on self-concept and body image: Implications for mental health nursing. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2019 Apr;26(3-4):77-86. doi: 10.1111/jpm.12513
215. Yamauchi T, Sasaki T, Yoshikawa T, Matsumoto S, Takahashi M. Incidence of overwork-related mental disorders and suicide in Japan. Occup Med (Lond). 2018 Aug 11;68(6):370-377. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqy080.
216. Uhlenbusch N, Löwe B, Härter M, Schramm C, Weiler-Normann C, Depping MK. Depression and anxiety in patients with different rare chronic diseases: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2019 Feb 20;14(2):e0211343. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211343.
217. Rokach A. The Effect of Psychological Conditions on Sexuality: A Review. Psychol Psychother Res Stud. 2(2). PPRS.000534. 2019. DOI: 10.31031/PPRS.2019.02.000534
218. Gibu M, Clark J, Gold J. Mental health pharmacists as interim prescribers. Ment Health Clin. 2018 Mar 23;7(3):111-115. doi: 10.9740/mhc.2017.05.111.
219. Mohiuddin AK. Psychiatric Pharmacy: New Role of Pharmacists in Mental Health. J Psychiatry Mental Disord. 2019; 4(1): 1010.
220. Matlala M, Maponya ML, Chigome AK, Meyer H-jc. Overview of mental health: A public health priority. S Afr Pharm J 2018;85(6):46-53, Available From: http://www.sapj.co.za/index.php/SAPJ/article/view/2669
221. Guillaumie L, Ndayizigiye A, Beaucage C, Moisan J, Grégoire JP, Villeneuve D, Lauzier S. Patient perspectives on the role of community pharmacists for antidepressant treatment: A qualitative study. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2018 Feb 9;151(2):142-148. doi: 10.1177/1715163518755814.
222. Srimongkon P, Aslani P, Chen TF. Consumer-related factors influencing antidepressant adherence in unipolar depression: a qualitative study. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2018 Sep 19;12:1863-1873. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S160728.
223. Holvast F, Oude Voshaar RC, Wouters H, Hek K, Schellevis F, Burger H, Verhaak PFM. Non-adherence to antidepressants among older patients with depression: a longitudinal cohort study in primary care. Fam Pract. 2019 Jan 25;36(1):12-20. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmy106.
224. American Pharmacists Association; National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation. Medication therapy management in pharmacy practice: core elements of an MTM service model (version 2.0). J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008 May-Jun;48(3):341-53. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2008.08514.
225. Chavez B, Kosirog E. Impact on an integrated psychiatric pharmacy service in a primary care clinic. Ment Health Clin. 2019 Jul 1;9(4):269-274. doi: 10.9740/mhc.2019.07.269.
226. Bingham J, Axon DR, Scovis N, Taylor AM. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Consultations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Sleep in Improving Patient-Reported Psychiatric Outcomes for Individuals with Mental Illnesses. Pharmacy (Basel). 2018 Dec 22;7(1). pii: E2. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy7010002.
227. Riley TB, Alemagno S. Pharmacist utilization of prescription opioid misuse interventions: Acceptability among pharmacists and patients. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019 Aug;15(8):986-991. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.01.002
228. Eltorki Y, Abdallah O, Omar N, Zolezzi M. Perceptions and expectations of health care providers towards clinical pharmacy services in a mental health hospital in Qatar. Asian J Psychiatr. 2019 Apr;42:62-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2019.03.018.
229. El-Den S, Chen TF, Moles RJ, O’Reilly C. Assessing Mental Health First Aid Skills Using Simulated Patients. Am J Pharm Educ. 2018 Mar;82(2):6222. doi: 10.5688/ajpe6222.
230. Choonara YE, Pillay V, du Toit LC, Modi G, Naidoo D, Ndesendo VM, Sibambo SR. Trends in the molecular pathogenesis and clinical therapeutics of common neurodegenerative disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2009 Jun 3;10(6):2510-57. doi: 10.3390/ijms10062510.
231. GBD 2016 Neurology Collaborators. “Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.” The Lancet. Neurology vol. 18,5 (2019): 459-480. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30499-X
232. Weller J, Budson A. Current understanding of Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis and treatment. F1000Res. 2018 Jul 31;7. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-1161. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.14506.1.
233. Martinez-Martin P, Macaulay D, Jalundhwala YJ, Mu F, Ohashi E, Marshall T, Sail K. The long-term direct and indirect economic burden among Parkinson’s disease caregivers in the United States. Mov Disord. 2019 Feb;34(2):236-245. doi: 10.1002/mds.27579.
234. Kowal SL, Dall TM, Chakrabarti R, Storm MV, Jain A. The current and projected economic burden of Parkinson’s disease in the United States. Mov Disord. 2013 Mar;28(3):311-8. doi: 10.1002/mds.25292.
235. Stephens W. Financial Burden of Parkinson Disease Is $52 Billion, More Than Double Previous Estimates. AJMC News, June 16, 2019.
236. Economic Burden and Future Impact of Parkinson’s Disease Final Report. LewinGroup, July 5, 2019. Available From: https://www.michaeljfox.org/sites/default/files/media/document/2019%20Parkinson%27s%20Economic%20Burden%20Study%20-%20FINAL.pdf
237. Magyari M, Sorensen PS. The changing course of multiple sclerosis: rising incidence, change in geographic distribution, disease course, and prognosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2019 Jun;32(3):320-326. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000695.
238. Díaz C, Zarco LA, Rivera DM. Highly active multiple sclerosis: An update. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 May;30:215-224. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.01.039.
239. Rivera VM. Biosimilar Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis: An Unmet International Need or a Regulatory Risk? Neurol Ther. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.1007/s40120-019-0145-0.
240. Thijs RD, Surges R, O’Brien TJ, Sander JW. Epilepsy in adults. Lancet. 2019 Feb 16;393(10172):689-701. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32596-0.
241. O’Donohoe TJ, Choudhury A, Callander E. The global macroeconomic burden of epilepsy and the role for neurosurgery: A modelling study based upon the 2016 Global Burden of Disease data. Eur J Neurol. 2019 Sep 23. doi: 10.1111/ene.14085.
242. Grossberg GT, Tong G, Burke AD, Tariot PN. Present Algorithms and Future Treatments for Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;67(4):1157-1171. doi: 10.3233/JAD-180903.
243. Terrie YC. The Pharmacist’s Role in the Management of Alzheimer’s Disease. Pharmacy Times®, January 01, 2007.
244. Duong S, Patel T, Chang F. Dementia: What pharmacists need to know. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2017 Feb 7;150(2):118-129. doi: 10.1177/1715163517690745.
245. Yılmaz, Nihan Çarçak, et al. Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease. Istanbul J Pharm vol. 47, no. 1, 28 Mar. 2017, pp. 1–4., doi:10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001. Available From: https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/348674
246. Ciulla M, Marinelli L, Cacciatore I, Stefano AD. Role of Dietary Supplements in the Management of Parkinson’s Disease. Biomolecules. 2019 Jul 10;9(7). pii: E271. doi: 10.3390/biom9070271.
247. Lyons KE, Pahwa R, Hermanowicz N, Davis T, Pagan F, Isaacson S. Changing the treatment paradigm for Parkinson’s disease psychosis with pimavanserin. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Jul;12(7):681-691. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2019.1623669.
248. Raza C, Anjum R, Shakeel NUA. Parkinson’s disease: Mechanisms, translational models and management strategies. Life Sci. 2019 Jun 1;226:77-90. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.03.057.
249. Foppa AA, Chemello C, Vargas-Peláez CM, Farias MR. Medication Therapy Management Service for Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Before-and-After Study. Neurol Ther. 2016 Jun;5(1):85-99. doi: 10.1007/s40120-016-0046-4.
250. Patel T, Chang F; Parkinson Society Canada. Parkinson’s disease guidelines for pharmacists. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2014 May;147(3):161-70. doi: 10.1177/1715163514529740.
251. Patel T, Chang F. Practice recommendations for Parkinson’s disease: Assessment and management by community pharmacists. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2015 May;148(3):142-9. doi: 10.1177/1715163515578146.
252. Hill AC, Thomson KE, Newell TG, White HS. Correction of medication nonadherence results in better seizure outcomes than dose escalation in a novel preclinical epilepsy model of adherence. Epilepsia. 2019 Mar;60(3):475-484. doi: 10.1111/epi.14655.
253. Kälviäinen R, Reinikainen M. Management of prolonged epileptic seizures and status epilepticus in palliative care patients. Epilepsy Behav. 2019 May 24. pii: S1525-5050(19)30372-5. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.04.041.
