Mind in the Brain – Creation of the Greatest Virtual World
Mukundan CR1*, Kamarajan C2 and Ajayan P3
1Axxonet Brain Research Laboratory, Axxonet System Technologies, Bangalore, India. 2Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA. 3Kingsboro Psychiatric Center, 681 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.
Human mind is a functional capability of the brain, by which information about sensory-motor contacts made through the nervous system are perceived and interpreted by the mind. While the detection and interpretations are subjective and experiential, they are based purely on a cascade of neurocognitive processes that unfold in the brain in response to external events or sequential changes detected over time and space. Experiential or subjective interpretations are generally based on the selected choices, and often depends on the cognitive judgments made by the individual. The cognitive judgments mold the drive present in the individual and it is experienced as positive or negative emotions by the individual. Drive is the fuel or energy present in the system for all responses and actions related to “seeking”, and they are automatically initiated when the drive reaches a Critical Level of Potentiation (Mukundan et al. 1). It is possible for an individual to become aware of the presence of the drive as well as the process of initiation of actions in the attempt to satisfying the drive. Scientific observations of the changes that occur in the physical and social environment, which are normally detected by the sensory-motor systems are repeatable and explain the time-space sequential relationships that exist in the physical universe. The major role of the mind is the experiential detection and interpretations of the sensory-motor events, which are experienced and expressed by the mental processes related to detection and expression. Subjective interpretations are generally based on personal experiences, which are highly suggestable and as per the needs experienced at personal and group levels by the individual minds. Individuals create goals and purposes for all actions, and in the process, the new functional systems of the mind are also created according to neuroscientific principles. The physical world shaped by man scientifically for superior facilities are distinctly different from the functional world created for personal satisfaction, happiness, and as per their belief systems. Cognitively human mind may consider it necessary to find meaningful associations among the elements within the universe, and specifically for the purpose of life. Mind is indeed the greatest natural apparatus, naturally evolved in the human brain and could develop signal generation and processing abilities. Ability to sequentially relate signals across time and space became scientific processing, whereas simultaneous processing of signals helped create additional systems with purposeful functioning of the parts. Such processing using signals helped to create concepts, and find meaningful relationships of signals across time and space. Scientific thinking facilitated creation of new physical realities, whereas considering relationships across space and time helped creation of functional systems, meaningful only when simultaneous relationships could be established.
Keywords: Human mind, sensory-motor contacts, scientific relationships, sequential scientific relationships, cognitive judgments, experiential relationships, behavioral expressions, mental creation of positive and negative concepts of purposeful relationships.
How to cite this article:
Mukundan CR, Kamarajan C and Ajayan P. Mind in the Brain – Creation of the Greatest Virtual World. International Journal of Psychological Research and Reviews, 2019, 2:12. DOI: 10.28933/ijprr-2019-03-2905
1. Mukundan, C.R. (2019). Generation of Positive – Negative Emotional Experiences and Expressions through Cognitive Molding of Drive. Journal of Psychology & Clinical Psychiatry, V10, 1: 60 – 64.
2. Mukundan, C.R., Kacker, P. (2018). Arousal and Drive: Cognitively Molded Emotional Arousal. EC Neurology, 11(1): 12-20.
3. Mukundan, C.R. (2018). Social Conditioning of Emotional Arousal for Facilitating Execution of Socially Accepted Responses & Actions. Journal of Medical Practice & Review, 2:10, 284-295. ISSN 2456-267X.
4. Mukundan, C.R. (2018). Social Conditioning of Emotional Arousal – Psychosocial Need to Prevent Forensic Behavior, J Forensic & Genetic Sciences, 2 (2), PRJFG:MS ID 000132, 1-6, ISSN: 2638-6062.
5. Mukundan, C.R. (2018). Understanding and Dealing with the Mental Creations: Living in Real and Virtual Worlds. Journal of Psychology & Clinical Psychiatry, 9 (4): 394-398.
6. Mukundan, C.R. (2018) Psychology from Neurobiology. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Research Study, Crimson Publishers, 1(2): 1-3.
7. Mukundan C.R., Kacker, P. (2018) Molding emotion while cognitively processing physical & virtual realities. EC Neurology, 10(5): 354-366.
8. Mukundan, C.R., Kacker, P. (2018). Emotional Arousal – the Driving Force of Life. Journal of Psychology & Clinical Psychiatry, 9(3): 00505, 1 -12.
9. Mukundan, C.R. (1997). On mind, memory and brain. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol.24, No.2, 103-12.
