International Journal of Neuroscience Research


    The epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is notable. North America and Western Europe have the most expressive rates of disease (6.4% and 5.4% at age 60), followed by Latin America (4.9%) and, finally China (4%). The most important fact is that head trauma increases the deposition of amyloid βeta (Aβ) and the expression of neuronal tau as well as diabetes. Obesityand trans fats also increase the risk of AD. However, virtually no current pharmacotherapy is approved for agitation / excitation caused by AD, the only purpose is maintaining the memory of those affected by this disease. There is substantial evidence that some dysfunctions in the mitochondria are involved in AD. Mitochondria are essential for neuronal function because the limited glycolytic metabolism of these cells makes them highly dependent on aerobic oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for their energy needs. Increased concentrations of ROS are known to result in molecular damage to the site where they are produced, triggering what science calls oxidative stress. Another no less important pathophysiological process in neurological disease is mitochondrial membrane cholesterol. New evidence indicates that the burden of mitochondrial cholesterol can influence mitochondrial function regardless of its conversion to pregnenolone or oxysterols, emerging as a key factor in the pathology of several neurological diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, as in the case of AD. In this way, neurons are strictly dependent on the presence of healthy mitochondria, especially in the synapses where these organelles produce ATP and concentration of Ca2 + ions, fundamental processes for the implementation of neurotransmission and generation of membrane potential along the axon. Controlling ROS, as well as reducing the inflammatory cascade in neurons can be a good strategy in controlling the disease. The reduction of cholesterol in the external mitochondrial membrane may be another interesting path for the reentry of glutathione in…


    Introduction: Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disease of unknown etiology, that involves several cranial nerves. The main clinical characteristic of this syndrome is the “mask-like face”, that is, the absence of facial expression in situations of sorrow or joy. Objective: This study aims to describe the characteristics of Moebius syndrome and its main implications for dentistry. Methodology: In this study, a literature review was carried out, with searches in the following databases:, pubmed and medline. Furthermore, eight articles were selected, among which three were literature reviews and five were reports of clinical cases. Results: In addition to the genetic relation of the syndrome, there are factors that lead to this disorder, such as the use of misoprostol during pregnancy, for example. Conclusion: Early care for patients with Moebius syndrome by a multidisciplinary team is extremely important, since it will attenuate the effects of this pathology.


    Introduction. The world population is aging and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), worldwide, the proportion of people aged 60 and over is growing rapidly, however, as life expectancy increases, neurodegenerative diseases and dementia may appear, such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), a progressive and fatal disorder resulting from the death of hippocampal and cholinergic neurons that are responsible for the functions of memory, learning, emotional control, reasoning and behavior. These changes are characterized by loss of subcortical and cortical neurons, and marked atrophy of the local cerebral cortex where nerve cells in the brain control memory, reasoning, and judgment. Moreover, it is believed that this pathology has a multifactorial etiology, which can be determined by risk factors such as gender, age, environmental and genetic factors, low educational level and inflammatory reactions. Goal. To verify the prevalence of deaths in Brazil from Alzheimer’s Disease in the period from 2010 to 2017. Method. A cross-sectional study was carried out by surveying the numbers of cases of death caused by Alzheimer’s disease in the regions of Brazil from 2010 to 2017, available in the DATASUS / TABNET database, using the following variables for the research: region, gender, age group and ethnicity. Results. During the period from 2010 to 2017, a total of 121,232 numbers of cases of deaths from Alzheimer’s Disease were recorded throughout Brazil. The Southeast region had a higher prevalence with 55.85% in relation to the number of deaths in the other regions. It was observed that the female gender was predominant in relation to the male gender with 64.58% of cases, while in the age group 74.31% had its prevalence at the age of 80 years or older, and finally in the ethnicity, there was a predominance. 74.36% in white people. Conclusion. The increase in life expectancy, is one…

  • The Effect of Nitrendipine and Levetiracetam in Pentylenetetrazole Kindled Rats

    We aimed to investigate the efficacy of L-type voltage gated calcium channel blocker nitrendipine and levetiracetam in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindled male rats. In order to establish kindling model, 35 mg/kg PTZ injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to male wistar albino rats three days a week. Then, screw electrodes were placed in the skulls of the kindled rats. During the experiments, EEG activities and seizure behaviors of kindled rats were recorded. The kindled rats were divided into control (n=6), PTZ (n=6), nitrendipine (2.5 mg/kg (n=6), 5 mg/kg (n=6), 10 mg/kg (n=6)) and levetiracetam (10 mg/kg (n=6), 20 mg/kg (n=6), 40 mg/kg (n=6)) groups. Nitrendipine (5 mg/kg) and levetiracetam (20 mg/kg) were suppressed the spike frequency and the seizure score effectively (p0.05). The co-administration of nitrendipine and levetiracetam was not more effective than administration of nitrendipine or levetiracetam separately (p>0.05).

  • Extraction of dopamine, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid from lactobacillus.spp and yeast

    Treating the neurological disease is a meticulous process with lots of uncertainties. There is been an increasing demand and improvement of treatments are being under process. Most challenging neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s diseases are still being under studies for the challenging reasons of their occurence.Also there is an increasing number of studies are going on with the Micro biome-gut-brain axis related findings to the neurological diseases. With such concept, it is significant to know the potentiality of the microbes which are commonly reside in our body to produce the metabolites i.e, Neurotranmitters related to the diseases. In this study focus is to find such microbes. Lactobacillus spp and the yeast commonly found in gut, shows the potentiality to produce the neurotransmitters with using simple laboratory conditions.