254. Ernawati I, Islamiyah WR, Sumarno. How to Improve Clinical Outcome of Epileptic Seizure Control Based on Medication Adherence? A Literature Review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018 Jun 17;6(6):1174-1179. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2018.235.
255. Gutierrez-Colina AM, Smith AW, Mara CA, Modi AC. Adherence barriers in pediatric epilepsy: From toddlers to young adults. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Mar;80:229-234. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.01.031.
256. Gschwind M, Seeck M. Modern management of seizures and epilepsy. Swiss Med Wkly. 2016 Jun 20;146:w14310. doi: 10.4414/smw.2016.14310.
257. Koshy S. Role of pharmacists in the management of patients with epilepsy. Int J Pharm Pract. 2012 Feb;20(1):65-8. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00156.x.
258. dos Reis TM, Campos MSA, Nagai MM, Pereira LRL. Contributions of Pharmacists in the Treatment of Epilepsy: A Systematic Review. Pharmacy Times® 21 June, 2016.
259. Ha H. Epilepsy: Treatment and Management. US Pharmacists, January 23, 2013.
260. Chen C, Lee DS, Hie SL. The impact of pharmacist’s counseling on pediatric patients’ caregiver’s knowledge on epilepsy and its treatment in a tertiary hospital. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013 Oct;35(5):829-34. doi: 10.1007/s11096-013-9817-5.
261. dos Reis TM, Campos MSA, Nagai MM, Pereira LRL. Contributions of Pharmacists in the Treatment of Epilepsy: A Systematic Review. Am J Pharm Benefits. 2016;8(3):e55-e60. Available From: https://ajpblive.s3.amazonaws.com/_media/_pdf/AJPB_0506_2016_MarquesDosReis.pdf
262. Cabo-Meseguer A, Cerdá-Olmedo G, Trillo-Mata JL. Fibromyalgia: Prevalence, epidemiologic profiles and economic costs. Med Clin (Barc). 2017 Nov 22;149(10):441-448. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2017.06.008.
263. Muraleetharan D, Fadich A, Stephenson C, Garney W. Understanding the Impact of Fibromyalgia on Men: Findings From a Nationwide Survey. Am J Mens Health. 2018 Jul;12(4):952-960. doi: 10.1177/1557988317753242
264. AK Mohiuddin. Non-drug pain management: opportunities to explore. BiomedGrid LLC, USA May 09, 2019. ISBN: 978-1-946628-01-5
265. Pappolla MA, Manchikanti L, Andersen CR, Greig NH, Ahmed F, Fang X, Seffinger MA, Trescot AM. Is insulin resistance the cause of fibromyalgia? A preliminary report. PLoS One. 2019 May 6;14(5):e0216079. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216079.
266. Palstam A, Mannerkorpi K. Work Ability in Fibromyalgia: An Update in the 21st Century. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2017;13(3):180-187. doi: 10.2174/1573397113666170502152955.
267. D’Agnelli S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Gerra MC, Zatorri K, Boggiani L, Baciarello M, Bignami E. Fibromyalgia: Genetics and epigenetics insights may provide the basis for the development of diagnostic biomarkers. Mol Pain. 2019 Jan-Dec;15:1744806918819944. doi: 10.1177/1744806918819944.
268. Sosa-Reina MD, Nunez-Nagy S, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Pecos-Martín D, Monserrat J, Álvarez-Mon M. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Exercise in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2356346. doi: 10.1155/2017/2356346.
269. Ghavidel-Parsa B, Bidari A, Amir Maafi A, Ghalebaghi B. The Iceberg Nature of Fibromyalgia Burden: The Clinical and Economic Aspects. Korean J Pain. 2015 Jul;28(3):169-76. doi: 10.3344/kjp.2015.28.3.169.
270. Arout CA, Sofuoglu M, Bastian LA, Rosenheck RA. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Fibromyalgia and in Concomitant Medical and Psychiatric Disorders: A National Veterans Health Administration Study. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018 Aug;27(8):1035-1044. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2017.6622.
271. Bhargava J, Hurley JA. Fibromyalgia. [Updated 2019 May 1]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK540974/
272. Kaltsas G, Tsiveriotis K. Fibromyalgia. [Updated 2017 Oct 2]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279092/
273. Galvez-Sánchez CM, Duschek S, Reyes Del Paso GA. Psychological impact of fibromyalgia: current perspectives. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2019 Feb 13;12:117-127. doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S178240.
274. Bellato E, Marini E, Castoldi F, Barbasetti N, Mattei L, Bonasia DE, Blonna D. Fibromyalgia syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Pain Res Treat. 2012;2012:426130. doi: 10.1155/2012/426130.
275. Mahjoub F, Salari R, Noras MR, Yousefi M. Are Traditional Remedies Useful in Management of Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? A Review Study. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Oct;22(4):1011-1016. doi: 10.1177/2156587217712763.
276. Abdul Kader Mohiuddin. Comparison of Drug and Non-Drug Treatment Options of Fibromyalgia Glob J Ortho Res. 1(5): 2019. GJOR. MS.ID.000522. DOI: 10.33552/GJOR.2019.01.000522
277. Sawynok J, Lynch ME. Qigong and Fibromyalgia circa 2017. Medicines (Basel). 2017 Jun 6;4(2). pii: E37. doi: 10.3390/medicines4020037.
278. Wang X, Li P, Pan C, Dai L, Wu Y, Deng Y. The Effect of Mind-Body Therapies on Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Feb 13;2019:9359807. doi: 10.1155/2019/9359807.
279. Silva AR, Bernardo A, Costa J, Cardoso A, Santos P, de Mesquita MF, Vaz Patto J, Moreira P, Silva ML, Padrão P. Dietary interventions in fibromyalgia: a systematic review. Ann Med. 2019;51(sup1):2-14. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2018.1564360.
280. Marum AP, Moreira C, Saraiva F, Tomas-Carus P, Sousa-Guerreiro C. A low fermentable oligo-di-mono saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet reduced pain and improved daily life in fibromyalgia patients. Scand J Pain. 2016 Oct;13:166-172. doi: 10.1016/j.sjpain.2016.07.004.
281. Marum AP, Moreira C, Tomas-Carus P, Saraiva F, Guerreiro CS. A low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet is a balanced therapy for fibromyalgia with nutritional and symptomatic benefits. Nutr Hosp. 2017 Jun 5;34(3):667-674. doi: 10.20960/nh.703.
282. Lattanzio SM, Imbesi F. Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Case Report on Controlled Remission of Symptoms by a Dietary Strategy. Front Med (Lausanne). 2018 Apr 30;5:94. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2018.00094.
283. Zabihiyeganeh M, Vafaee Afshar S, Amini Kadijani A, Jafari D, Bagherifard A, Janbozorgi M, Akbari A, Mirzaei A. The effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the circulating proinflammatory cytokines of fibromyalgia patients: A pilot controlled clinical trial. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2019 Mar – Apr;57:23-28. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2019.01.003.
284. InformedHealth.org [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Fibromyalgia: Multimodal pain management and cognitive behavioral therapy. 2018 Mar 8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK492994/
285. McCrae CS, Williams J, Roditi D, Anderson R, Mundt JM, Miller MB, Curtis AF, Waxenberg LB, Staud R, Berry RB, Robinson ME. Cognitive behavioral treatments for insomnia and pain in adults with comorbid chronic insomnia and fibromyalgia: clinical outcomes from the SPIN randomized controlled trial. Sleep. 2019 Mar 1;42(3). pii: zsy234. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsy234.
286. Aman MM, Jason Yong R, Kaye AD, Urman RD. Evidence-Based Non-Pharmacological Therapies for Fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2018 Apr 4;22(5):33. doi: 10.1007/s11916-018-0688-2.
287. McCrae CS, Mundt JM, Curtis AF, Craggs JG, O’Shea AM, Staud R, Berry RB, Perlstein WM, Robinson ME. Gray Matter Changes Following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Patients With Comorbid Fibromyalgia and Insomnia: A Pilot Study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 Sep 15;14(9):1595-1603. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.7344.
288. Karatay S, Okur SC, Uzkeser H, Yildirim K, Akcay F. Effects of Acupuncture Treatment on Fibromyalgia Symptoms, Serotonin, and Substance P Levels: A Randomized Sham and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Pain Med. 2018 Mar 1;19(3):615-628. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnx263
289. McPherson ML, Lofton JC. Fibromyalgia: An update for pharmacists. Pharmacy Today. 2010(Jan);16(1)48–59. Available From: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9022/a471ad9355ee5bc75f5e1ec4c4605f709da6.pdf
290. Northcott MJ, Guymer EK, Littlejohn GO. Pharmacological treatment options for fibromyalgia. Clinical Pharmacist 7 November, 2017.
