Neuroinflammation


NEUROINFLAMMATION


Gustavo Leite Franklin, M.D., Ph.D.1; Nayra de Souza Carvalho Lima, Msc.2; Alex Tiburtino Meira, M.D., Msc, Ph.D.3, Lucas Andrade Ferreti, M.D.1; Conrado Regis Borges, M.D4

1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná. 2Universidade Vila Velha, Espírito Santo. 3 Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba. 4Universidade de São Paulo – FMUSP, São Paulo


Inflammation is a complex process, mediated by cellular and molecular mechanisms caused by a response to a tissue damage from an aggressive agent, whether if biological, chemical or physical origin. This process occurs, ultimately, with the purpose of promoting defense, repair and tissue regeneration. The inflammatory process leads to changes in blood vessels that have their diameter and flow altered, with the objective of leading to increased vascular permeability and consequent leakage of fluids and cells into the extracellular space of the affected tissue. This sequence of events generates the cardinal signs of inflammation, which are: pain, heat, redness, edema, with loss or alteration of function. The process occurs through mechanisms induced by cytokines and that despite having local manifestation, it can lead to systemic responses involving the whole organism with fever, chills, tremors, tachycardia, leukocytosis, sweating, diuresis and blood dyscrasias.
In the cascade of events related to inflammation, there is initially a local stimulus that promotes morphological and functional changes in the attacked tissue that trigger the release of signaling molecules, the defensins that have a chemotactic effect on monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and pro-inflammatory mediators. that are directly involved in the next inflammatory phases. There is, then, the recognition of aggression and the aggressor agent by the receptors of cells of the immune system and release of inflammatory mediators, of the cyclooxygenase pathway that will release prostaglandin, prostacyclins and thromboxanes and by the lipooxygenase pathway that will produce leukotrienes (Figure 1). Then, there is a modification of the local microcirculation promoting vasodilation, initially arteriolar and subsequently of the venules by the action of histamine release by mast cells, and associated with an increase in local blood flow, generate the cardinal flushing and heat signals.


Keywords: Inflammation; neuroinflammation

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How to cite this article:
Gustavo Leite Franklin, Nayra de Souza Carvalho Lima, Alex Tiburtino Meira,Lucas Andrade Ferreti, Conrado Regis Borges.NEUROINFLAMMATION. International Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2021; 5:16. DOI: 10.28933/ijnr-2021-08-0805


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