Robert S. Thiebaud1, Takashi Abe2,3, Jeremy P. Loenneke2, Eiji Fujita4, Takuya Akamine4

1Department of Human Performance and Recreation, Brigham Young University-Idaho, Rexburg, ID 83440, USA; 2Department of Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management, Kevser Ermin Applied, Physiology Laboratory, School of Applied Sciences, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA; 3Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba 270-1695, Japan; 4Department of Sports and Life Sciences, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Kanoya, Kagoshima 891-2393, Japan

Objectives: To determine the ability of handgrip strength combined with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) to estimate body fat percentage (BF%) in middle-aged and older Asian adults.

Methods: Middle-aged and older Asian adults (n=459, males=197) were randomly divided into a validation and model development group (n=303) and cross-validation group (n=156). A whole-body scan using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measured BF%. Bland-Altman plots, standard error of the estimates, total errors and mean absolute errors were used to compare prediction equations. Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine a new prediction equation for middle-aged and older Asian adults. Right and left handgrip strength, age, sex and BMI were included in the analysis.

Results: A previously developed prediction equation that included handgrip strength poorly predicted BF% in our current sample with the mean difference being -6.0 ± 4.2%. Predicted BF% values were significantly lower than measured BF% values (22.7% vs. 28.7%, p<0.05). A new prediction equation was developed that included sex, BMI, left handgrip strength and age. Validation of the new equation revealed a constant error of 0.2 ± 3.9% with there being no significant difference between measured and predicted BF% (28.2% vs. 28.5%, p=0.467). Previously developed BF% equations using BMI, but not handgrip strength, had similar constant errors and mean absolute errors compared to the new prediction equation.

Conclusion: Handgrip strength does not appear to improve the estimation of body fat percentage from BMI prediction equations in middle and older-aged Asian adults.

Keywords: Body fat percentage, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Middle-aged and older Asians

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How to cite this article:
Robert S. Thiebaud, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Eiji Fujita, Takuya Akamine. Estimating Body Fat Percentage through Body Mass Index and Handgrip Strength in Middle and Older-aged Asian Adults. International Journal of Aging Research, 2022, 5:92. DOI: 10.28933/ijoar-2021-10-2505


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