291. Kodner C. Common questions about the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Apr 1;91(7):472-8.
292. Medina M, Castillo-Pino E. An introduction to the epidemiology and burden of urinary tract infections. Ther Adv Urol. 2019 May 2;11:1756287219832172. doi: 10.1177/1756287219832172.
293. Al-Badr A, Al-Shaikh G. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women: A review. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2013 Aug;13(3):359-67.
294. Lema VM. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: Case Reports. Afr J Reprod Health. 2015 Jun;19(2):134-9. PubMed PMID: 26506666.
295. Harrington RD, Hooton TM. Urinary tract infection risk factors and gender. J Gend Specif Med. 2000 Nov-Dec;3(8):27-34.
296. Oladeinde BH, Omoregie R, Olley M, Anunibe JA. Urinary tract infection in a rural community of Nigeria. N Am J Med Sci. 2011 Feb;3(2):75-7. doi: 10.4297/najms.2011.375.
297. Behzadi P, Behzadi E, Pawlak-Adamska EA. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) or genital tract infections (GTIs)? It’s the diagnostics that count. GMS Hyg Infect Control. 2019 Feb 18;14:Doc14. doi: 10.3205/dgkh000320.
298. Arnold JJ, Hehn LE, Klein DA. Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Apr 1;93(7):560-9.
299. Tan CW, Chlebicki MP. Urinary tract infections in adults. Singapore Med J. 2016 Sep;57(9):485-90. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2016153.
300. Hickling DR, Nitti VW. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women. Rev Urol. 2013;15(2):41-8.
301. Jhang JF, Kuo HC. Recent advances in recurrent urinary tract infection from pathogenesis and biomarkers to prevention. Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017 Jul-Sep;29(3):131-137. doi: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_53_17.
302. Gupta K, Trautner BW. Diagnosis and management of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women. BMJ. 2013 May 29;346:f3140. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f3140.
303. Li R, Leslie SW. Cystitis. [Updated 2019 Mar 14]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482435/
304. Scholes D, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, Stapleton AE, Gupta K, Stamm WE. Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women. J Infect Dis. 2000 Oct;182(4):1177-82. Epub 2000 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 10979915.
305. Nseir W, Farah R, Mahamid M, Sayed-Ahmad H, Mograbi J, Taha M, Artul S. Obesity and recurrent urinary tract infections in premenopausal women: a retrospective study. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Dec;41:32-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.10.014.
306. Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015 May;13(5):269-84. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3432.
307. Gajdács M, Urbán E. Comparative Epidemiology and Resistance Trends of Proteae in Urinary Tract Infections of Inpatients and Outpatients: A 10-Year Retrospective Study. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 91; doi:10.3390/antibiotics8030091
308. Mickymaray S, Al Aboody MS. In Vitro Antioxidant and Bactericidal Efficacy of 15 Common Spices: Novel Therapeutics for Urinary Tract Infections? Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Jun 19;55(6). pii: E289. doi: 10.3390/medicina55060289.
309. Liya SJ, Siddique R. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity of Some Commercial Fruit (Apple, Papaya, Lemon and Strawberry) Against Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2018 Aug 16;8(3):95-99. doi: 10.1556/1886.2018.00014.
310. Albu S, Voidazan S, Bilca D, Badiu M, Truţă A, Ciorea M, Ichim A, Luca D, Moldovan G. Bacteriuria and asymptomatic infection in chronic patients with indwelling urinary catheter: The incidence of ESBL bacteria. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Aug;97(33):e11796. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011796.
311. Frellick M. Drinking More Water Reduces Repeat Urinary Tract Infections. Medscape, October 09, 2017.
312. Hooton TM, Vecchio M, Iroz A, et al. Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake in Premenopausal Women With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(11):1509–1515. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4204
313. Luo EK. How can you stop a chronic UTI? MedicalNewsToay, Wed 20 June 2018.
314. Kennelly M, Thiruchelvam N, Averbeck MA, Konstatinidis C, Chartier-Kastler E, Trøjgaard P, Vaabengaard R, Krassioukov A, Jakobsen BP. Adult Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction and Intermittent Catheterisation in a Community Setting: Risk Factors Model for Urinary Tract Infections. Adv Urol. 2019 Apr 2;2019:2757862. doi: 10.1155/2019/2757862.
315. Plüddemann A. Can drinking more water prevent urinary tract infections? The evidence says yes. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2019 Feb 20. pii: bmjebm-2018-111143. doi: 10.1136/bmjebm-2018-111143.
316. Akgül T, Karakan T. The role of probiotics in women with recurrent urinary tract infections. Turk J Urol. 2018 Sep;44(5):377-383. doi: 10.5152/tud.2018.48742.
317. Asadi Karam MR, Habibi M, Bouzari S. Urinary tract infection: Pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and development of effective vaccines against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol Immunol. 2019 Apr;108:56-67. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2019.02.007.
318. Wnorowska U, Piktel E, Durnaś B, Fiedoruk K, Savage PB, Bucki R. Use of ceragenins as a potential treatment for urinary tract infections. BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 2;19(1):369. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3994-3.
319. Abdul Kader Mohiuddin. Alternative Management of Uncomplicated UTIs In Women. J Urol Neph St 2(2)- 2019. JUNS.MS.ID.000133. DOI: 10.32474/JUNS.2019.02.000133.
320. Abdul Kader Mohiuddin. Lifestyle Issues and Prevention of Recurrent UTIs. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 21(3)-2019. BJSTR. MS.ID.003618. DOI:10.26717/BJSTR.2019.21.003618
321. Silverman JA, Schreiber HL 4th, Hooton TM, Hultgren SJ. From physiology to pharmacy: developments in the pathogenesis and treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections. Curr Urol Rep. 2013 Oct;14(5):448-56. doi: 10.1007/s11934-013-0354-5.
322. Mohiuddin AK. (2019). Lifestyle Issues and Prevention of Recurrent UTIs. Mathews J Urol Nephrol 3(1): e003. Available From: https://www.mathewsopenaccess.com/scholarly-articles/lifestyle-issues-and-prevention-of-recurrent-utis.pdf
323. Beahm NP, Nicolle LE, Bursey A, Smyth DJ, Tsuyuki RT. The assessment and management of urinary tract infections in adults: Guidelines for pharmacists. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2017 Jul 31;150(5):298-305. doi: 10.1177/1715163517723036.
324. Beahm NP, Smyth DJ, Tsuyuki RT. Outcomes of Urinary Tract Infection Management by Pharmacists (R(x)OUTMAP): A study of pharmacist prescribing and care in patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections in the community. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2018 Jun 3;151(5):305-314. doi: 10.1177/1715163518781175.
325. Minejima E, Lee E, Quach S,Santos N, Lou M, Wong-Beringer A. Understanding patientperceptions and attitudes toward urinary tract infections andtreatment in a medically underserved population.J Am Coll ClinPharm. 2019;1–7. https://doi.org/10.1002/jac5.1071. Available From: https://accpjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jac5.1071
326. Crews DC, Bello AK, Saadi G. 2019 World Kidney Day Editorial – burden, access, and disparities in kidney disease. J Bras Nefrol. 2019 Jan-Mar;41(1):1-9. doi: 10.1590/2175-8239-JBN-2018-0224.
327. Saran, Rajiv et al. “US Renal Data System 2018 Annual Data Report: Epidemiology of Kidney Disease in the United States.” American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation vol. 73,3S1 (2019): A7-A8. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.01.001
328. Hu MK, Witham MD, Soiza RL. Oral Bicarbonate Therapy in Non-Haemodialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 7;8(2). pii: E208. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020208.
329. Lv JC, Zhang LX. Prevalence and Disease Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1165:3-15. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-8871-2_1.
330. Motedayen M, Sarokhani D, Ghiasi B, Khatony A, Hasanpour Dehkordi A. Prevalence of Hypertension in Renal Diseases in Iran: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Prev Med. 2019 Jul 5;10:124. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_522_18.
331. Moreno Velásquez I, Tribaldos Causadias M, Valdés R, Gómez B, Motta J, Cuero C, Herrera-Ballesteros V. End-stage renal disease-financial costs and years of life lost in Panama: a cost-analysis study. BMJ Open. 2019 May 27;9(5):e027229. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027229.
332. Bikbov B; Global Burden of Disease Study Genitourinary Disease Expert Group. Letter to the Editor: Chronic Kidney Disease – a Neglected Disease in the Economic Conditions Burden Analysis in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2019 Aug 19;34(32):e220. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e220.