10. Mukundan, C.R. (2017) Emotion – The Driving Force, Red Shine Publication, Ahmedabad.
11. Mukundan, C.R. (2016). Emotion – Experience and Expressions. In (Eds.) Jitendra Mohan, Meena Sehgal. Ideas of Excellence: Multiple Perspectives, Publication Bureau, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 166-194.
12. Mukundan C.R. (2016). ¬¬¬Brai¬¬¬n to Mind – Integrating Scientific and Contemplative Approaches. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Integrating Scientific and Contemplative Approaches to Explore the Mind, jointly organized by NIMHANS, Bangalore and Garden of Samadhi Mind Centre on December 6, 2015, at NIMHANS, Bangalore, and published by NIMHANS (Publication 113, 2016), Bangalore. Pp.112 – 123. ISBN: 978-81-86462-00-3.
13. Mukundan C.R. (2016). Emotion – Maintenance and Control. In proceedings of Conference on Emotional Intelligence: Role in Human Life, organized by Modern College of Arts, Science & Commerce, Pune, February 5, 6, (2016). 1 – 9.
14. Mukundan, C.R. (2016). Neurocognitive Processing Steps during Remembrance. J Psychology & Clinical Psychiatry, 6(6): 1 – 4, 00387. DOI: 10.15406/ jpcpy.2016.06.00387.
15. Mukundan, C.R. (2016). Assigning Meaning to Emotional Arousal. International Journal of Indian Psychology, V3, (4), 61, 11-33.
16. Mukundan, C.R. (2016). Emotional Experience and Expressions. International Journal of Indian Psychology, V3 (3), (ISSN: 2348, 5396), 1-28.
17. Mukundan, C.R. (2016). Emotion – Arousal and Control. International Journal of Indian Psychology, V3 (2), (ISSN 2348-5396), 1 – 20.
18. ukundan, C.R., Arun Sasidharan, Priyanka Kacker (2017). Sthita Prajna: A State to Control Cognitive Molding of Emotional Arousal. In (Ed.) Jitendra Mohan, Emerging Contours of Excellence, Publication Bureau, Punjab University, Chandigarh, ISBN: 81-85322-64-3, 24-40.
19. LeDoux J. (1996). Emotional networks and motor control: A fearful view”. Progress in Brain Research, 107: 437-46.
20. LeDoux J. (1998). Fear and the brain: Where have we been, and where are we going?” Biological Psychiatry 44.12: 1229-1238.
21. LeDoux J. (2003).The emotional brain, fear, and the amygdala”. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 23.4-5: 727-73.
22. Fuster J.M. (1989). The Profrontal Cortex: Anatomy, Physiology, and Neuropsychology, of the Frontal Lobe. 2nd ed. Raven Press, New York.
23. Deecke, L. Kornhuber, H.H. (1978). An electrical sign of participation of the mesial supplementary motor cortex in human voluntary finger movement. Brain Research, 159: 473-476.
24. Deecke, L., Eisinger, H., Kornhuber, H.H. (1980). Comparison of Bereitschaftspotential, promotion positivity and motor potential preceding voluntary flexion and extension movements in man. Progress in Brain Research, 54: 171-176.
25. Deecke, L. (1985). Cerebral potentials related to voluntary actions: Parkinsonian and normal subjects. In P.J. Delwaide& A. Agnoli (Eds.), Clinical Neurophysiology in Parkinsonism.Amsterdam and Oxford, Elsevier, 91-105.
26. Deecke, L. (1987). Bereitschaftspotential as an indicator of movement preparation in supplementary motor area and motor cortex. Ciba Foundation Symposium, 132, 231250.
27. Deecke, L. (1990). Electrophysiological correlates of movement initiation. Review of Neurology, 10: 612-619.
28. Shibasaki, H., Barrett, G., Halliday, E., Halliday, A.M. (1980a). Components of the movement related cortical potentials and their scalp topography. Electroencephalography Clinical Neurophysiology, 49: 213-26.
29. Shibasaki, H., Barrett, G., Halliday, E.,& Halliday, A.M. (1980b). Cortical potentials following voluntary and passive finger movements. Electroencephalography Clinical Neurophysiology, 50: 201- 213.
30. Shibasaki, H., Barrett, G., Halliday, E., &Halliday, A.M. (1981). Cortical potentials associated with voluntary foot movements in man. Electroencephalography Clinical Neurophysiology, 52: 507-516.
31. Shibasaki, H., Sadato, N., Lyshkow, H., Yonekura, Y., Honda, M., Nagamine, T., … Miyazaki, M. (1993). Both primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area play an important role in complex finger movement.Brain, 116: 1387-98.
32. Libet, B. (1985). Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action. The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 8, 529-539; with open peer commentary: 539–558; and Libet’s reply, Theory and evidence relating cerebral processes to conscious will, 558-66.
