Maternal obesity and first trimester iodine levels are associated with the risk of congenital malformations in Assam, Northeast India

Maternal obesity and first trimester iodine levels are associated with the risk of congenital malformations in Assam, Northeast India

Mauchumi Baruah1, Hemonta Kr. Dutta 2*,   Debasish Borbora3

1Department of Physiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh 786002, Assam, India. 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh 786002, Assam, India. 3Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, India.

International journal of Pediatric research and reviews-2d

Purpose of the study: To assess body mass index (BMI) and trimester specific iodine status among pregnant women of Assam and study their association with congenital malformations (CM).

Methods: Anthropometric, obstetric and socioeconomic data was obtained from pregnant women and apparently healthy women attending Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh. Urinary iodine (UI) level was estimated in each trimester. BMI was classified based on Asian criteria suggested by WHO and the iodine intake was classified using WHO reference medians. Student’s t-test and univariate logistic regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors.

Results: 156 pregnant women (age 18-35 years) and 160 controls were enrolled in the study. 55.8% pregnant women were underweight and 3.8% were overweight. Malformations were observed in 16 babies. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) of pregnant women in their 1st trimester was 170 µg/l (IQR 100 µg/l) which increased to 275 µg/l (IQR 166 µg/l) during the 2nd trimester and decreased to 265 µg/l (IQR 160 µg/l) at the 3rd trimester. In the univariate analysis, maternal BMI > 23 kg/m2 (OR 3.67, 95% CI 0.20-67.65) and MUIC <150 µg/l during the 1st trimester (OR 3.59, 95% CI: 1.20-10.79) were associated with an increased risk of CM. Within the cohort, maternal BMI <18.5

(OR 2.68, CI: 1.25-5.74), age <20 years (OR 1.39, CI: 0.22-8.70), iodine unawareness (OR 1.68, CI: 0.72-3.95) and illiteracy (OR 1.12, CI: 0.55-2.30) elevate risk of having MUIC <150 µg/l during the 1st trimester.

Conclusions: As maternal BMI and iodine deficiency are modifiable risk factors of CM, state policies directed towards maternal healthcare should encourage preconception counseling regarding risk factors of CM and aim to address low maternal BMI and IDD.

Keywords: congenital malformations; BMI; iodine deficiency, pregnancy.

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How to cite this article:
Mauchumi Baruah, Hemonta Kr. Dutta, Debasish Borbora. Maternal obesity and first trimester iodine levels are associated with the risk of congenital malformations in Assam, Northeast India. International Journal of Pediatric Research and Reviews, 2020, 3:25.  DOI:10.28933/ijoprr-2020-05-1805


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