333. Bello AK, Ronksley PE, Tangri N, Kurzawa J, Osman MA, Singer A, Grill A, Nitsch D, Queenan JA, Wick J, Lindeman C, Soos B, Tuot DS, Shojai S, Brimble S, Mangin D, Drummond N. Prevalence and Demographics of CKD in Canadian Primary Care Practices: A Cross-sectional Study. Kidney Int Rep. 2019 Jan 21;4(4):561-570. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2019.01.005.
334. Home dialysis as the ‘first’ treatment option for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Available From: https://www.mtaa.org.au/sites/default/files/uploaded-content/website-content/Home%20Dialysisv5.pdf
335. Stemer G, Lemmens-Gruber R. Clinical pharmacy activities in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease patients: a systematic literature review. BMC Nephrol. 2011 Jul 22;12:35. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-12-35.
336. McKinnon A. Practice spotlight: pharmacist in a chronic kidney disease clinic. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2010 Nov;63(6):452-3.
337. Raymond CB, Wazny LD, Sood AR. Standards of clinical practice for renal pharmacists. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2013 Nov;66(6):369-74.
338. Cabello-Muriel A, Gascón-Cánovas JJ, Urbieta-Sanz E, Iniesta-Navalón C. Effectiveness of pharmacist intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014 Oct;36(5):896-903. doi: 10.1007/s11096-014-0001-3.
339. Salgado TM, Moles R, Benrimoj SI, Fernandez-Llimos F. Pharmacists’ interventions in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Jan;27(1):276-92. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr287.
340. Pai AB, Cardone KE, Manley HJ, St Peter WL, Shaffer R, Somers M, Mehrotra R; Dialysis Advisory Group of American Society of Nephrology. Medication reconciliation and therapy management in dialysis-dependent patients: need for a systematic approach. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Nov;8(11):1988-99. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01420213.
341. Kempton J, Hill A, Levi JA, Heath K, Pozniak A. Most new HIV infections, vertical transmissions and AIDS-related deaths occur in lower-prevalence countries. J Virus Erad. 2019 Apr 1;5(2):92-101.
342. Eilami O, Nazari A, Dousti M, Sayehmiri F, Ghasemi M. Investigation of HIV/AIDS prevalence and associated risk factors among female sex workers from 2010 to 2017: a meta-analysis study. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2019 May 16;11:105-117. doi: 10.2147/HIV.S196085.
343. Sulung N, Asyura R. The Analysis of Spirituality of Patients with HIV/AIDS in Taking Lessons and Self-Acceptance. Indian J Palliat Care. 2019 Apr-Jun;25(2):232-235. doi: 10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_203_18.
344. Sayyah M, Rahim F, Kayedani GA, Shirbandi K, Saki-Malehi A. Global View of HIV Prevalence in Prisons: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Iran J Public Health. 2019 Feb;48(2):217-226.
345. Zhu Z, Yan H, Wu S, Xu Y, Xu W, Liu L, Li X, Xu F, Detels R. Trends in HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men from 2013 to 2017 in Nanjing, China: a consecutive cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open. 2019 Jan 30;9(1):e021955. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021955.
346. Silverman JG, Decker MR, Saggurti N, Balaiah D, Raj A. Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among married Indian women. JAMA. 2008 Aug 13;300(6):703-10. doi: 10.1001/jama.300.6.703.
347. Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network. Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995-2015. Lancet. 2018 May 5;391(10132):1799-1829. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30698-6.
348. Atta MG, De Seigneux S, Lucas GM. Clinical Pharmacology in HIV Therapy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019 Mar 7;14(3):435-444. doi: 10.2215/CJN.02240218.
349. Tseng A, Foisy M, Hughes CA, Kelly D, Chan S, Dayneka N, Giguère P, Higgins N, Hills-Nieminen C, Kapler J, la Porte CJ, Nickel P, Park-Wyllie L, Quaia C, Robinson L, Sheehan N, Stone S, Sulz L, Yoong D. Role of the Pharmacist in Caring for Patients with HIV/AIDS: Clinical Practice Guidelines. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2012 Mar;65(2):125-45.
350. Nevo ON, Lesko CR, Colwell B, Ballard C, Cole SR, Mathews WC. Outcomes of pharmacist-assisted management of antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection: A risk-adjusted analysis. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2015 Sep 1;72(17):1463-70. doi: 10.2146/ajhp140727.
351. Molino CGRC, Carnevale RC, Rodrigues AT, Moriel P, Mazzola PG. HIV pharmaceutical care in primary healthcare: Improvement in CD4 count and reduction in drug-related problems. Saudi Pharm J. 2017 Jul;25(5):724-733. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.11.004.
352. Molino Cde G, Carnevale RC, Rodrigues AT, Visacri MB, Moriel P, Mazzola PG. Impact of pharmacist interventions on drug-related problems and laboratory markers in outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014 Aug 7;10:631-9. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S61821.
353. Carnevale RC, de Godoi Rezende Costa Molino C, Visacri MB, Mazzola PG, Moriel P. Cost analysis of pharmaceutical care provided to HIV-infected patients: an ambispective controlled study. Daru. 2015 Feb 10;23:13. doi: 10.1186/s40199-014-0074-5.
354. Ma A, Chen DM, Chau FM, Saberi P. Improving adherence and clinical outcomes through an HIV pharmacist’s interventions. AIDS Care. 2010 Oct;22(10):1189-94. doi: 10.1080/09540121003668102.
355. Murphy P, Cocohoba J, Tang A, Pietrandoni G, Hou J, Guglielmo BJ. Impact of HIV-specialized pharmacies on adherence and persistence with antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012 Sep;26(9):526-31. doi: 10.1089/apc.2012.0189.
356. Grossberg R, Zhang Y, Gross R. A time-to-prescription-refill measure of antiretroviral adherence predicted changes in viral load in HIV. J Clin Epidemiol. 2004 Oct;57(10):1107-10.
357. Regal GG, Wong W. The Pharmacist’s Role in Maximizing HIV Antiretroviral Therapy. Pharmacy Times® 22 January, 2019.
358. Holtzman CW, Brady KA, Yehia BR. Retention in care and medication adherence: current challenges to antiretroviral therapy success. Drugs. 2015 Apr;75(5):445-54. doi: 10.1007/s40265-015-0373-2.
359. Pharmacist Intervention and Continued HIV Care: Examining the Connection. Pharmacy Times® 17 December, 2018.
360. Guilamo-Ramos V, Thimm-Kaiser M, Benzekri A, Futterman D. Shifting the Paradigm in HIV Prevention and Treatment Service Delivery Toward Differentiated Care for Youth. National Academy of medicine, March 25, 2019.
361. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin. 2019 Jan;69(1):7-34. doi: 10.3322/caac.21551.
362. Shah SC, Kayamba V, Peek RM Jr, Heimburger D. Cancer Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Is It Time to Consider Screening? J Glob Oncol. 2019 Mar;5:1-8. doi: 10.1200/JGO.18.00200.
363. Ferlay J, Colombet M, Soerjomataram I, Mathers C, Parkin DM, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Bray F. Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods. Int J Cancer. 2019 Apr 15;144(8):1941-1953. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31937.
364. Feng RM, Zong YN, Cao SM, Xu RH. Current cancer situation in China: good or bad news from the 2018 Global Cancer Statistics? Cancer Commun (Lond). 2019 Apr 29;39(1):22. doi: 10.1186/s40880-019-0368-6.
365. WHO. Latest global cancer data: Cancer burden rises to 18. 1 million new cases and 9. 6 million cancer deaths in 2018. Presse Release, 12 September 2018. Available From: https://www.who.int/cancer/PRGlobocanFinal.pdf
366. Schüz J, Espina C, Wild CP. Primary prevention: a need for concerted action. Mol Oncol. 2019 Mar;13(3):567-578. doi: 10.1002/1878-0261.12432.
367. WHO. Cancer. Health Topics, 12 September 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cancer
368. World Cancer Day. Available From: https://www.worldcancerday.org/financial-and-economic-impact
369. Miller KD, Nogueira L, Mariotto AB, Rowland JH, Yabroff KR, Alfano CM, Jemal A, Kramer JL, Siegel RL. Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin. 2019 Jun 11. doi: 10.3322/caac.21565.
370. DeSantis CE, Miller KD, Goding Sauer A, Jemal A, Siegel RL. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin. 2019 May;69(3):211-233. doi: 10.3322/caac.21555.
371. Layne TM, Graubard BI, Ma X, Mayne ST, Albanes D. Prostate cancer risk factors in black and white men in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019 Mar;22(1):91-100. doi: 10.1038/s41391-018-0070-9.
372. Ghose S, Radhakrishnan V, Bhattacharya S. Ethics of cancer care: beyond biology and medicine. Ecancermedicalscience. 2019 Mar 28;13:911. doi: 10.3332/ecancer.2019.911.