  • The experience of using the portfolio as a resource for follow-up of compulsory curricular traineeship in a specialized health college

    Introduction: The processes of acquisition, construction of knowledge and evaluation of student learning in undergraduate courses are constantly discussed in order to propose improvements in teaching and learning. The portfolio is a self-reflective educational resource, developing skills and expanding learning. Objective: report the experience of using the portfolio as a resource for follow-up of compulsory curricular traineeship in a specialized health college. Method: Experience report. Results and Discussion: When they enter the last year of the Psychology course, students are guided on the construction of the reflective portfolio, being an active and fundamental participant in their assembly, developing decision-making skills, analytical and critical in writing their experiences of stages, in the theoretical basis of its activities, which allow it to evaluate its investment, autonomy, possibilities and difficulties in the stage. Conclusion: The use of the portfolio allowed the development of critical thinking, reinventing and innovating the teaching and learning process in the compulsory curricular stage.

  • Methyl jasmonate ameliorates memory deficits in mice exposed to passive avoidance paradigm

    Passive avoidance task is a rodent model of memory in which the animal learnt to avoid an aversive stimulus precipitated by fear and it is always accompanied by inhibition of motor behavior. We have shown in our previous studies that methyl jasmonate (MJ), a bioactive compound isolated from Jasminum grandiflorum demonstrated memory enhancing effect in hippocampal-dependent memory tasks such as Y-maze and object recognition tests in mice. This present study was designed to investigate if MJ could ameliorate memory deficits associated majorly with the activation of the amygdala in response to an aversive stimulus in the passive avoidance paradigm. The present study also evaluated the effect of MJ on scopolamine (SC)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance paradigm. Mice were given intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of MJ (10-40 mg/kg), donepezil, DP (1 mg/kg) or vehicle daily for 7 days before testing for memory using passive avoidance step-down apparatus. In the interaction studies, the effects of SC (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or LPS (250 µg/kg, i.p.) given alone or with MJ (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) or DP (1 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days were also evaluated. SC and LPS were injected 30 min after MJ or DP administration. The time it took (step-down latency) the mouse to step down from the elevated vibrating platform onto the grids (electrified stainless steel bars on the floor of the cage), which indicates memory function was recorded. Our findings revealed that MJ (10-40 mg/kg, i.p.) ameliorated memory deficits induced by electric shock in the passive avoidance test. MJ (10-40 mg/kg, i.p.) also attenuated memory impairment induced by SC (3 mg/kg) or LPS (250 µg/kg) in mice subjected to the shock in the passive avoidance task. Taken together, this study provides additional behavioral data, which further supports the potential usefulness of MJ in conditions associated…

  • Mental health in Bhagavad Gita

    In this review article the .Bhagavad-Gita is a sermon given by Lord Sri Krishna to Arjuna in the battlefield. The three principles which have been emphasized by the Bhagavad-Gita are the management of mind, management of duty and the principles of self-management. The principles propounded therein, seem to have universal application and useful for all human beings to mould their character and strengthen themselves to develop their managerial effectiveness. Bhagavad gita are increasing in mind management and reducing mental and physical illnesses is an important stimulus of human growth and creativity as well an inevitable part of life. This paper aims at exploring the divine principles in Bhagvad Gita for its application to mind management & development of human capital.

  • Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass) on acute anoxic stress in mice

    Exposure to acute anoxic stress produces deleterious effects on the brain through the formation of oxidant molecules like reactive oxygen species. Thus, compounds with antioxidant property might demonstrate protective effect against the damaging effects of anoxic stress on brain cells. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Cymbopogon citratus, a medicinal plant with antioxidant property on convulsions induced by anoxic stress in mice. Male Swiss mice (20-22 g) were given C. citratus (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o), Panax ginseng (50 mg/kg, p.o) or vehicle (10 mL/kg p.o). Thirty minutes later, the animals were exposed to anoxic stress and the latency (s) to convulsion (anoxic tolerance time) was measured. Thereafter, the blood glucose level was measured using glucometer. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were also determined in the brain homogenates of mice subjected to anoxic stress. C. citratus (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o) did not significantly (p > 0.05) delay the latency to anoxic convulsion and also failed to alter the brain concentrations of MDA and GSH in mice exposed to anoxic stress. However, C. citratus (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o) caused a significant and dose-dependent reduction in the blood glucose levels in anoxic stressed mice. These findings suggest that C. citratus has neither protective effect against convulsive episodes nor alter oxidative stress parameters induced by acute anoxic stress in mice. The decrease in blood glucose produced by C. citratus in anoxic condition may be unconnected with normalization of deregulation of plasma glucose level during stress responses.

  • Autophagy is up regulated in a neuronal model of charcot-marie tooth disease that overexpresses dynamin 2 mutant

    Dominant-Intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is one of the most common inherited disorders affecting the peripheral nervous system. Pleckstrin homology domain mutations in dynamin 2 cause dominant-intermediate Charcot Marie Tooth Syndrome. Autophagy in normal cells helps to maintain homeostasis and degrade damaged or old organelles and proteins. Here we link the pleckstrin homology domain mutants and the disease state to autophagy. Cells over-expressing the K558E mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin 2 have shown an increase in expression of ER stress and autophagy markers. Although the exact link between autophagy and peripheral neurodegeneration has yet to be fully elucidated, these results set the foundation for further research into the interactions between dynamin 2 mutations, autophagy, and Dominant-Intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth.