The aging process is considered a worldwide phenomenon, and it is observed that the population has aged, where there is an inversion in the age pyramid resulting from the increase in life expectancy. This phenomenon has been investigated by several national and international studies. As results, there are some justifications that are being cited. Among these, are the presence of some demographic factors such as a reduction in fertilit, fecundity and mortality rate over the years, in addition, we highlight the technological advances in health and improvement in the quality of life of individuals1,2. Consequently, with the presence of these influencing factors, some studies highlight an epidemiological transition, where infectious diseases are being replaced by chronic-degenerative, as the main cause of morbidity and mortality, giving emphasis on dementia syndromes . In addition of aging, are expected physical, psychological and social changes that lead to changes in the life of each elderly. At this stage of life, in addition to chronic conditions, the decline in cognitive functions, such as changes in memory, speed of reasoning, and attention seem to take on a broader dimension. Thus, with the decline of these and other functions, several difficulties can be observed in the execution of activities of daily living of the elderly, implying difficulties in their “coming and going”, that is, in their autonomy and self-care.
India being the largest smokeless tobacco (SLT) producer and consumer in the South East Asia Region (SEAR) entitled with a range of products. SLT consumption is very common because it is associated with socio-economic and cultural perspectives in the India. After the implementation of the first treaty of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), public health standards were reaffirmed and improvised through successful implementation of articles since 2007 as reported in the global progress factsheet. Many measures have been implemented for achieving the success of WHO-FCTC in India and to control the huge disease burden induced by tobacco use. The objective of the present study was to understand and explore the factors involved in the SLT demand reduction by revealing the dependence and cessation implementation in India in the context of strategies and policies. For this study, we searched for SLT dependence and SLT cessation literature survey in PubMed and obtained 102 literatures consisting of studies and reviews, which were further scrutinized by excluding the reviews, studies conducted abroad and studies conducted within the last 5 years (after 2015). No statistical significance was observed in comparison of National to International SLT dependence and an attempt to quit SLT following the tenure of a year. This is in-line with GATS-2 and international data. We have also discussed a diverse approach in the control of SLT at different levels-such as SLT users, healthcare professional, policy advocates supplier, labeling, legal policies, and educating at various platforms. Effective strategies for the cessation of SLT is mandatory with proper guidance for the manufacturer, users and sellers in controlling SLT products.
The demographic and epidemiological transition resulting from declining birth rates, increased economically active population, decreased infectious diseases and increased chronic degenerative diseases produce a population scenario with a high number of elderly individuals, prone to developing dementia, whose prevalence is directly related to increasing age. Dementia is progressive and characterized by the loss of self-care ability and ability to perform activities of daily living, including the difficulty to perform oral hygiene and accept dental treatment, thus resulting in decreased oral health. Thus, it is necessary to know and think about oral care to increase the quality of life of this population through actions of health promotion, prevention and recovery with the accomplishment of home and hospital dental procedures, besides the traditional service, at a dental office.
Previously the elderly had authoritarian role in familial decision making process. Now it depends on many associated factors. This study explored the position of the rural elderly in familial decision making process. Mixed approach has been given priority. Data have been collected from primary and secondary sources. The study found that position of elderly in familial decision making process is unsatisfactory. That is, position as head of the family, involvement in buying and selling something, dependency on their sons in receiving treatment, invitation of relatives in different socio-religious occasions, taking part in rural arbitration, taking part in resolving familial disputes, influencing in election, compelling members to do work according to wishes etc. are not satisfactory. This study may help the academicians to conduct more empirical studies to understand this crucial reality and help the policy makers to take appropriate policy for the welfare of the elderly.
The Wellbeing of the Heterogeneous Older Persons: The Analysis of ‘Going in Style’ Gereontological Comedy Film and Real-life Malaysian Elderly
While ageing has become a global phenomenon and received prominent attention due to the rapid increase in the older population, including Malaysia; There has also been an increase in comedy films focusing on old people. Therefore, this study aims to analyse how older persons represented in a gerontological comedy film ‘Going in Style’. This study also aims to relate how older persons represented in this comedy film with real-life situations of Malaysian older people. In meeting these aims, a qualitative research approach through thematic analysis has been adopted. The findings of this study shows how the older person represented in ‘Going in Style’ is similar to real-life situations experienced by some of Malaysian older people. The comedy highlights that ageing is not a single dimensional concept concentrated on physical aspects but is multidimensional, consisting of social,psychological, spiritual and economic and environmental aspects.
Prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases among Geriatric population in Block Hazratbal, District Srinagar
Elderly population aged 60 years and above in the world will reach 1.2 billion by the year 2025, the majority of whom will be in developing countries.Major health problems which are faced in this age group are hypertension, coronary artery disease, strokes, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancers, cataracts, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, chronic obstructive airway disease, benign hyperplasia of prostate, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, senile Dementia and depression. Globally, the burden of non-communicable diseases, which also bear the greatest morbidity and mortality, is rising in developing countries. Demographic and epidemiological transitions taking place in the developing countries of Asia is shifting the disease burden from communicable towards non-communicable disease. India’s poor are at heightened risk of acquiring NCDs owing to high rate of smoking, tobacco use and high salt intake. So this paper analyses the links between sociodemographic correlates and non-communicable diseases in block Hazratbal, district Srinagar. Objectives:1.To estimate the prevalence of NCDs among study population.2.To find out the socio-demographic correlates of NCDs in the study population. Study design: A Community Based, Cross sectional study. Study population: Elderly (≥60 years) persons residing in selected geographical area. Results:In this study, majority of the elderly study population were suffering from Hypertension/Ischemic/Other heart diseases (52.2%) followed by COPD (11.4%), Arthritis/other Musculoskeletal problems (10.6%), Diabetes mellitus (10.4%). Gastritis (9.8%), Hypothyroidism (9.6%), Benign prostrate hypertrophy (9.4%). The main reason for high prevalence of Hypertension/Ischemic heart disease could be that we take lots of salty products in our daily diet. Other causes could be living in a conflict area or genetic susceptibility. Most of elderly study subjects 446(89.9%) were on drugs for their chronic diseases.
Study of Variables Involved in Male Infertility Identified in the Spermograms Assessed in Assisted Human Reproduction
Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, about 8 to 10% of couples worldwide have infertility problems and male internal aspects are the main reasons for half of occurrences of human sterility. Through the spermogram, it is possible to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze semen, contributing to the diagnosis of male fertile state. Objective: To study the relationship among sperm viscosity, concentration, motility and volume parameters and male infertility factors and to show the influence of the subject age on these seminal parameters. Methodology: A survey was conducted in the male infertility database of the Nascer Clinic (Recife / Pernambuco) of men aged 27 to 61 years, with a history of marital infertility, from 2018 to 2019. The subjects studied were grouped into categories according to the classification of the seminal parameters analyzed (volume, concentration, motility and viscosity) in their sperm. Student’s t-test was used for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney test for non-normal using the GraphPad Prism 8 program. Results: Among the studied individuals, there was a significant difference (p
The Analysis of the Prevalence of Diabetes in the Third Age in a Northeast State Between the Years From 2002 To 2013
Diabetes potentiates when the body can not control the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This disease develops when the body does not produce enough amounts of the hormone called insulin. The elderly are more fragile in not producing adequate insulin for their proper functioning, since the prevalence is related to aging, sedentary lifestyle and obesity, and these last two factors, in turn, intensify with the advancing age. The decompensated glycemia accentuates frequent difficulties in this phase of life. It can incapacitate the elderly because it increases the risk of dementias such as Alzheimer’s, in addition to diabetic neuropathy, which causes the elderly to lose firmness on the floor, the use of many medications and other problems that impact the quality of life and increase the risk of death.
Determinants of a Digital Divide Among Able-Bodied Older Adults: Does “Feeling Too Old” Play a Role?”
While younger adults have embraced internet technology, older adults have lagged behind in internet adoption. An age-based digital divide has developed globally. This is a concern because digital literacy is becoming an essential, rather than an optional, skill. This paper investigates the reasons why some able-bodied older adults with access to the internet choose not to use the internet. Previous studies of the age-based digital divide have identified income and education, and perceived need, as factors that influence internet use. This paper adds to knowledge on the age-based digital divide by studying the internet behavior of able-bodied older adults with internet access (rather than all older adults) and by investigating the association between “feeling too old to use the internet” and the internet use decision. This paper offers suggestions for bridging the age-based digital divide and discusses whether this divide will continue as younger adults, who are digital natives, become older adults.
Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disease that compromises the physical, mental and social integrity of the elderly, and therefore leads to an increasing dependence on care, and almost always linked to family dynamics and performed at home. Objectives: The main objective of this research is to analyze the daily lives of family caregivers of patients with AD. Methodology: The qualitative approach was used. Data were collected in the municipality of Tamandaré/PE, through semi-structured interviews with ten family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to the interview, a structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was applied, referring to the general and personal characteristics of each interviewee. For data analysis, the verbatim reports were fully transcribed, where relevant aspects were observed and organized into two categories: impact of diagnosis and challenges in caring. Results: The results showed that all coexistence and adaptation to this new reality modify the style and quality of life of those involved. The changes are significant and need to be understood and incorporated into the family routine. Negative emotional reactions involving impotence, fear and anger are common, besides a deep feeling of injustice. Conclusion: The study showed the need for assistance that includes all affected family members. The nurse should support and contribute to overcoming the difficulties faced from the moment of diagnosis to the most advanced stages of the disease.