373. Allcott N, Dunham L, Levy D, Carr J, Stitzenberg K. Financial burden amongst cancer patients treated with curative intent surgery alone. Am J Surg. 2019 Jan 31. pii: S0002-9610(18)31611-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.01.033.
374. Coumoundouros C, Ould Brahim L, Lambert SD, McCusker J. The direct and indirect financial costs of informal cancer care: A scoping review. Health Soc Care Community. 2019 Jul 10. doi: 10.1111/hsc.12808.
375. WHO. $46 billion in productivity lost to cancer in major emerging economies. Presse Release, 31 January, 2018. Available From: https://www.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/pr255_E.pdf
376. World Cancer Day. Available From: https://www.worldcancerday.org/financial-and-economic-impact
377. PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. 2019 Aug 2. In: PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK66016/
378. Sung H, Siegel RL, Rosenberg PS, Jemal A. Emerging cancer trends among young adults in the USA: analysis of a population-based cancer registry. Lancet Public Health. 2019 Mar;4(3):e137-e147. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30267-6.
379. Park B, You S, Cho WCS, Choi JY, Lee MS. A systematic review of herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer cachexia in animal models. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2019 Jan.;20(1):9-22. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1800171.
380. Zhang Q (2015). Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Primary Health Care. In: Medcalf A, Bhattacharya S, Momen H, et al., editors. Health For All: The Journey of Universal Health Coverage. Hyderabad (IN): Orient Blackswan. Chapter 12. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK316267/.
381. Mawoza, T., Nhachi, C., & Magwali, T. (2019). Prevalence of Traditional Medicine Use during Pregnancy, at Labour and for Postpartum Care in a Rural Area in Zimbabwe. Clinics in mother and child health, 16(2), 321. doi:10.24105/2090-7214.16.321
382. Krupa, J., Sureshkumar, J., Silambarasan, R., Priyadarshini, K., & Ayyanar, M. (2019). Integration of traditional herbal medicines among the indigenous communities in Thiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 10(1), 32–37. doi:10.1016/j.jaim.2017.07.013
383. Wode K, Henriksson R, Sharp L, Stoltenberg A, Hök Nordberg J. Cancer patients’ use of complementary and alternative medicine in Sweden: a cross-sectional study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019 Mar 13;19(1):62. doi: 10.1186/s12906-019-2452-5.
384. Jermini M, Dubois J, Rodondi PY, Zaman K, Buclin T, Csajka C, Orcurto A, E Rothuizen L. Complementary medicine use during cancer treatment and potential herb-drug interactions from a cross-sectional study in an academic centre. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 25;9(1):5078. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-41532-3.
385. Kwon JH, Lee SC, Lee MA, Kim YJ, Kang JH, Kim JY, Lee HJ, Bae WK, Kim MJ, Chie EK, Kim J, Kim YH, Chung HC, Rha SY. Behaviors and Attitudes toward the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Korean Cancer Patients. Cancer Res Treat. 2019 Jul;51(3):851-860. doi: 10.4143/crt.2019.137.
386. Jones E, Nissen L, McCarthy A, Steadman K, Windsor C. Exploring the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Patients. Integr Cancer Ther. 2019 Jan-Dec;18:1534735419854134. doi: 10.1177/1534735419854134.
387. Chotipanich A, Sooksrisawat C, Jittiworapan B. Association between complementary and alternative medicine use and prolonged time to conventional treatment among Thai cancer patients in a tertiary-care hospital. PeerJ. 2019 Jun 14;7:e7159. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7159.
388. Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol. 2014 Jan 10;4:177. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00177.
389. Haefeli WE, Carls A. Drug interactions with phytotherapeutics in oncology. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2014 Mar;10(3):359-77. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2014.873786.
390. Kabat G. Why Resorting to Alternative Medicine To Treat Cancer Is A Bad Idea. Forbes, February 10, 2018.
391. Wong SF, Bounthavong M, Nguyen C, Bechtoldt K, Hernandez E. Implementation and preliminary outcomes of a comprehensive oral chemotherapy management clinic. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2014 Jun 1;71(11):960-5. doi: 10.2146/ajhp130278.
392. McKee M, Frei BL, Garcia A, Fike D, Soefje SA. Impact of clinical pharmacy services on patients in an outpatient chemotherapy academic clinic. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2011 Dec;17(4):387-94. doi: 10.1177/1078155210389217.
393. Walter C, Mellor JD, Rice C, Kirsa S, Ball D, Duffy M, Herschtal A, Mileshkin L. Impact of a specialist clinical cancer pharmacist at a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016 Sep;12(3):e367-74. doi: 10.1111/ajco.12267.
394. Allison J, Fisher J, Souter C, Bennie M. What patient assessment skills are required by pharmacists prescribing systemic anti-cancer therapy? A consensus study. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2019 May 1:1078155219841118. doi: 10.1177/1078155219841118.
395. Morimoto Y, Takei H, Tachibana K, Nakazato Y, Tanaka R, Nagashima Y, Watanabe K, Seki R, Shinohara T, Kondo H. [Role of Pharmacists in Completion of Adjuvant Cisplatin-Vinorelbine Chemotherapy in Japanese Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2018;138(3):437-442. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.17-00192.
396. Abdul Kader Mohiuddin. Cost of Biotech Drug Development and Affordability Issues in LMICs. Arch Biomed Eng & Biotechnol. 2(3): 2019. ABEB.MS.ID.000538. DOI: 10.33552/ABEB.2019.02.000538. Available From: https://irispublishers.com/abeb/pdf/ABEB.MS.ID.000538.pdf
397. Kim S-K, Kalimuthu S. Chapter 1. Introduction to Anti-cancer Drugs from Marine Origin. In: Se-Kwon Kim. Handbook of Anticancer Drugs from Marine Origin. Publisher: Springer, 2014 ISBN 3319071459, 9783319071459
398. Jeon SM, Kwon JW, Choi SH, Park HY. Economic burden of lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study in South Korea, 2002-2015. PLoS One. 2019 Feb 22;14(2):e0212878. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212878.
399. Rezaei S, Akbari Sari A, Woldemichael A, Soofi M, Kazemi A, Karami Matin B. Estimating the Economic Burden of Lung Cancer in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016 Oct 1;17(10):4729-4733.
400. Wood R, Taylor-Stokes G. Cost burden associated with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in Europe and influence of disease stage. BMC Cancer. 2019 Mar 8;19(1):214. doi: 10.1186/s12885-019-5428-4.
401. Sun L, Yim WS, Fahey P, Wang S, Zhu X, Qiao J, Lai H, Lin L. Investigation on Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer among Elderly Patients Treated with Chinese Herbal Medicine versus Chemotherapy: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Data. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Jan 2;2019:1898345. doi: 10.1155/2019/1898345.
402. Abdelaziz HM, Elzoghby AO, Helmy MW, Samaha MW, Fang JY, Freag MS. Liquid crystalline assembly for potential combinatorial chemo-herbal drug delivery to lung cancer cells. Int J Nanomedicine. 2019 Jan 11;14:499-517. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S188335.
403. Blandin Knight S, Crosbie PA, Balata H, Chudziak J, Hussell T, Dive C. Progress and prospects of early detection in lung cancer. Open Biol. 2017 Sep;7(9). pii: 170070. doi: 10.1098/rsob.170070.
404. Seung SJ, Hurry M, Hassan S, Walton RN, Evans WK. Cost-of-illness study for non-small-cell lung cancer using real-world data. Curr Oncol. 2019 Apr;26(2):102-107. doi: 10.3747/co.26.4555.
405. Zappa C, Mousa SA. Non-small cell lung cancer: current treatment and future advances. Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2016 Jun;5(3):288-300. doi: 10.21037/tlcr.2016.06.07.
406. Lin CK, Lin RT, Chen T, Zigler C, Wei Y, Christiani DC. A global perspective on coal-fired power plants and burden of lung cancer. Environ Health. 2019 Jan 28;18(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s12940-019-0448-8.
407. Alberg AJ, Brock MV, Ford JG, Samet JM, Spivack SD. Epidemiology of lung cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2013 May;143(5 Suppl):e1S-e29S. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-2345.
408. Cabanero M, Sangha R, Sheffield BS, Sukhai M, Pakkal M, Kamel-Reid S, Karsan A, Ionescu D, Juergens RA, Butts C, Tsao MS. Management of EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer: practical implications from a clinical and pathology perspective. Curr Oncol. 2017 Apr;24(2):111-119. doi: 10.3747/co.24.3524.