33. Libet, B. (1999). Do we have free will? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, 47-57.
34. Mukundan, C.R., J, Singh, Ray, R., Desai, N. (1986) Bereitschaftspotential in alcoholics. Biological Psychiatry, 21: 1090-1092.
35. Khanna, S., Mukundan, C.R., Channabasavanna, S.M. (1989). Bereitschaftspotential in melancholic depression. Biological Psychiatry, 26: 526-29.
36. Singh, J., Knight, R.T. (1990). Frontal lobe contribution to voluntary movements in humans. Brain Research, 29, 531(1-2):45-54.
37. Ikeda, A., Lüders, H.O., Burgess, R.C., Shibasaki, H. (1992). Movement-related potentials recorded from supplementary motor area and primary motor area: Role of supplementary motor area in voluntary movements. Brain, 115: 1017-43.
38. Ikeda, A., Lüders, H.O., Burgess, R.C., Shibasaki, H. (1993). Movement-related potentials associated with single and repetitive movements recorded from human supplementary motor area. Electroencephalography Clinical Neurophysiology, 89: 26977.
39. Ikeda, A., Lüders, H.O., Shibasaki, H., Collura, T.F., Burgess, R.C., Morris, H.H. 3rd, Hamano, T. (1995). Movement-related potentials associated with bilateral simultaneous and unilateral movement recorded from human supplementary motor area. Electroencephalography Clinical Neurophysiology, 95: 323-34.
40. Ikeda, A., Shibasaki, H., Nagamine, T., Terada, K., Kaji, R., Fukuyama, H., Kimura, J. (1994). Dissociation between contingent negative variation and Bereitschaftspotential in a patient with cerebellar efferent lesion. Electroencephalography Clinical Neurophysiology, 90: 359-64.
41. Ikeda, A., Taki, W., Kunieda, T., Terada, K., Mikuni, N., Nagamine, T., …Shibasaki, H. (1999). Focal ictal direct current shifts in human epilepsy as studied by subdural and scalp recording. Brain, 122: 827-38.
42. Hamano, T., Lüders, H.O., Ikeda, A., Collura, T., Comair, Y.G., Shibasaki, H. (1997). The cortical generators of the contingent negative variation in humans: A study with subdural electrodes. Electroencephalography Clinical Neurophysiology, 104: 257-68.
43. Sakai, K., Hikosaka, O., Takino, R., Miyauchi, S., Nielsen, M., Tamada, T. (2000). What and when: Parallel and convergent processing in motor control. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20: 2691-2700.
44. Picard, N., Strick, P.L. (2003). Activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) during performance of visually guided movements. Cerebral Cortex, 13: 977-86.
45. Soon, C.S., Brass, M., Heinze, H.J., Haynes, J.D. (2008). Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain. Nature Neuroscience, 11(5): 543-5.
46. Mukundan, C.R., Ajayan P., Kacker, P., Chetan, S.M., Vyas, J.M. (2014). Violent Behavior: Absence of Social Conditioning of Drives during Neurodevelopmental Stages. International Journal of Indian Psychology, V2 (1): 1 – 33.
47. Mukundan, C.R. (2007). Brain Experience: Neuroexperiential Perspectives of Brain-Mind. Atlantic Publishers, New Delhi.
48. Gruzelier, J.H. (2006). Frontal functions, connectivity and Neural Efficiency Underpinning Hypnosis and Hypnotic Susceptibility”. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23.1: 15-32.
49. Gruzelier, J.H. (2000). Redefining hypnosis: theory, methods and integration”. Contemporary Hypnosis, 17.2: 51-70.
50. Mukundan, C.R., Ramachandra, S., Singh S., Sharma M., Kamaraj C. (1999). Brain mechanisms of hypnosis: P300 studies. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 1, 13-23.
51. Mukundan, C.R., Kamarajan, C., Ajayan, P., Roopesh, B.N., Sharma, M. (2013). Frontal Cortex and Recognition: Neurocognitive Findings of Hypnosis. Indian Journal of Health & Welfare, 4 (4): 703 – 710.
52. Mukundan, C.R. (2015). Brain at Work: Neuroexperiential Perspectives. Atlantic Publishers, New Delhi.
53. Mukundan, C.R., Ajayan, P. (2011). Awareness and Self-Image. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38:1, 37- 48.
54. Mukundan, C.R. (1999) Power of Words: Neuro-cognitive Approach for Understanding Brain Mechanisms of Awareness. In: Sangeetha Menon, M.G. Narasimhan, A. Sinha, & B.V. Sreekantan (Eds.), Scientific and Philosophical Studies on Consciousness. National institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India. 127-136.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.