409. Abdul Kader Mohiuddin. Alternative Treatments for Cancer Prevention and Cure [Part 1]. Adv Pharmacol ClinTrials 2019, 4(4): 000168. DOI: 10.23880/apct-16000168
410. Pisters KM, Vallières E, Crowley JJ, Franklin WA, Bunn PA Jr, Ginsberg RJ, Putnam JB Jr, Chansky K, Gandara D. Surgery with or without preoperative paclitaxel and carboplatin in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: Southwest Oncology Group Trial S9900, an intergroup, randomized, phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Apr 10;28(11):1843-9. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.26.1685.
411. Pharmacists at the front line in early detection of lung cancer. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 10 November, 2007.
412. Lung cancer: A patient’s perspective. Pharmacy Magazine (UK), 26 April, 2019.
413. Robbins SL, Kumar V, Cotran RS. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2010.
414. Vakiti A, Mewawalla P. Cancer, Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML, Erythroid Leukemia, Myelodysplasia-Related Leukemia, BCR-ABL Chronic Leukemia) [Updated 2019 Jun 23]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507875/
415. Naik J, Themeli M, de Jong-Korlaar R, Ruiter RWJ, Poddighe PJ, Yuan H, de Bruijn JD, Ossenkoppele GJ, Zweegman S, Smit L, Mutis T, Martens ACM, van de Donk NWCJ, Groen RWJ. CD38 as a therapeutic target for adult acute myeloid leukemia and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica. 2019 Mar;104(3):e100-e103. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2018.192757.
416. Bawazir A, Al-Zamel N, Amen A, Akiel MA, Alhawiti NM, Alshehri A. The burden of leukemia in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: 15 years period (1999-2013). BMC Cancer. 2019 Jul 17;19(1):703. doi: 10.1186/s12885-019-5897-5.
417. Dhall A, Zee BM, Yan F, Blanco MA. Intersection of Epigenetic and Metabolic Regulation of Histone Modifications in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Front Oncol. 2019 May 22;9:432. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00432.
418. Medeiros BC, Chan SM, Daver NG, Jonas BA, Pollyea DA. Optimizing survival outcomes with post-remission therapy in acute myeloid leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2019 Jul;94(7):803-811. doi: 10.1002/ajh.25484.
419. Murphy BR, Roth M, Kolb EA, Alonzo T, Gerbing R, Wells RJ. Development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment for acute myeloid leukemia in children with Down syndrome: A case report and retrospective review of Children’s Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2019 Aug;66(8):e27700. doi: 10.1002/pbc.27700.
420. Puckett Y, Chan O. Cancer, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) [Updated 2019 Mar 31]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459149/
421. Branford S, Kim DDH, Apperley JF, Eide CA, Mustjoki S, Ong ST, Nteliopoulos G, Ernst T, Chuah C, Gambacorti-Passerini C, Mauro MJ, Druker BJ, Kim DW, Mahon FX, Cortes J, Radich JP, Hochhaus A, Hughes TP; International CML Foundation Genomics Alliance. Laying the foundation for genomically-based risk assessment in chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2019 Aug;33(8):1835-1850. doi: 10.1038/s41375-019-0512-y.
422. Franki R. Report details financial burden of blood cancers. MDedge, November 8, 2018.
423. Davenport L. Costs of Treating Blood Disorders Explored. Medscape, July 27, 2016.
424. Ramos NR, Mo CC, Karp JE, Hourigan CS. Current Approaches in the Treatment of Relapsed and Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia. J Clin Med. 2015 Apr;4(4):665-95. doi: 10.3390/jcm4040665.
425. Schlafer D, Panjic EH, Harvey RD. The Evolving Role of the Hematology/Oncology Pharmacist. American Society of Hematology, December 1, 2017.
426. Lam MS, Cheung N. Impact of oncology pharmacist-managed oral anticancer therapy in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2016 Dec;22(6):741-748.
427. Erfani N, Nazemosadat Z, Moein M. Cytotoxic activity of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea on human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D. Pharmacognosy Res. 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):133-7. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.150539.
428. Joseph OA. The prospects of medicinal plants in the treatment of breast cancer. European Pharmaceutical Review, 13 December 2016.
429. Azubuike SO, Muirhead C, Hayes L, McNally R. Rising global burden of breast cancer: the case of sub-Saharan Africa (with emphasis on Nigeria) and implications for regional development: a review. World J Surg Oncol. 2018 Mar 22;16(1):63. doi: 10.1186/s12957-018-1345-2.
430. Blumen H, Fitch K, Polkus V. Comparison of Treatment Costs for Breast Cancer, by Tumor Stage and Type of Service. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2016 Feb;9(1):23-32.
431. Alkabban FM, Ferguson T. Cancer, Breast. [Updated 2019 Jun 4]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482286/
432. Mehrgou A, Akouchekian M. The importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations in breast cancer development. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2016 May 15;30:369.
433. Poehls UG, Hack CC, Wunderle M, Renner SP, Lux MP, Beckmann MW, Fasching PA, Nabieva N. Awareness of breast cancer incidence and risk factors among healthy women in Germany: an update after 10 years. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2019 Jan 23. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000500.
434. Hendrick RE, Baker JA, Helvie MA. Breast cancer deaths averted over 3 decades. Cancer. 2019 May 1;125(9):1482-1488. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31954.
435. Vishwakarma G, Ndetan H, Das DN, Gupta G, Suryavanshi M, Mehta A, Singh KP. Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of case-control studies in Indian women. South Asian J Cancer. 2019 Apr-Jun;8(2):80-84. doi: 10.4103/sajc.sajc_317_18.
436. Harbeck N, Penault-Llorca F, Cortes J, Gnant M, Houssami N, Poortmans P, Ruddy K, Tsang J, Cardoso F. Breast cancer. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019 Sep 23;5(1):66. doi: 10.1038/s41572-019-0111-2.
437. Ng HS, Vitry A, Koczwara B, Roder D, McBride ML. Patterns of comorbidities in women with breast cancer: a Canadian population-based study. Cancer Causes Control. 2019 Sep;30(9):931-941. doi: 10.1007/s10552-019-01203-0.
438. Bahri N, Fathi Najafi T, Homaei Shandiz F, Tohidinik HR, Khajavi A. The relation between stressful life events and breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019 Jul;176(1):53-61. doi: 10.1007/s10549-019-05231-x.
439. Ho-Huynh A, Tran A, Bray G, Abbot S, Elston T, Gunnarsson R, de Costa A. Factors influencing breast cancer outcomes in Australia: A systematic review. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2019 Jul;28(4):e13038. doi: 10.1111/ecc.13038.
440. Feng Y, Spezia M, Huang S, Yuan C, Zeng Z, Zhang L, Ji X, Liu W, Huang B, Luo W, Liu B, Lei Y, Du S, Vuppalapati A, Luu HH, Haydon RC, He TC, Ren G. Breast cancer development and progression: Risk factors, cancer stem cells, signaling pathways, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis. Genes Dis. 2018 May 12;5(2):77-106. doi: 10.1016/j.gendis.2018.05.001.
441. Sun YS, Zhao Z, Yang ZN, Xu F, Lu HJ, Zhu ZY, Shi W, Jiang J, Yao PP, Zhu HP. Risk Factors and Preventions of Breast Cancer. Int J Biol Sci. 2017 Nov 1;13(11):1387-1397. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.21635.
442. InformedHealth.org [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Risk factors for breast cancer. 2017 Mar 9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK447103/
443. Alexander A, Kaluve R, Prabhu JS, Korlimarla A, Srinath BS, Manjunath S, Patil S, Gopinath KS, Sridhar TS. The Impact of Breast Cancer on the Patient and the Family in Indian Perspective. Indian J Palliat Care. 2019 Jan-Mar;25(1):66-72. doi: 10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_158_18.
444. Chen L, Malone KE, Li CI. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Oct;23(10):2181-5. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0414.
445. Rios SSD, Chen ACR, Chen JR, et al. Wearing a Tight Bra for many hours a day is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Adv Oncol Res Treat. 2016;1:1–5.
446. Virani S, Chindaprasirt J, Wirasorn K, Sookprasert A, Somintara O, Vachirodom D, Koonmee S, Srinakarin J, Kamsa-Ard S, Suwanrungruang K, Rozek LS, Sriplung H, Wiangnon S. Breast Cancer Incidence Trends and Projections in Northeastern Thailand. J Epidemiol. 2018 Jul 5;28(7):323-330. doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20170045.
447. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Relationship Between Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer. Oral Contraceptives & Breast Cancer. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1991. A, Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence with an Emphasis on Younger Women. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234348/
448. Yuan X, Yi F, Hou C, Lee H, Zhong X, Tao P, Li H, Xu Z, Li J. Induced Abortion, Birth Control Methods, and Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in China. J Epidemiol. 2019 May 5;29(5):173-179. doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20170318.
449. Yabroff KR, Lund J, Kepka D, Mariotto A. Economic burden of cancer in the United States: estimates, projections, and future research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Oct;20(10):2006-14. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0650.
450. Mariotto AB, Yabroff KR, Shao Y, Feuer EJ, Brown ML. Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010-2020. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Jan 19;103(2):117-28. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djq495. Epub 2011 Jan 12. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Apr 20;103(8):699.
451. Iadeluca L, Mardekian J, Chander P, Hopps M, Makinson GT. The burden of selected cancers in the US: health behaviors and health care resource utilization. Cancer Manag Res. 2017 Nov 28;9:721-730. doi: 10.2147/CMAR.S143148.
452. Tanaka K, Hori A, Tachi T, Osawa T, Nagaya K, Makino T, Inoue S, Yasuda M, Mizui T, Nakada T, Goto C, Teramachi H. Impact of pharmacist counseling on reducing instances of adverse events that can affect the quality of life of chemotherapy outpatients with breast Cancer. J Pharm Health Care Sci. 2018 Apr 30;4:9. doi: 10.1186/s40780-018-0105-3.
453. Wang Y, Wu H, Xu F. Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Services on KAP and QOL in Cancer Patients: A Single-Center Experience. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:502431. doi: 10.1155/2015/502431.
454. Val R, Allison R. Treatment of Advanced Breast Cancer: A Clinical Pharmacy Perspective. American Health and Drug Benefits, July 2017. Available from: http://www.ahdbonline.com/articles/2417-treatment-of-advanced-breast-cancer-a-clinical-pharmacy-perspective
455. Araghi M, Soerjomataram I, Jenkins M, Brierley J, Morris E, Bray F, Arnold M. Global trends in colorectal cancer mortality: projections to the year 2035. Int J Cancer. 2019 Jun 15;144(12):2992-3000. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32055.
456. Recio-Boiles A, Waheed A, Cagir B. Cancer, Colon. [Updated 2019 Jun 3]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470380/
457. Virk GS, Jafri M, Ashley C. Colonoscopy and colorectal cancer rates among octogenarians and nonagenarians: nationwide study of US veterans. Clin Interv Aging. 2019 Mar 26;14:609-614. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S192497.
458. PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. 2019 Apr 16. In: PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65779/
459. Chen W, Zheng R, Baade PD, Zhang S, Zeng H, Bray F, Jemal A, Yu XQ, He J. Cancer statistics in China, 2015. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016 Mar-Apr;66(2):115-32. doi: 10.3322/caac.21338.
460. Araghi M, Soerjomataram I, Bardot A, Ferlay J, Cabasag CJ, Morrison DS, De P, Tervonen H, Walsh PM, Bucher O, Engholm G, Jackson C, McClure C, Woods RR, Saint-Jacques N, Morgan E, Ransom D, Thursfield V, Møller B, Leonfellner S, Guren MG, Bray F, Arnold M. Changes in colorectal cancer incidence in seven high-income countries: a population-based study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Jul;4(7):511-518. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30147-5.
461. Wray AJD, Minaker LM. Is cancer prevention influenced by the built environment? A multidisciplinary scoping review. Cancer. 2019 Jul 9. doi: 10.1002/cncr.32376.
462. Poirier AE, Ruan Y, Walter SD, Franco EL, Villeneuve PJ, King WD, Volesky KD, O’Sullivan DE, Friedenreich CM, Brenner DR; ComPARe Study Team. The future burden of cancer in Canada: Long-term cancer incidence projections 2013-2042. Cancer Epidemiol. 2019 Apr;59:199-207. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2019.02.011.
463. Poirier AE, Ruan Y, Hebert LA, Grevers X, Walter SD, Villeneuve PJ, Brenner DR, Friedenreich CM; ComPARe Study Team. Estimates of the current and future burden of cancer attributable to low fruit and vegetable consumption in Canada. Prev Med. 2019 May;122:20-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.03.013.
464. Feletto E, Yu XQ, Lew JB, St John DJB, Jenkins MA, Macrae FA, Mahady SE, Canfell K. Trends in Colon and Rectal Cancer Incidence in Australia from 1982 to 2014: Analysis of Data on Over 375,000 Cases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019 Jan;28(1):83-90. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0523.
465. Jenkins MA, Ait Ouakrim D, Boussioutas A, Hopper JL, Ee HC, Emery JD, Macrae FA, Chetcuti A, Wuellner L, St John DJB. Revised Australian national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening: family history. Med J Aust. 2018 Nov 19;209(10):455-460.
466. Glover M, Mansoor E, Panhwar M, Parasa S, Cooper GS. Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer in Average Risk Adults 20-39 Years of Age: A Population-Based National Study. Dig Dis Sci. 2019 Jun 7. doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05690-8.
467. Siegel RL, Medhanie GA, Fedewa SA, Jemal A. State variation in early-onset colorectal cancer in the United States, 1995-2015. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2019 May 29. pii: djz098. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djz098.
468. Mannucci A, Zuppardo RA, Rosati R, Leo MD, Perea J, Cavestro GM. Colorectal cancer screening from 45 years of age: Thesis, antithesis and synthesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun 7;25(21):2565-2580. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i21.2565.
469. Erdrich J, Zhang X, Giovannucci E, Willett W. Proportion of colon cancer attributable to lifestyle in a cohort of US women. Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Sep;26(9):1271-1279. doi: 10.1007/s10552-015-0619-z.
470. Aleksandrova K, Pischon T, Jenab M, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Fedirko V, Norat T, Romaguera D, Knüppel S, Boutron-Ruault MC, Dossus L, Dartois L, Kaaks R, Li K, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Quirós JR, Buckland G, Sánchez MJ, Dorronsoro M, Chirlaque MD, Barricarte A, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Bradbury KE, Trichopoulou A, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Palli D, Krogh V, Tumino R, Naccarati A, Panico S, Siersema PD, Peeters PH, Ljuslinder I, Johansson I, Ericson U, Ohlsson B, Weiderpass E, Skeie G, Borch KB, Rinaldi S, Romieu I, Kong J, Gunter MJ, Ward HA, Riboli E, Boeing H. Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer: a large European cohort study. BMC Med. 2014 Oct 10;12:168. doi: 10.1186/s12916-014-0168-4.
471. Jeon J, Du M, Schoen RE, Hoffmeister M, Newcomb PA, Berndt SI, Caan B, Campbell PT, Chan AT, Chang-Claude J, Giles GG, Gong J, Harrison TA, Huyghe JR, Jacobs EJ, Li L, Lin Y, Le Marchand L, Potter JD, Qu C, Bien SA, Zubair N, Macinnis RJ, Buchanan DD, Hopper JL, Cao Y, Nishihara R, Rennert G, Slattery ML, Thomas DC, Woods MO, Prentice RL, Gruber SB, Zheng Y, Brenner H, Hayes RB, White E, Peters U, Hsu L; Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study and Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Determining Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Starting Age of Screening Based on Lifestyle, Environmental, and Genetic Factors. Gastroenterology. 2018 Jun;154(8):2152-2164.e19. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.02.021.
472. Oruç Z, Kaplan MA. Effect of exercise on colorectal cancer prevention and treatment. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2019 May 15;11(5):348-366. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v11.i5.348.
473. Bradbury KE, Murphy N, Key TJ. Diet and colorectal cancer in UK Biobank: a prospective study. Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 17. pii: dyz064. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyz064.
474. Fedirko V, Tramacere I, Bagnardi V, Rota M, Scotti L, Islami F, Negri E, Straif K, Romieu I, La Vecchia C, Boffetta P, Jenab M. Alcohol drinking and colorectal cancer risk: an overall and dose-response meta-analysis of published studies. Ann Oncol. 2011 Sep;22(9):1958-72. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdq653.
475. Vieira AR, Abar L, Chan DSM, Vingeliene S, Polemiti E, Stevens C, Greenwood D, Norat T. Foods and beverages and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, an update of the evidence of the WCRF-AICR Continuous Update Project. Ann Oncol. 2017 Aug 1;28(8):1788-1802. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdx171.
476. Pericleous M, Mandair D, Caplin ME. Diet and supplements and their impact on colorectal cancer. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2013 Dec;4(4):409-23. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2013.003.
477. Chen Z, Wang PP, Woodrow J, Zhu Y, Roebothan B, Mclaughlin JR, Parfrey PS. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: results from a Canadian population-based study. Nutr J. 2015 Jan 15;14:8. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-14-8.
478. National Cancer Institute. Financial Burden of Cancer Care (Data Up to Date as of: February 2019). Available From: https://progressreport.cancer.gov/after/economic_burden
479. American Cancer Society. Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2019, Available from: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/colorectal-cancer-facts-and-figures/colorectal-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2019.pdf
480. Gellad ZF, Provenzale D. Colorectal cancer: national and international perspective on the burden of disease and public health impact. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jun;138(6):2177-90. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.01.056.
481. World Cancer Research Fund International. Colorectal cancer statistics. Available from: https://www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer/cancer-trends/colorectal-cancer-statistics
482. Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Lin EH, Crane CH. Stage IV Colorectal Cancer. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, et al., editors. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 6th edition. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker; 2003. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK13267/
483. Lee SD, Choe JW, Lee BJ, Kang MH, Joo MK, Kim JH, Yeon JE, Park JJ, Kim JS, Bak YT. Butein effects in colitis and interleukin-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 expression. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jan 14;21(2):465-74. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i2.465
484. James S, Aparna JS, Paul AM, Lankadasari MB, Mohammed S, Binu VS, Santhoshkumar TR, Reshmi G, Harikumar KB. Cardamonin inhibits colonic neoplasia through modulation of MicroRNA expression. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 24;7(1):13945. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14253-8.
485. Shapiro NL. Chapter 126. Preventive Care. In: David B. Troy, Paul Beringer. Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Contributor: Joseph Price Remington, Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006 ISBN 0781746736, 9780781746731.
486. Cho YA, Lee J, Oh JH, Chang HJ, Sohn DK, Shin A, Kim J. Genetic Risk Score, Combined Lifestyle Factors and Risk of Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Res Treat. 2019 Jul;51(3):1033-1040. doi: 10.4143/crt.2018.447.
487. Pais R, Silaghi H, Silaghi AC, Rusu ML, Dumitrascu DL. Metabolic syndrome and risk of subsequent colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Nov 7;15(41):5141-8.
488. Rossi M, Jahanzaib Anwar M, Usman A, Keshavarzian A, Bishehsari F. Colorectal Cancer and Alcohol Consumption-Populations to Molecules. Cancers (Basel). 2018 Jan 30;10(2). pii: E38. doi: 10.3390/cancers10020038.
489. Elkins G, White J, Patel P, Marcus J, Perfect MM, Montgomery GH. Hypnosis to manage anxiety and pain associated with colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening: Case studies and possible benefits. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2006 Oct;54(4):416-31.
490. Cossu G, Saba L, Minerba L, Mascalchi M. Colorectal Cancer Screening: The Role of Psychological, Social and Background Factors in Decision-making Process. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2018 Mar 21;14:63-69. doi: 10.2174/1745017901814010063.
491. Montgomery GH, Schnur JB, Kravits K. Hypnosis for cancer care: over 200 years young. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013 Jan;63(1):31-44. doi: 10.3322/caac.21165. Epub 2012 Nov 20.
492. Miller SJ, Schnur JB, Montgomery GH, Jandorf L. AFRICAN-AMERICANS’ AND LATINOS’ PERCEPTIONS OF USING HYPNOSIS TO ALLEVIATE DISTRESS BEFORE A COLONOSCOPY. Contemp Hypn Integr Ther. 2011 Sep;28(3):196-203.
493. Umezawa S, Higurashi T, Uchiyama S, Sakai E, Ohkubo H, Endo H, Nonaka T, Nakajima A. Visual distraction alone for the improvement of colonoscopy-related pain and satisfaction. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Apr 21;21(15):4707-14. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i15.4707.
494. Lee DW, Chan AC, Wong SK, Fung TM, Li AC, Chan SK, Mui LM, Ng EK, Chung SC. Can visual distraction decrease the dose of patient-controlled sedation required during colonoscopy? A prospective randomized controlled trial. Endoscopy. 2004 Mar;36(3):197-201.
495. Xiaolian J, Xiaolin L, Lan ZH. Effects of visual and audiovisual distraction on pain and anxiety among patients undergoing colonoscopy. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2015 Jan-Feb;38(1):55-61. doi: 10.1097/SGA.0000000000000089.
496. Leung FW. Methods of reducing discomfort during colonoscopy. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Jun;53(6):1462-7.
497. De Silva AP, Niriella MA, Nandamuni Y, Nanayakkara SD, Perera KR, Kodisinghe SK, Subasinghe KC, Pathmeswaran A, de Silva HJ. Effect of audio and visual distraction on patients undergoing colonoscopy: a randomized controlled study. Endosc Int Open. 2016 Nov;4(11):E1211-E1214.
498. Drury J. Colorectal Cancer Risks and the Community Pharmacist’s Role. Pharmacy Times®, 12 October, 2013.
499. Tezcan S, İzzettin FV, Sancar M, Turhal NS, Yumuk PF. Role of clinical oncology pharmacist in determination of pharmaceutical care needs in patients with colorectal cancer. ETezcan S, İzzettin FV, Sancar M, Turhal NS, Yumuk PF. Role of clinical oncology pharmacist in determination of pharmaceutical care needs in patients with colorectal cancer. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2018 Mar;25(e1):e17-e20. doi: 10.1136/ejhpharm-2016-001188. ur J Hosp Pharm. 2018 Mar;25(e1):e17-e20. doi: 10.1136/ejhpharm-2016-001188.
500. Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018 Nov;68(6):394-424. doi: 10.3322/caac.21492.
501. Rawla P. Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer. World J Oncol. 2019 Apr;10(2):63-89. doi: 10.14740/wjon1191.
502. Smith-Palmer J, Takizawa C, Valentine W. Literature review of the burden of prostate cancer in Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Canada. BMC Urol. 2019 Mar 18;19(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s12894-019-0448-6.
503. Roehrborn CG, Black LK. The economic burden of prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2011 Sep;108(6):806-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10365.x.
504. EEconomic Cost of Cancer Mortality Is High in U.S., Regardless of How Cost Is Measured, JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 100, Issue 24, 17 December 2008, Page 1741, https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djn488.
505. Pernar CH, Ebot EM, Wilson KM, Mucci LA. The Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2018 Dec 3;8(12). pii: a030361. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a030361.
506. Wilson KM, Markt SC, Fang F, Nordenvall C, Rider JR, Ye W, Adami HO, Stattin P, Nyrén O, Mucci LA. Snus use, smoking and survival among prostate cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2016 Dec 15;139(12):2753-2759. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30411.
507. Zuccolo L, Lewis SJ, Donovan JL, Hamdy FC, Neal DE, Smith GD. Alcohol consumption and PSA-detected prostate cancer risk–a case-control nested in the ProtecT study. Int J Cancer. 2013 May 1;132(9):2176-85. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27877.
508. Zhao J, Stockwell T, Roemer A, Chikritzhs T. Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer. 2016 Nov 15;16(1):845.
509. Thobe MN, Clark RJ, Bainer RO, Prasad SM, Rinker-Schaeffer CW. From prostate to bone: key players in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Cancers (Basel). 2011;3(1):478-93. doi: 10.3390/cancers3010478.
510. Wallner L, Frencher S, Hsu JW, Loo R, Huang J, Nichol M, Jacobsen S. Prostate cancer screening trends in a large, integrated health care system. Perm J. 2012 Summer;16(3):4-9.
511. Allard CB, Dason S, Lusis J, Kapoor A. Prostate cancer screening: Attitudes and practices of family physicians in Ontario. Can Urol Assoc J. 2012 Jun;6(3):188-93. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.11290.
512. Scarabelin A, Santana Dosea A, Aguiar PM, Storpirtis S. Pharmacist-Patient Communication in Prostate Cancer as a Strategy to Humanize Health Care: A Qualitative Study. J Patient Exp. 2019 Jun;6(2):150-156. doi: 10.1177/2374373518786508.
513. Kachur E. Prostate Cancer Review. US Pharm. 2018;43(8)HS-7-HS-12.
514. Patel JM, Holle LM, Clement JM, Bunz T, Niemann C, Chamberlin KW. Impact of a pharmacist-led oral chemotherapy-monitoring program in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2016 Dec;22(6):777-783.
515. McNatty A, Dow E, Bryce AH. Impact of pharmacist-led monitoring of olaparib (O) for metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Journal of Clinical Oncology 35, no. 6_suppl (February 20, 2017) e569-e569. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2017.35.6_suppl.e569.
516. Rivera-Ruiz KM. Role of The Pharmacist In Prostate Cancer Prevention And Management. Available From: https://www.cfpr.org/files/CONF%2014%20Role%20of%20the%20Pharmacist%20in%20Prostate%20Cancer.pdf
517. Kletas V, de Lemos ML. Prostate Cancer: Pharmacist’s Role in Prevention & Management. CanadianHealthcareNetwork.ca (Pharmacy Practice), April/May, 2012.
518. Cunliffe A, Harker N, Nicola S. Top tips: prostate cancer. Guidelines in Practice, 9 March 2017.